Vaughn. Cpl. Jimmy W. Jr.

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Cpl. Jimmy W. Vaughn Jr. 
Born: 3 March 1917 – Cleburne, Johnson County, Texas
Parents: Jimmy W. Vaughn Sr. & Olga Prescher-Vaughn 
Stepfather: Arch B. Weddel
Siblings: 2 half-brothers, 2 half-sisters  
Home: 1811 East Broadway Avenue – Fort Worth, Texas 
Occupation: Landscaper
Inducted: – U. S. Army
– 20 March 1941 – Dallas, Texas
Training:
– Fort Knox, Kentucky
– Basic Training:
– selectee basic training was condensed 
– Week 1: Infantry Drill
– Week 2: the manual of arms and marching to music
– Week 3: machine gun
– Week 4: pistol
– Week 5: M1 rifle
Note: the man had to fire every weapon used by the battalion, not just the M1
– Week 6: field week, gas masks, gas attacks, pitching tents, and hikes
– Weeks 7: Time was spent learning the weapons, firing each one, learning the
  parts of the weapons and their functions, field stripping and caring for weapons,
  and the cleaning of weapons
Classroom: courses lasted 3 months
Typical Day
– 6:15 with reveille
– most of the soldiers were up before this since they wanted to wash and dress.
– 7:00 to 8:00 – Breakfast
– 8:00 to 8:30 – calisthenics
– Afterward, the tankers went to various schools within the company.
– training in using and maintaining 30 and 50 caliber machine guns and pistols
– training in map reading, care of personal equipment, military courtesy, and training in tactics.
– 11:30 the soldiers stopped what they were doing and cleaned up for mess 
– Noon to 1:00 P.M. – mess
– Afterward, they attended the various schools which they had been assigned to on January 13, such as mechanics, tank driving, radio operating.
– 4:30 – the soldiers called it a day and returned to their barracks and put on dress uniforms
– 5:00 – retreat
– 5:30 – dinner
– After dinner, they were off duty
– 9:00 P.M. – lights were out
– soldiers but did not have to turn in
– 10:00 P.M. – Taps was played
– Camp Polk, Louisiana
– sent there when his training was completed in the late summer of 1941
Units:
– 753rd Tank Battalion
– the battalion was sent to Camp Polk, Louisiana, from Ft. Benning, Georgia
– maneuvers were taking place but the battalion did not take part in them
– 192nd Tank Battalion
– the battalion took part in the Louisiana maneuvers from September 1 through 30
– ordered to Camp Polk
– received orders to go overseas
– men 29 years old or older, who were married, or had a hardship situation were allowed to resign from service
– Vaughn volunteered or had his name drawn to replace a National Guardsman released from federal service
Note: The decision for this move – which had been made in August 1941 – was the result of an event that took place in the summer of 1941. A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd. He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance. He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of a Japanese occupied island which was hundreds of miles away. The island had a large radio transmitter. The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day. The next day, when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat – with a tarp on its deck – which was seen making its way to shore. Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult, the boat escaped. It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
Overseas Duty:
– battalion travels by train, over four different train routes to San Francisco, California
– taken to Angel Island in San Francisco Bay by the ferry – U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
– October 25 & 26 – physicals were given to men
– some men released
– other men were held back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date
– replacements fill these positions
– Boarded: U.S.A.T. Gen. Hugh L. Scott – Monday – 27 October 1941
– Sailed: same day
– Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii – Sunday – 2 November 1941
– arrived in the morning
– soldiers receive leave
– Sailed: Wednesday – 5 November 1941
– took a southerly route away from main shipping lanes
– joined by the heavy cruiser – U.S.S. Louisville and S.S. President Calvin Coolidge
– Sunday – 9 November 1941 – soldiers went to sleep
– ships cross International Dateline
– awoke on Tuesday – 11 November 1941
– Saturday – 15 November 1941
– smoke was seen on the horizon
– Louisville revved its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke
– smoke was from a ship considered friendly
– Louisville revved its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it intercepted the ship which was from a neutral country. Two other intercepted ships
   were Japanese freighters carrying scrap metal to Japan.
– Sunday – 9 November 1941 – crossed International Dateline
– soldiers woke up on Tuesday – 11 November 1941
– at about this time the convoy stopped at Wake Island and dropped off B-17 ground crews
– Arrived: Guam – Sunday 16 November 1941
– the ship loaded with water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables
– Sailed: next day
– passed Japanese held island in total blackout
– Arrived: Thursday – 20 November 1941 – Manila Bay – 7:00 A.M.
– soldiers disembarked ship three hours after arrival
– boarded buses for Ft. Stotsenburg
– maintenance section remained behind to unload tanks from ship
Stationed:
– Ft. Stotsenburg
– Colonel Edward P. King met the soldiers when they arrived
– apologized to soldiers about living conditions
– lived in tents along the main road between fort and Clark Airfield
– made sure they all had Thanksgiving Dinner before he had his dinner
– the dinner was a stew thrown into their mess kits
– The members of the battalion pitched the ragged World War I tents in an open field halfway between the Clark Field Administration Building and Fort
   Stotsenburg.
– The tents were set up in two rows and five men were assigned to each tent.
– There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at the end of the rows of tents.
– The area was near the end of a runway used by B-17s for takeoffs.
– The planes flew over the tents at about 100 feet blowing dirt everywhere and the noise from the engines was unbelievable.
– At night, they heard the sounds of planes flying over the airfield which turned out to be Japanese reconnaissance planes.
– In addition, the khaki uniforms they had been issued also turned out to be a heavy material which made them uncomfortable to wear in the tropical heat. 
Engagements:
– Battle of Luzon – 8 December 1941 – 6 January 1942
– lived through the attack on Clark Field
– HQ Company remained in battalion bivouac
– members took cover in a dry latrine
– lived through two more heavy attacks on December 10 and 13
– 15 December 1941
– each battalion received 15 Bren Gun Carriers
– used to see if the ground could support tanks
– 21 December 1941
– 192nd ordered to support 26th Cavalry, Philippine Scouts at Lingayen Gulf
– Japanese landing troops
– HQ Company went north to support tank companies wherever they were
– 22 December 1941 – first tank battle
– tanks make run to Damortis
– tanks supported 26th Cavalry
– 26th Cavalry did not want tank support
– 71st Division Commander said that they would clutter up their action
– 23/24 December 1941
– operated north of the Agno River
– main bridge at Carmen blown
– tank battalions made end runs to get south of Agno River
– 24 December 1941
– tank battalions held the line along the south bank of Agno River
– 192nd held the left side of the line from west of Carmen (on Route 3)
– critical points – held the position for 24 hours
– 25/26 December 1941 – tank battalions organized tank defenses
– 192nd held the line from Carmen (Route 3) to Tayug – northeast of San Quentin
– critical points held by tanks
– some tanks only in radio contact with each other
– ordered to hold the position until 5:00 A.M. – 27 December 1941
– 26/27 December 1941
– 192nd tanks ordered to form a new defensive line from Carmen to Lumigan
– destroyed most of 44,000 gallons of 100-octane gas
– 27 December 1941 – withdrew from the line that night
– formed new line: Santa Ignacia – Gerona – Santo Tomas – San Jose
– 27/28 December 1941 – withdrew
– formed a new line: Tarlac – Cabanatuan
– 28/29 December 1941
– dropped back and formed: Bamban Gapan Line
– 29/30 December 1941
– the new line behind Bamban River
– ordered to hold until they received further orders
– 31 December 1941/1 January 1942
– tanks covering the area north of Calumpit
– 2 January 1942 – tanks ordered to Lyac Junction to covering position
– cover withdrawal toward Bataan
– 192nd covered northwest flanks
– 194th withdrew covered by 192nd
– 6 January 1942
– tank battalions held the line between Culis and Hermosa
– 6/7 January 1942
– 192nd covered the withdrawal of 194th
– 192nd last American unit to enter Bataan
– the bridge was blown after it crossed
– Battle of Bataan – 7 January 1942 – 9 April 1942
– 8 January 1942 – composite tank company created
– held East Coast Road open
– under constant enemy fire
– tank battalions bivouac just south of Pilar-Bagac Road
– tank companies reduced to 10 tanks
– HQ Company and 17th Ordnance do the needed maintenance on tanks
– 13 January 1942 – tanks dropped back to battalion bivouac
– 20 January 1942 – withdrawal from Abucay-Hacienda Line
– 192nd covered East Coast Road
– 25 January 1942 – Balanga-the Cadre Road-Bani Bani Road
Note: It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver, “Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal. If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay.”
– 25/26 January 1942
– Balanga – bridge battalion was to use destroyed by artillery fire
– the battalion had to use alternate roads west of Balanga
– 28 January 1942 – beach duty
– 192nd from Pandan Point to Limay
– also was suppose to support sub-sectors A and B
– during day tanks remained under the jungle canopy
– at night the tanks were moved onto beaches
– 31 January 1942
– half-tracks patrolled roads
– 1 February 1942
– tanks and half-tracks take on protecting three airfields
– Battle of the Pockets
– Japanese attacked and were pushed back creating two pockets behind the main defensive line
– tanks sent in to wipe out pockets
– tanks would enter pocket one at a time
– another tank would not enter until tank that was relieved left the pocket
– the first method used against Japanese
– three Filipinos soldiers rode on back of tanks
– as tank passed over a Japanese foxhole, Filipinos dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole
– one of the three hand grenades usually exploded
– the second method used against Japanese
– the tank would park with one track over the foxhole
– tank driver gave power to other track causing the tank to go in a circle
– tank ground its way into the ground
– March 1942
– Japanese had been fought to a standstill
– suffered from the same illnesses affecting Americans
– 3 April 1942
– fresh troops brought in from Singapore
– launch major offense
– 6 April 1942
– tanks sent to various areas in an attempt to plug holes in the defensive line
– 8 April 1942
– Gen. Edward P. King
– determined only 25% of his troops were healthy enough to fight
– would last one more day
– feared that the 6,000 troops who were hospitalized and 40,000 Filipino civilians would be slaughtered
– 10:30 P.M. – sent staff officers to meet with Japanese and negotiate surrender terms
Note: Tank battalion commanders received this order: “You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word ‘CRASH’, all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished.”
Prisoner of War:
– 9 April 1942
– members of HQ Company remained in bivouac for two days
– Japanese arrive and ordered the Prisoners of War out to the road that ran in front of bivouac
– 11 April 1942
– POWs ordered to kneel alongside the road with belongings in front of them
– Japanese soldiers passing them took what they wanted from the Americans
– HQ Company rode trucks to Mariveles at the southern tip of Bataan
– ordered out of trucks and herded into a schoolyard
– as they set in the schoolyard, a line of Japanese soldiers began to form in front of the POWs
– this was a firing squad
– as the POWs watched, a Japanese Naval Officer pulled up in a car, got out, and spoke to the sergeant in charge
– the officer got back into the car and drove off
– the sergeant ordered the soldiers to lower their guns
– POWs ordered to march
– Death March
– Mariveles – POWs started the march at the southern tip of Bataan
– POWs ran past Japanese artillery firing at Corregidor
– Americans on Corregidor returned fire
– San Fernando – POWs put into small wooden boxcars
– each boxcar could hold eight horses or forty men
– 100 POWs packed into each car
– POWs who died remained standing since they could not fall to the floors
– Capas – dead fell to the floor as living left boxcars
– POWs walked last ten miles to Camp O’Donnell
POW Camps:
– Philippine Islands:
– Camp O’Donnell
– 1 April 1942 – unfinished Filipino training base Japanese put into use as a POW camp
– Japanese believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs
– POWs searched upon arrival at camp
– those found with Japanese money were accused of looting
– sent to guardhouse
– over several days, gunshots heard southeast of the camp
– POWs who had money on them had been executed
– Japanese took away any extra clothing from POWs as they entered the camp and refused to return it
– since no water was available for wash clothing, the POWs threw soiled clothing away
– clothing was taken from dead
– few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing
– POWs were not allowed to bathe
– only one water spigot for the entire camp
– POWs waited 2½ hours to 8 hours to get a drink
– water frequently turned off by Japanese guards and the next man in line waited as long as 4 hours for the water to be turned on again
– mess kits could not be cleaned
– POWs had to carry water 3 miles from a river to cook their meals
– second water spigot installed a week after POWs arrived
– slit trenches overflowed since many of the POWs had dysentery
– flies were everywhere including in camp kitchens and food
– the camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant
– the senior POW doctor wrote a list of medicines he wanted to treat the sick and was told by the camp commandant, Capt. Yoshio Tsuneyoshi, never to 
  write another letter
– Tsuneyoshi said that all he wanted to know about the American POWs was their names and numbers when they died
– refused to allow a truckload of medicine sent by the Archbishop of Manila into the camp
– 95% of the medicine sent by Philippine Red Cross was taken by the Japanese for their own use
– POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow
– operations on POWs were performed with mess kit knives
– only one medic out of six medics assigned to care for 50 sick POWs, in the hospital, was well enough to work
– as many as 50 POWs died each day
– each morning dead were found everywhere in the camp and stacked up under the hospital
– the ground under hospital was scraped and covered with lime to clean it
– the dead were moved to this area and the section where they had lain was scraped and covered with lime
– usually not buried for two or three days
– work details: if a POW could walk, he was sent out on a work detail
– POWs on burial detail often had dysentery and malaria
– Japanese opened a new POW camp to lower death rate
– 1 June 1942 – POWs formed detachments of 100 men
– POWs marched out the gate and marched toward Capas
– Filipino people gave POWs small bundles of food
– the guards did not stop them
– At Capas, the POWs were put into steel boxcars and rode them to Manila
– the train stopped at Calumpit and switched onto the line to Cabanatuan
– POWs disembarked the train at 6:00 P.M. and put into a schoolyard
– fed rice and onion soup
– 4 June 1942 – transfer of POWs completed
– only sick POWs remained at Camp O’Donnell
– Cabanatuan
– original name – Camp Pangatian
– Philippine Army Base built for 91st Philippine Army Division
– put into use by the Japanese as a POW camp
– actually three camps
– Camp 1: POWs from Camp O’Donnell sent there in an attempt to lower the death rate
– Camp 2: two miles away
– all POWs moved from there because of a lack of water
– later used for Naval POWs
– Camp 3: six miles from Camp 2
– POWs from Corregidor and from hospitals sent there
– camp created to keep Corregidor POWs separated from Bataan POWs
– Corregidor POWs were in better shape
– January 1943 – POWs from Camp 3 consolidated into Camp 1
– Camp Administration:
– the Japanese left POWs to run the camp on their own
– Japanese entered camp when they had a reason
– POWs patrolled fence to prevent escapes
– Note: men who attempted to escape were recaptured
– Japanese beat them for days
– executed them
– Blood Brother Rule
– POWs put into groups of ten
– if one escaped the others would be executed
– housed in same barracks
– worked on details together
– Barracks:
– each barracks held 50 men
– often held between 60 and 120 men
– slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, and mosquito netting
– diseases spread easily
– no showers
– Morning Roll Call:
– stood at attention
– frequently beaten over their heads for no reason
– when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in their shins with their
  hobnailed boots because they didn’t like the way the POWs lined up
– Work Details:
– Two main details
– the farm and airfield
– farm detail
– POWs cleared land and grew camotes, cassava, taro, sesame, and various greens
– Japanese took what was grown
– Guards:
– Big Speedo – spoke little English
– in charge of detail
– fair in treatment of POWs
– spoke little English
– to get POWs to work faster said, “speedo”
– Little Speedo
– also used “speedo” when he wanted POWs to work faster
– fair in treatment of POWs
– Smiley
– always smiling
– could not be trusted
– meanest of guards
– Airfield Detail:
– Japanese built an airfield for fighters
– POWs cut grass, removed dirt, and leveled ground
– at first moved dirt in wheelbarrows
– later pushed mining cars
– Guards:
– Air Raid
– in charge
– usually fair but unpredictable
– had to watch him
– Donald Duck
– always talking
– sounded like the cartoon character
– unpredictable – beat POWs
– POWs told him that Donald Duck was a big American movie star
– at some point, he saw a Donald Duck cartoon
– POWs stayed away from him when he came back to camp
– Work Day: 7:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
– worked 6 days a week
– had Sunday off
– Other Details:
– work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens and plant rice
– they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
– POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on to drive them deeper into the mud
– the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
– if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn’t doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
– many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
– daily POW meal
– 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn
– rice was main staple, few vegetables or fruits
– Camp Hospital:
– 30 Wards
– each ward could hold 40 men
– frequently had 100 men in each
– two tiers of bunks
– sickest POWs on bottom tier
– each POW had a 2 foot by 6 foot area to lie in
– Zero Ward
– given name because it had been missed when counting wards
– became ward where those who were going to die were sent
– fenced off from other wards
– Japanese guards would not go near it
– POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving
– medical staff had little to no medicine to treat sick
– many deaths from disease caused by malnutrition
– Burial Detail:
– POWs worked in teams of four men to bury dead
– carried as many as six dead POWs in slings to cemetery
– buried in graves that contained 16 to 20 bodies
– Bachrach Garage Detail
– arrived in late 1942 or early 1943
– POWs repaired trucks
– Bilibid Prison
– sent to hospital ward – pellagra
– discharged – 2 August 1944
Hell Ship:
Noto Maru
– Departed: Manila, Philippine Islands – 14 August 1944
– Arrived: Takao, Formosa – 30 August 1944
– Sailed: Takao – 31 August 1944
– Arrived: Moji, Japan – 9 September 1944
POW Camps:
– Japan:
– Hanawa Camp
– also known as Sendai #6-B
– POWs arrived – 9 September 1944
– Barracks:
– wooden barracks with 30 foot ceilings
– barracks connected by covered walkways
– no side walls
– barracks had dirt floors
– two tiers of bunks with straw mats and mattresses, stuffed with straw, for the POWs to sleep on at night
– each man also had a 4″ by 4″ by 8 ” block of wood to use as a pillow
– small potbelly stove to heat barracks
– if the POWs were lucky they got enough wood to heat the barracks for a hour
– POWs who worked in foundry stole coal
– the only insulation was the snow – as deep as ten feet – on the roofs
– Other Buildings:
– 3 latrines
– 2 low buildings served as hospital
– L shaped building that was the kitchen and showers
– administrative building
– Clothing:
– POWs issued a nice, green, cotton outfit
– these were only worn when the Red Cross visited the camp
– their other set of clothing, for winter, was made of burlap
– canvas shoes
– Rations:
– POWs ate in barracks
– food brought in a small cauldron from camp kitchen
– 625 grams a day
-sick received 500 grams
– meals included rice, barley or millet
– breakfast was a small bowl of rice and a watery soup
– lunch a bowl of rice with another grain and shark head soup
– soup had a lot of bones in it
– Work Day:
– POWs got up at 5:00 A.M.
– ate
– 5:30 A.M. – roll call and left camp
– 7:00 A.M. – started working
– half hour lunch
– 5:00 P.M. – end of work day
– marched back to camp
– got back after dark
– roll call and dinner
– went to bed
– POWs with skills such as electricians, machinists, and mechanics did skilled jobs
– unskilled workers worked in a foundry or mined copper
– Mine:
– mining copper was the most dangerous job
– POWs in mine under supervision of Japanese “honcho” employed by Mitsubishi
– mine was considered worked out
– Mitsubishi believed it could make a profit with POW labor
– tools were out of date
– broke frequently
– POWs worked in areas were cave-ins were a daily threat
– parts of mine flooded and there was always the danger of flash floods
– Jobs: drillers, car loaders, and car pushers, blasting crew
– POWs believed the supervisors wanted to work them to death
– Collective Punishment:
– if one man broke a rule all the POWs were punished
– beaten with belts, sticks, sabers, kicked and punched
– food, of each man, was reduced by 20 percent
– Red Cross Packages:
– Japanese misappropriated Red Cross food, medicine, clothing, blankets, and shoes
– not known if the POWs ever received a Red Cross package
– Medical Treatment:
– at one point the American doctors and medics received orders preventing them from treating sick and injured
– since there was a quota on how many POWs were needed each day, the sick were carried to the mine by the healthy
– many could not work no matter how the Japanese beat them
– Japanese finally gave up and gave the sick light work in the camp
– Work:
Note: While working in the mine from November 1944 until August 15, 1945, the POWs were abused by the civilian foreman, Hichiro Tsuchiya, who was known to the POWs as “Patches.” Tsuchiya used any excuse to abuse the POWs. He was known to hit the POWs for no reason in their faces and to also use a wooden club or pickaxe handle. He also used a sledgehammer to hit the POWs on their heads.
Liberated: 16 September 1945
– taken to the docks at Yokohama and boarded a transport
– returned to the Philippines for medical treatment
Transport:
S.S. Klapfontein – Dutch ship
– Sailed: Manila – 9 October 1945
– Arrived: San Francisco – 28 October 1945
– additional medical treatment – Letterman General Hospital – San Francisco
Discharged: 6 December 1946
Married: Clarkie P. Alexander
Children: 1 son
Died: 5 December 1983 – Mount Pleasant, Texas
Buried:
– Greenwood Memorial Park and Mausoleum – Fort Worth, Texas
– Chapel Garden 29

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