2nd Lt. Leroy Arnold Scoville was born in Evansville, Wisconsin, on November 30, 1915. He was the son of Alvie J. Scoville & Verena M. Huset-Scoville and grew up at 464 South Madison Street. As a child, he attended school in Evansville and was a 1933 graduate of Evansville High School and was known as “Scoop” to his friends. After high school, he worked as a salesman in a store.
Leroy joined the Wisconsin National Guard’s 32nd Tank Company headquartered in an armory in Janesville, Wisconsin, on September 23, 1940. He did this because the selective service act was about to take effect and he wanted to get his one year of military service over.
In the fall of 1940, the 32nd Tank Company was called to federal duty as A Company of the 192nd Tank Battalion. A three-man detail was sent to Fort Knox, Kentucky, a few days earlier. Another detachment of 23 soldiers left the armory at 7:00 A.M. on November 27th. It is known that the roads were ice-covered so the trip was slow which resulted in one truck hitting a civilian’s car. No other information is available about the incident. The road conditions improved the further south the convoy went. The soldiers spent the night at an armory in Danville, Illinois, before heading south to Ft. Knox arriving there sometime the next afternoon.
The next day, November 28th, between 4:00 and 5:00 P.M., the main detachment of soldiers that marched from the armory to the Milwaukee Road train station in Janesville where they boarded special cars that had been added to the Marquette to Chicago train. One was a flatcar with the company’s two tanks on it. At some point, the train cars were uncoupled from the train and switched onto the Chicago & Northwestern line that went into Maywood, Illinois. There, the members of B Company boarded the train and their equipment – including their two tanks – was loaded onto the train. In Chicago, the train cars were switched onto the Illinois Central Railroad and taken to Ft. Knox arriving around 8:00 A.M. When they arrived, trucks were waiting at the station to take them to the fort. Their first housing were six men tents since their barracks were not finished. The battalion had a total of eight tanks.
After arriving, they spent the first six weeks in primary training. During week 1, the soldiers did infantry drilling; week 2, manual arms and marching to music; week 3, machine gun training; week 4, was pistol usage; week 5, M1 rifle firing; week 6, was training with gas masks, gas attacks, pitching tents, and hikes; weeks 7, 8, and 9 were spent learning the weapons, firing each one, learning the parts of the weapons and their functions, field stripping and caring for weapons, and the cleaning of weapons.
It is known that he was one of the soldiers from Janesville who went home for Christmas. The soldiers left Ft. Knox at about 1:00 P.M. on Saturday, December 21st- by chartered bus – and arrived in Janesville at about 3:00 A.M. on Sunday, December 22nd. They remained in Janesville until the afternoon of Christmas Day when they boarded the chartered bus for the return trip to Ft. Knox.
1st Sgt. Dale Lawton – on December 26th – was given the job of picking men to be transferred from the company to the soon to be formed HQ Company. Men were picked for the company because they had special training. Many of these men received promotions and because of their rating received higher pay. It was at this time that Lester was transferred to the newly created company. LeRoy was assigned to the company as a clerk. During the next ten months of training, Leroy rose to the rank of corporal.
A Company moved into its barracks in December 1941. The men assigned to the HQ Company still lived with the A Company since their barracks were unfinished. 25 men lived on each floor of the barracks. The bunks were set up along the walls and alternated so that the head of one bunk was next to the foot of another bunk allowing for more bunks to be placed in the least amount of space allowing for 50 men to sleep on each floor. The first sergeant, staff sergeant, and master sergeant had their own rooms. There was also a supply room, an orderly room – where the cooks could sleep during the day – and a clubroom.
The one problem they had was that the barracks had four, two-way speakers in it. One speaker was in the main room of each floor of the barracks, one was in the first sergeant’s office, and one was in the Capt. Walter Write’s office. Since by flipping a switch the speaker became a microphone, the men watched what they said. The men assigned to HQ Company moved into their own barracks by February. The guardsmen were housed away from the regular army troops in the newly built barracks. Newspapers from the time state that the barracks were air-conditioned. Although the barracks were finished, A Company shared D Company’s mess hall until the company’s mess hall opened.
The area outside the barracks was described as muddy and dusty most of the time. An attempt was made to improve the situation with the building of walkways and roads around the barracks.
A typical day for the soldiers started at 6:15 with reveille, but most of the soldiers were up before this since they wanted to wash and dress. Breakfast was from 7:00 to 8:00 A.M., followed by calisthenics from 8:00 to 8:30. Afterward, the tankers went to various schools within the company. The classes consisted of .30 and .50 caliber machine guns, pistol, map reading, care of personal equipment, military courtesy, and training in tactics. At 11:30 the soldiers stopped what they were doing and cleaned up for mess which was from noon to 1:00 P.M. Afterwards, they attended the various schools which they had been assigned to on January 13, such as mechanics, tank driving, radio operating. The classes lasted for 13 weeks.
At 4:30, the soldiers called it a day and returned to their barracks and put on dress uniforms and at five held retreat and followed by dinner at 5:30. After they ate they stood in line to wash their mess kits since they had no mess hall. At first, A Company’s meals were served in D Company’s mess hall until heir mess hall was finished in December. After dinner, they were off duty, and lights were out at 9:00 P.M., but they did not have to turn in until 10:00 when Taps was played.
It was also at this time that all the battalion had 16 operational tanks and the first men from selective service were assigned to the company. On January 10th, these men took their first tank ride and all of them had the chance to drive the tanks. They would permanently join the company in March 1941.
During their free time during the week, the men could go to one of the three movie theaters on the outpost. They also sat around and talked. As the weather got warmer, the men tried to play baseball as often as possible in the evenings. At 9:00 P.M., when lights went out, most went to sleep. On weekends, men with passes frequently went to Louisville which was 35 miles north of the fort, while others went to Elizabethtown sixteen miles south of the fort. Those men still on the base used the dayroom to read since it was open until 11:00 P.M.
Capt Walter Write, during February, commanded a composite tank company made of men from all the companies of the battalion. The company left Ft. Knox on a problematic move at 9:00 A.M. The company consisted of three motorcycles, two scout cars, sixteen tanks, one ambulance, and supply, fuel, and kitchen trucks. The route was difficult and chosen so that the men could become acquainted with their equipment. They also had to watch out for simulated enemy planes. Bridges were avoided whenever it was possible to ford the water.
At noon, the column stopped for a short rest and a lunch that did not materialize. A guide had failed to stay at one of the crossings until the kitchen truck arrived there, so instead of turning into the woods, the truck went straight. After the break, Capt. Write ordered the men back to Ft. Knox without having been fed.
In late March 1941, the entire battalion was moved to new barracks at Wilson Road and Seventh Avenue at Ft. Knox. The barracks had bathing and washing facilities in them and a day room. The new kitchens had larger gas ranges, automatic gas heaters, large pantries, and mess halls. One reason for this move was the men from selective service were permanently joining the battalion.
At 7:00 A.M. on Monday, June 16th, the battalion was broken into four detachments for a three-day tactical road march. The most important part of this march was to train the soldiers in loading, unloading, and setting up the battalion’s administrative camps. It also prepared them for the Louisiana maneuvers which they were scheduled to take part in during September.
The battalion traveled with 20 tanks, 20 motorcycles, 7 armored scout cars, 5 jeeps, 12 beeps (later called jeeps), 20 large 2½ ton trucks (these carried the battalion’s garages for vehicle repair), 5, 1½ ton trucks (which were the battalion’s kitchens), and 1 ambulance. The battalion traveled through Bardstown and Springfield before arriving at Harrodsburg at 2:30 P.M. where they set up their bivouac at the fairgrounds. The next morning, they moved to Herrington Lake east of Danville, where the men swam, boated and fished. The battalion returned to Ft. Knox on Wednesday, June 18th through Lebanon, New Haven, and Hodgenville, Kentucky.
In the late summer of 1941, the 192nd went on maneuvers in Louisiana. After the maneuvers, the battalion was informed it would not be returning to Ft. Knox. The members of the battalion were gathered on a side of a hill for a meeting. At this meeting, Leroy the members of the battalion learned that they were being sent overseas. Those considered to be “too old” were given the chance to resign from active duty.
After the companies were brought up to strength with replacements, the battalion was equipped with new tanks and half-tracks with came from the 753rd Tank Battalion. The battalion traveled over different train routes to Ft. Mason in San Francisco, California, where they were taken by the ferry, the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe to Angel Island. At Ft. McDowell, on the island, they received physicals and inoculations. Men found with minor medical conditions were held back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date. Other men were simply replaced.
The 192nd boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Gen. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27. During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP. The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2, and had a two-day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
On Wednesday, November 5, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes. It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and, another transport, the S.S. President Calvin Coolidge. Sunday night, November 9, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11. During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Dateline. On Saturday, November 15, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon. The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke. It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country. Two other intercepted ships were Japanese freighters carrying scrap metal to Japan.
When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day. At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout. This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm’s way. The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning. At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg. Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
At the fort, they were greeted by Colonel Edward P. King, who apologized that the men had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Airfield. The truth was that he had not learned of their arrival until just days before their ship docked. He made sure that they had what they needed and that they all received Thanksgiving Dinner – which was a stew thrown into their mess kits – before he went to have his own dinner.
The members of the battalion pitched the ragged World War I tents in an open field halfway between the Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg. The tents were set up in two rows and five men were assigned to each tent. There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at the end of the rows of tents.
The area was near the end of a runway used by B-17s for takeoffs. The planes flew over the tents at about 100 feet blowing dirt everywhere and the noise from the engines as they flew over was unbelievable. At night, they heard the sounds of planes flying over the airfield which turned out to be Japanese reconnaissance planes. In addition, the khaki uniforms they had been issued also turned out to be a heavy material which made them uncomfortable to wear in the tropical heat.
The day started at 5:15 with reveille and anyone who washed near a faucet with running water was considered lucky. At 6:00 A.M. they ate breakfast followed by work – on their on the tanks and other equipment – from 7:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. Lunch was from 11:30 A.M. to 1:30 P.M. when the soldiers returned to work until 2:30 P.M. The shorter afternoon work period was based on the belief that it was too hot to work in the climate. The term “recreation in the motor pool” meant they actually worked until 4:30 in the afternoon.
For recreation, the soldiers spent their free time bowling or going to the movies on the base. They also played horseshoes, softball, badminton, or threw footballs around during their free time. On Wednesday afternoons, they went swimming. Men were given the opportunity to be allowed to go to Manila in small groups.
At Ft. Stotsenburg, the soldiers were expected to wear their dress uniforms. Since working on the tanks was a dirty job, the battalion members wore coveralls to do the work on the tanks. The 192nd followed the example of the 194th Tank Battalion and wore coveralls in their barracks area to do work on their tanks, but if the soldiers left the battalion’s area, they wore dress uniforms including going to the PX.
On December 1st, the tankers were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Airfield to guard against Japanese paratroopers. They remained there off and on for several days. At all times, two crew members remained with the tanks.
On December 8, 1941, ten hours after Pearl Harbor was attacked, Leroy lived through the Japanese attack on Clark Field. As tankers sat at their tanks, the sky above them was filled with American planes. At noon, the planes landed and two crew members were allowed to go to a food truck to get lunch.
The tankers who manning their tanks watched as two formations of planes approached the airfield from the north. They counted the formations were made up of 54 planes. Many believed the planes were American until they saw what looked like raindrops falling from the planes. When the raindrops began exploding on the runways, the soldiers knew the planes were Japanese.
Sometime after the attack, the company was sent to the Barrio of Dau so it would be close to a highway and railroad. From there, the company was sent to join the other companies of the 192nd just south of the Agno River. There, the tanks, with A Company, 194th held the position.
On December 23 and 24, the company was in the area of Urdaneta. It was there, that the tankers lost the company commander, Capt. Walter Write. After he was buried, the tankers made an end run to get south of Agno River after the main bridge had been destroyed. As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening. They successfully crossed the river in the Bayambang Province.
On December 25, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27.
A Company was sent, in support of the 194th, to an area east of Pampanga. It was there that they lost a tank platoon commander, Lt. William Reed. The company returned to the 192nd on January 8, 1942.
On January 10, he wrote a letter home that his parents did not receive until the first week of April. The following are excerpts from the letter.
“The Jap planes were pretty active today, but we expect they will hum a different tune when the United States starts marching them marching the other way. Naturally, there has been a great deal of destruction, and our troops have been greatly outnumbered. Nevertheless, we have been very fortunate thus far and have received many compliments from high authority upon our work. Our greatest loss was our captain, who was most important to us.”
He also said in the letter. “putting complete faith in God” and hoped to get home “someday in the future.” He also wrote that he and the other members of A Company from Evansville were “getting enough to eat, a nice place to bathe, and fair sleep.”
A little over a week later, he wrote this letter:
“January 19, 1942
“Dear Mom and Dad and all;
“Things have been really popping this past month and that is for sure. We have been all over this darned island scrapping with these cussed little Japs. I presume you are more than worried about me even as I am considerably concerned about your welfare and health and all. So far I have been fortunate. I have placed my complete faith in God and I know in my heart that nothing on this earth can guarantee me safety.
“I have read my New Testament constantly and have found some wonderful promises there and some wonderful examples of other people before me that have had to endure as difficult time as we are now experiencing and God helped them. I am not positive, but I think I have seen a few signs that must have been from Him and I know He must be with me because I am never as worried in a situation now as I was when the war first started.
“It would be useless and foolish to try to tell you here of our experiences as we will be censored so we will dwell upon the nicer things as connected with this business.
“Naturally, there has been a great deal of destruction and we have been greatly outnumbered. Nevertheless, we have received many compliments from the higher authority upon our work and I know with some white troops to assist and work with the Philipinos we will be able to rid this Island of the pests from Japan. We are in a rest-camp now and it is a much-appreciated rest. We have plenty to eat, a good place to bathe and are now getting plenty of sleep. We have been very fortunate thus far. We had ___ ___ ___ and there have been a few injuries. No deaths in our company as yet – among the enlisted men, with one possible exception which we are not sure of. Our greatest loss which you probably know about was the death of Captain Walter Write. He was most important to us and I am sure that his presence throughout the past month would have given us an entirely different picture of this campaign. We also lost a fine ___ ___ ___. But the rumor is he was picked up by medics and now has been evacuated to Australia. God willing I hope this is true for he was a wonderful individual. I cabled you shortly after the war began! I hope you received it.
“The Jap planes are pretty active today but I expect they will hum a different tune when the U. S. starts marching the other way.
“I always wonder if God would make me undergo some great trial for my sins and determining my worth to his Kingdom. I hope and pray with all my heart he shall not find me lacking in any respect. I read the 23rd Psalm, the 91st Psalm a lot and also the 14th chapter of John. I have found so many comforting things there and am really beginning to find out how little I knew about some of the things in my Testament.
“I sincerely hope this finds you all well. This is a big job of course but at a time like this no one must shirk responsibility and everyone must do their best to get this thing over with and help make this a pleasant world.
“May God bless you all and keep you constantly under His care. Someday, somewhere we will be together again and may God bless the day and grant that wherever it may be that it shall be to His glory. With all my love and best wishes forever.
“Your Loving Son
On January 28, the tank battalions were given the job of protecting the beaches. The 192nd was assigned the coastline from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan’s east coast. The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.
A Company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets to wipe out Japanese Marines who had been trapped behind the main defensive line. The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket. Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank had left the pocket.
To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used. The first was to have three Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank. As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole. Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually exploded.
The other method used to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over the foxhole. The driver gave the other track power resulting in the tank spinning around and grinding its way down into the foxhole. The tankers slept upwind of their tanks.
During the next four months, Leroy and the other members of A Company fought to slow the Japanese advance. Doing this meant that A Company often found itself as the rear guard of the retreating Filipino and American forces. It was during the Battle for Bataan that Leroy wrote this letter to his parents:
“Dear Mom and Dad and all,
“How is everything back in America’s fairyland, I mean dairy-land? I’ll bet you had begun to think for sure that I had forgotten all about you. The truth of the matter is that we had been just a little bit too busy taking care of these little yellow devils from across the ocean.
“I figure that before this thing is over though they will begin to think they have more than just a little bit to take care of. We have already taken care of a lot of them and with the Philippines really begin to click and now the … we need, I believe we can blow the whistle most anytime and we will start a touchdown march that will make the Japs look like termites in reverse.
“I have quite a bit of film and have taken a few pictures of our fellows and the scenery around; just the nicer things, because there are really a lot of nice things to see around here; the mountains the sun shining on them, the moonlight and ocean all go together to make up some of the most beautiful scenery I have ever seen.
“I have written you on several occasions and I certainly hope you have received the letters so you will not be too much concerned or worried for my safety. They have sent in a request for my promotion to Second Lt., but it has not come through.
“We have been eating and living pretty well. Food is limited but we have enough to keep us going fairly well. Cigarettes are scarce as heck but we even get few of those occasionally. We have seen a lot of action and have been in a lot of close situations but God has smiled favorably in our direction because we’re still a-kicking. I thank him often for the grace that has accompanied me in this whole life.
“I am in the rear echelon right now but am in reserve capacity to assist in any operation where I might be needed. Herb Durner is with me. I have seen Robert Hubbard a few times. He has been bothered with some kind of infection on his hands and arms but seems to be getting along quite well. Each day we hope for assistance from the states and have complete faith that it will soon come.
“Is everyone well? I wish I could hear from you, a letter or wire or anything. Do you still have my car? I hope so. If not though it is O.K. That is not very important to me now. I pray for your good health and for faith to carry us through the experience. Someday we shall be together again and that will be an experience to be thankful for.
“There is not a great deal to say or attempt to say except that we are still well. We live in the woods and have learned the numerous ways of preparing beds and all types of things for protection. Have faith. Pray for me as I pray for you and I know that he will take care of us. Should be time to eat soon. I have made an allotment to the bank. If you should need the money I want you to feel welcome to use it in any way.
“Please write and tell me about all the folks, those at the store, and our relatives and friends. I presume mail is very difficult to get through. Anyway, Bye now and God bless you all.
On March 12, 1942, during the Battle of Bataan, Leroy met with the commanding officer of A Company and received a battlefield commission as a second lieutenant. With the commission, came a transfer to C Company. He would remain with C Company until the surrender.
Leroy suffered from sores that covered his hands and arms. It was believed this illness was a result of the poor diet that the defenders of Bataan had.
The Japanese launched an all-out attack on April 3 and broke through the east side of the main defensive line on Bataan. On April 7, the 57th Infantry, Philippine Scouts, supported by tanks, attempted to restore the line, but Japanese infiltrators prevented this from happening. During this action, one tank was knocked out but the remaining tanks successfully withdrew. C Company, 194th, which was attached to the 192nd, had only seven tanks left.
The tanks became a favorite target of the Japanese receiving fire on trails and while hidden in the jungle. and could not fight back. The situation was so bad that other troops avoided being near the tanks, and the 26th Cavalry turned down a tank company’s offer of assistance in a counter-attack.
It was the evening of April 8 that Gen. Edward P. King decided that further resistance was futile, since approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight, and he estimated they would last one more day. In addition, he had over 6,000 troops who sick or wounded and 40,000 civilians who he feared would be massacred. At 10:30 that night, he sent his staff officers to negotiate surrender terms.
Tank battalion commanders received this order: “You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word ‘CRASH’, all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished.”
On April 9, 1942, at 6:45 .M., the tankers heard the order “crash.” Most of the tank crews circled their tanks and fired an armor-piercing shell into another tanks engine. dropped hand grenades into the tanks.
The company made its way to Mariveles were Leroy started what has become known as the Bataan Death March. From the southern tip of Bataan, the soldiers made there way north to San Fernando. They received little food and no water. Men who fell often were killed by the guards. Those who ran to the artesian wells that poured water onto the road were shot. Leroy continued the march until he reached San Fernando.
At San Fernando, the POWs were put into a bullpen. The concrete was covered with human waste, which indicated it had been used by other POWs. They were ordered to sit down and left in the sun all day. Later that day the POWs were ordered to form detachments of 100 men. They were marched to a train station and packed into boxcars.
The boxcars were known as “forty or eight” because the cars could hold forty men or eight horses. The Japanese put 100 men in each car. Those who died remained standing until the living left the cars at Capas. From there, the POWs walked the last miles to Camp O’Donnell which was an unfinished Filipino training base that was pressed into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942.
When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese confiscated any extra clothing that the POWs had and refused to return it to them. In Scoop’s case, he arrived at the camp on April 16. The Japanese also searched the POWs and if a man was found to have Japanese money on them, they were taken to the guardhouse. Over the next several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of the camp. These POWs had been executed for looting.
There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two to eight hours waiting for a drink. The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and the next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again. This situation improved when a second faucet was added.
There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing when it had been soiled. In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the camp, and mess kits could not be washed. The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon overflowing since most of the POWs had dysentery. The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp including the POW kitchens and in the food.
The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant. When the ranking American doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies, he was told never to write another letter. When the Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the camp, Tsuneyoshi refused to allow the truck into the camp. When the Philippine Red Cross sent medical supplies to the camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them. When a representative of the Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150-bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a Japanese lieutenant.
Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to the hospital and placed underneath it. The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried in the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria. To clean the ground under the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it. The bodies of the dead were placed in the cleaned area, and the area they had lain was scraped and lime was spread over it.
Work details were sent out on a daily basis. Each day, the American doctors gave a list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work. If the quota of POWs needed to work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick but could walk, to work. The death rate among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day.
It was while a POW at Camp O’Donnell that Leroy was credited with saving the life of Sgt. Lewis Wallisch who was in the camp hospital. Knowing that if Wallisch stayed in the hospital he would most likely die, Leroy, convinced Wallisch to go out on a work detail with him. So the Japanese would think Wallisch was healthy enough to work, Leroy helped him walk out of the camp.
On the work detail, Leroy and the other POWs recovered disabled vehicles as scrap metal. Since the cars and trucks did not run, the POWs would tie them together with rope and tow them behind an operational vehicle. Each man would steer one of the vehicles that were tied together by rope.
While on the scrap metal detail Leroy became ill and sent to Cabanatuan #1 and was put in the camp hospital immediately after arriving in the camp. According to medical records from the camp hospital, he was tested for tuberculosis on June 6. The results were negative, but no date of discharge was given.
It was at this time that his parents received this message from the War Department:
“Dear Mrs. V. Scoville:
“According to War Department records, you have been designated as the emergency addressee of Second Lieutenant Leroy A. Scoville, O,890,430, who, according to the latest information available, was serving in the Philippine Islands at the time of the final surrender.
“I deeply regret that it is impossible for me to give you more information than is contained in this letter. In the last days before the surrender of Bataan, there were casualties which were not reported to the War Department. Conceivably the same is true of the surrender of Corregidor and possibly other islands of the Philippines. The Japanese Government has indicated its intention of conforming to the terms of the Geneva Convention with respect to the interchange of information regarding prisoners of war. At some future date, this Government will receive through Geneva a list of persons who have been taken prisoners of war. Until that time the War Department cannot give you positive information.
“The War Department will consider the persons serving in the Philippine Islands as “missing in action” from the date of surrender of Corregidor, May 7, 1942, until definite information to the contrary is received. It is to be hoped that the Japanese Government will communicate a list of prisoners of war at an early date. At that time you will be notified by this office in the event that his name is contained in the list of prisoners of war. In the case of persons known to have been present in the Philippines and who are not reported to be prisoners of war by the Japanese Government, the War Department will continue to carry them as “missing in action” in the absence of information to the contrary, until twelve months have expired. At the expiration of twelve months and in the absence of other information the War Department is authorized to make a final determination.
“Recent legislation makes provision to continue the pay and allowances of persons carried in a “missing” status for a period not to exceed twelve months; to continue, for the duration of the war, the pay and allowances of persons known to have been captured by the enemy; to continue allotments made by missing personnel for a period of twelve months and allotments or increase allotments made by persons by the enemy during the time they are so held; to make make new allotments or increase allotments to certain dependents defined in Public Law 490, 77th Congress. The latter dependents generally include the legal wife, dependent children under twenty-one years of age and dependent mother, or such dependents as having been designated in official records. Eligible dependents who can establish a need for financial assistance and are eligible to receive this assistance the amount allotted will be deducted from pay which would otherwise accrue to the credit of the missing individual.
“Very Truly yours
J. A. Ulio (signed)
The Adjutant General”
Cabanatuan was actually three camps. Camp 1 was where the men who captured on Bataan and taken part in the death march where held. Camp 2 did not have an adequate water supply and was closed. It later reopened and housed Naval POWs. Camp 3 was where those men captured when Corregidor surrendered were taken. In addition, men from Bataan who had been hospitalized when the surrender came were sent to the camp. Camp 3 was later consolidated into Camp 1.
Once in the camp, the POWs were allowed to run the camp. The Japanese only entered if they had an issue they wanted to deal with. To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a detail that patrolled the fence of the camp. The reason this was done was that those who did escape and were caught were tortured before being executed, while the other POWs were made to watch. It is believed that no POW successfully escaped from the camp.
In July 1942, the family received a second message. The following is an excerpt from it.
“The last report of casualties received by the War Department from the Philippines arrived early in the morning of May 6. Through this date, Second Lieutenant Leroy A. Scoville had not been reported as a casualty. The War Department will consider the persons serving in the Philippine Islands as “missing in action” from the date of the surrender of Corregidor, May 7, until definite information to the contrary is received.
“Efforts to secure prisoner of war lists from the Philippines have not been successful to this date due to the lack of communication and the fact that the Japanese Government has not yet given permission for the Swiss representative and the International Red Cross delegates to make visits to prisoner of war camps in the islands. When the lists of prisoners are received, we will clear the name of your son and send you any additional information that we may have.”
Leroy remained at Camp 1 for ten days before he was sent to Camp 3, which had mostly enlisted men and a few officers. On October 28, the POWs from Camp 3 were moved to Camp 1. This was done because the Japanese had sent many POWs out on work details and also started to ship POWs to Japan or other occupied countries.
In the camp, the Japanese instituted the “Blood Brother” rule. If one man escaped the other nine men in his group would be executed. POWs caught trying to escape were beaten. Those who did escape and were caught were tortured before being executed. It is not known if any POW successfully escaped from the camp.
The barracks in the camp were built to house 50 POWs, but most had between 60 to 120 POWs in them. The POWs slept on bamboo slats, without mattresses, bedding, or mosquito netting. Many quickly became ill. The POWs were assigned to barracks which meant that the members of their group lived together, went out on work details together, and would be executed together since they were Blood Brothers. Leroy was also put in command of a barracks at some point.
He spent another two and one-half years in the camp and lived in Barracks #9, Group II, Company VII. From what is known, he was well-liked by the men. He was known to always have a smile on his face. His men knew that if they heard him singing, he was in a good mood.
The POWs were sent out on work details one was to cut wood for the POW kitchens. It is known that at one point Scoops was in charge of this detail. The following is a description of the detail from a letter sent to his parents – after the war – by 1st Lt. Walter E. Scott who became friends with Scoop while a POW.
“For a short time here Scoop was in charge of a barracks, and then later joined the wood detail, a group of about 75 officers and men who had the job of gathering the wood necessary for the camp. Although hard work, Scoop liked it and as a result, they were able to obtain a bit extra food for themselves and also had the opportunity to get outside the camp each day. Scoop stayed on this job until about Christmas of 1943 when the camp doctors ordered him to quit. The work was just too much for some for the diet we were getting.”
The two major details were the farm detail and the airfield detail which lasted for years. A typical day on any detail lasted from 7:00 A.M. until 5:00 P.M. The POWs on the farm detail would have to go to a shed each morning to get tools. As they left the shed, the Japanese guards thought it was great fun to hit them over their heads.
The detail was under the command of “Big Speedo” who spoke very little English. When he wanted the POWs to work faster, he told the POWs “speedo.” Although he was known to have a temper, the POWs thought he was fair. Another guard was “Little Speedo” who was smaller and also used “speedo” when he wanted the POWs to work faster. The POWs also felt he was pretty fair in his treatment of them.
“Smiley” was another guard who always had a smile on his face but could not be trusted. He was the meanest of the guards and beat men up for no reason. He liked to hit the POWs with the club. Any prisoner who he believed was not working hard enough got knocked over with it. Any prisoner who he believed was not working hard enough got knocked over with it. Each morning, after arriving at the farm, the POWs went into a tool shed to get their tools. As they left the shed, the guards hit them on their heads.
Other POWs worked in rice paddies. While working in the fields, the favorite punishment given to the men in the rice paddies was to have their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on by a guard to drive their faces deeper into the mud. Returning from a detail the POWs bought or were given, medicine, food, and tobacco, which they somehow managed to get into the camp even though they were searched when they returned.
Rice was the main food given to the POWs fed to them as “lugow” which meant “wet rice.” During their time in the camp, they received few vegetables and almost no fruit. Once in awhile, they received bread.
The camp hospital was known as “Zero Ward” because it was missed by the Japanese when they counted barracks. The sickest POWs were sent there to die. The Japanese put a fence up around the building to protect themselves, and they would not go into the building. There were two rolls of wooden platforms around the perimeter of the building. The sickest POWs were put on the lower platform which had holes cut into it so they could relieve themselves. Most of those who entered the ward died. At some point, during his time in the camp, Leroy contracted malaria.
The POWs had the job of burying the dead. To do this, they worked in teams of four men. Each team carried a litter of four to six dead men to the cemetery where they were buried in graves containing 15 to 20 bodies. The death was still 9 POWs a day into December until Red Cross Packages were given out at Christmas. In addition, changes were made in the latrines which help slow the spread of disease.
During this time, through the efforts of his friend, Lt. Scott, Leroy worked in one of the camp’s kitchens as the night watchman and fireman. The hours were bad but the work was easy and it was a desirable job since doing it got him a little extra food.
It was also while he was held as a POW at Cabanatuan that Scoop and 2nd Lt. Jacques Merrifield of B Company, 192nd Tank Battalion, became best friends. The two men became bunkmates in a barracks occupied by officers of the 192nd. What this meant is that they would keep watch over each other’s possessions while the other man worked.
In December 1942, his family received word that he was a Prisoner of War in a message from the War Department.
“REPORT JUST RECEIVED THROUGH INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS STATES THAT YOUR SON SECOND LIEUTENANT LEROY A SCOVILLE IS A PRISONER OF WAR OF THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT IN PHILIPPINE ISLANDS LETTER OF INFORMATION FOLLOWS FROM THE PROVOST MARSHALL GENERAL=
ULIO THE ADJUTANT GENERAL=”
Within days of receiving the first message, they received a second message:
464 South Madison Street
“The Provost Marshal General directs me to inform you that you may communicate with your son, postage free, by following the inclosed instructions:
“It is suggested that you address him as follows:
“2nd Lt. Leroy A. Scoville, U.S. Army
Interned in the Philippine Islands
C/O Japanese Red Cross, Tokyo, Japan
Via New York, New York
“Packages cannot be sent to the Orient at this time. When transportation facilities are available a package permit will be issued you.
“Further information will be forwarded you as soon as it is received.
“Howard F. Bresee
“Chief Information Bureau”
With two other officers from the battalion, Leroy and Merrifield grew vegetables to supplement their regular meals. To do this, the men scrounged plant seeds from wherever they could get them. The extra food helped Leroy to maintain his health.
On August 8, 1943, his parents received a POW postcard from him which said:
“I am interned at the Philippine military prison camp No. 1. My health is excellent. I am uninjured. I am well. Please see that everything is taken care of. Say hello to all the family and Betty (Hyne). Please give my best regards to Peter and Mary (Husseth, an uncle and aunt).
“Leroy A. Scoville”
This is the first word they had from him since receiving a letter from him in August 1942 which he had written in February 1942.
Less than a week later, his parents received a second typed POW card from him which had his signature.
“Dear Mother and Dad: I sincerely hope that this finds you well. I am in good help and waiting the day I can see you all again. Please give my regards to all my friends and relatives. Take good care of yourselves. Give my love to Betty. Love Leroy”
The Japanese began to transfer POWs being sent to Japan to Bilibid on October 15. On October 18, 1944, Leroy and his friend, Jack Merrifield, were sent to Bilibid Prison. There were inspections and the POWs received a breakfast of a piece of cornbread and rice. They were loaded onto six trucks with 50 men put on each one which made the ride uncomfortable. They were packed so tightly, they had to stand.
At 11:00 A.M. on their way to the prison, the POWs saw two large formations of American planes. This was the fifth or sixth straight day they had seen American planes. At one point, the trucks stopped and the POWs were fed, but they were not allowed off the trucks. The POWs made their way to the side of the truck to urinate. They arrived at Bilibid at 4:00 P.M.
The prison served as the clearinghouse for prisoners being sent to Japan or other occupied countries. During their time at Bilibid, Leroy, Harvey Riedeman, and Jack would get together and talk. In the evening after roll call, their favorite place to get together was on top of an air-raid shelter. Two or three times during the evening Japanese guards would chase them away. After the guards left, the three men would get back together.
From December 3 through 13, a typhoon prevented American planes from raiding Manila. During this time the Japanese were able to get several ships into the harbor. On December 12, 1944, the POWs heard rumors that a detail was being sent out. On December 13, the POWs whose names were posted were awakened at 4:00 A.M. At 7:30, roll call was started and took until 9:00 A.M. to finish. The POWs names appeared on a roster. They went through what was a farce of an inspection. They were told cigarettes, soap, and salt would be issued. The POWs were also told that they would also receive a meal to eat and one to take with them.
The prisoners were allowed to roam the compound until they were told to fall-in at 11:30 A.M of December 14. At that time, they were organized into detachments of 100 men, fed a meal, and marched to Pier 7 in Manila which was about two miles away. During the march down Luzon Boulevard, the POWs saw that the streetcars had stopped running and many things were in disrepair.
The Americans saw that the American bombers were doing a job on the Japanese transports. There were at least forty wrecked ships in the bay. When the POWs reached Pier 7, it too was in disarray. There were three ships docked at the pier. One was an old run-down ship, the other two were large and in good shape. They soon discovered one of the two nicer ships was their ship.
It was at this time that Leroy was allowed to sit down. At 5:00 P.M., the other POWs boarded the Oryoku Maru for transport to Japan. The high ranking officers were the first put into the ship’s aft hold. Being the first one into the hold meant that they would suffer many deaths. Leroy was put into the ship’s rear hold with his friend Jack Merrifield.
800 POWs were put in the hold and were then fed fish and barley. The sides of the hold had two tiers of bunks that went around its diameter. The POWs near the hatch used anything they could find to fan the air to the POWs further away from it. The heat was so bad that men soon began to pass out. The POWs who were closer to the hold’s hatch used anything they could find to fan air toward those further away from it.
One survivor said, “The fist fights began when men began to pass out. We knew that only the front men in bay would be able to get enough air.”
The ship left Manila at 8:00 P.M. but spent most of the night in Manila Bay. At 10:00 P.M., the Japanese interpreter threatened to have the guards fire into the holds unless the POWs stopped screaming. Some of the POWs fell silent because they were exhausted, and others because they had died.
One major of the 26th Cavalry stated the man next to him had lost his mind. Recalling the conversation he had with the man he said, “Worst was the man who had gone mad but would not sit still. One kept pestering me, pushing a mess kit against my chest, saying, ‘Have some of this chow? It’s good.’ I smelled of it, it was not chow. ‘All right’ he said, ‘If you don’t want it. I’m going to eat it.’ And a little later I heard him eating it, right beside me.”
About 3:30 AM, it sailed as part of the MATA-37 a convoy bound for Takao, Formosa. The ships sailed without any lights. By the swells in the water, the POWs could tell that the ship was in open water. The cries for air began as the men lost discipline, so the Japanese threatened to cover the holds and cut off all air. When the Japanese sent down fried rice, cabbage, and fried seaweed, those further back from the opening got nothing.
The POWs received their first meal at dawn. Meals on the ship consisted of a little rice, fish, some water, and three-fourths of a cup of water that was shared by 20 POWs. It was 8:00 A.M., off the coast of Luzon, and the POWs had just finished eating breakfast when they heard the sound of guns. At first, they thought the gun crews were just drilling, because they had not heard any planes. It was only when the first bomb hit in the water and the ship shook that they knew it was not a drill.
At first, it seemed that most of the planes were attacking the other ships in the convoy. Commander Frank Bridgit had made his way to the top of the ladder into the hold and sat down. He gave the POWs a play by play of the planes attacking, “I can see two planes going for a freighter off our starboard side. Now two more are detached from the formation. I think they may be coming for us.”
The POWs heard the change in the sound of the planes’ engines as they began their dives toward the ships in the convoy. Several more bombs hit the water near the ship causing it to rock Explosions were taking place all around the ship. In an attempt to protect themselves, the POWs piled baggage in front of them. Bullets from the planes were ricocheted in the hold causing many casualties.
Lt. Col. Elvin Barr of the 60th Coast Artillery came up to Maj, John Fowler of the 26th Cavalry on the cargo deck and said, “There’s a hole knocked in the bulkheads down there. Between 30 and 40 men have already died down there.” Barr would never reach Japan. The attack by 30 to 50 planes lasted for about 20 to 30 minutes. When the planes were running out of bombs they strafed.
Afterward, the planes flew off, returning to their carrier, and there was a lull of about 20 to 30 minutes before the next squadron of planes appeared over the ships and resumed the attack. This pattern repeated itself over and over during the day.
In the hold, the POWs concluded that the attacking planes were concentrating on the bridge of the ship. They noted that the planes had taken out all the anti-aircraft guns leaving only its 30 caliber machine guns to defend the ship.
At 4:30 in the afternoon, the ship went through the worse attack on it. It was hit at least three times by bombs on its bridge and stern. Most of the POWs, who were wounded, were wounded by ricocheting bullets and shrapnel from exploding bombs. During the attack, a chaplain – 2nd Lt. William Cummings – led the POWs in the Our Father. As they prayed, the bombs that exploded near the ship sent torrents of water over the ship.
Bullets from the planes hit the metal plates, of the haul, at an angle that prevented most of them from penetrating the haul. Somewhere on the ship, a fire started, but it was put out after several hours. The POWs lived through seven or eight attacks before sunset. Overall, six bombs hit the ship. One hit the stern of the ship killing many POWs.
At dusk, the ship raised anchor and headed east. It turned south and turned again this time heading west. The next turn it made was north. It headed in this direction for a good amount of time before dropping anchor at about 8:00 P.M. The POWs figured out that they had just sailed in a circle. What had happened is that the ship’s had been hit during the attack and the ship could not be steered.
Sometime after midnight, the POWs heard the sound of the Japanese civilians being evacuated from the ship. During the night, the POW medics were ordered onto the deck to treat the Japanese wounded. One medic recalled that the dead, dying, and wounded were everywhere.
The ship reached Subic Bay at 2:30 in the morning and steamed closer to the beach where its anchor was dropped. At 4:00 A.M., the POWs were told that they would disembark at daybreak at a pier. The moaning and muttering of POWs who were losing their minds kept the POWs up all night. That night 25 POWs died in the hold.
It was December 15 and the POWs sat in the ship’s holds for hours after dawn. The first 35 POWs were taken out of the hold and went into the water. At 8:00 A.M. as the other POWs waited, the sound of A Japanese guard yelled into the hold at the POWs, “All go home; speedo!” He shouted that the wounded would be the first to be evacuated. Suddenly, he looked up and shouted, “Planes, many planes!”
As the POWs were abandoning ship the planes returned and continued the attack. The ship bounced in the water from the explosions. Chief Boatswain Clarence M. Taylor who was in the water said, “I saw the whole thing. A bomb fell, hit near the stern hatch, and debris goes flying up in the air.”
In the hold, the POWs crowded together. Chips of rust fell on them from the ceiling. After the raid, they took care of the wounded before the next attack started. Another chaplain, Major John Duffy, began praying, “Father forgive them. They know not what they do.”
The Japanese guards and interpreter had abandoned ship, but the ship’s captain remained on board. He told the POWs in his limited English that they needed to get off the ship to safety. Of abandoning ship Lt. Walter Scott said: “However, we did not get off it before the bombers had come back again and scored a direct hit on the middle hold of the ship.”
The POWs made their way over the side and into the water. As they swam to shore, which was about a mile away, the Japanese fired at them, with machine guns to prevent them from escaping.
Four of the planes flew low over the water above the POWs. The POWs waved frantically at the planes so they would not be strafed. The planes banked and flew lower over the POWs. This time the pilots dipped their wings to show that they knew the men in the water were Americans. About a half-hour later, the ship began to really burn and the bodies of the dead could be seen on the decks.
The Japanese sent out a motorboat with a machine gun and snipers on it. The POWs attempting to escape were hunted down and shot. It is believed as many as 30 men died in the water.
There was no real beach, so the POWs climbed up on a seawall and found the Japanese Naval Landing Party had set up a machine gun and had just laid flat to rest when the gun opened fire on them. Those who came ashore were warned to stay in the water but only did so when one man climbed up on the seawall and was wounded. There were also Japanese snipers in wait to shoot anyone who attempted to escape.
The POWs were gathered together and marched to the tennis court at Olongapo Naval Station which was about 500 yards from the beach. There, they were herded onto a tennis court. The Japanese packed 1300 of the POWs on the court with 100 wounded POWs taking up a great amount of room at one end. They could barely sit down and only lay down by lying partially on another man. During this time, the POWs were not fed but did receive water.
While the POWs were at Olongapo, a Japanese officer, Lt. Junsaburo Toshio, told the ranking American officer, Lt. Col. E. Carl Engelhart, that those too badly wounded to continue the trip would be returned to Bilibid. Fifteen men were selected and loaded onto a truck. They were taken into the mountains and never seen again. They were executed and buried at a cemetery.
The POWs remained on the tennis court for nine days. During their time of the courts, American planes attacked the area around them. The men watched as the fighter bombers came in vertically releasing bombs as they pulled out of their dives. On several occasions, the planes dove right at the POWs dropped their bombs and pulled out. The bombs drifted over the POWs and landed away from them exploding on contact.
Since the POWs had no place to hide, they watched and enjoyed the show. They believed that the pilots knew they were Americans but had no way of knowing if this was true. But what is known is that not one bomb was dropped on them even though they could be seen from the planes.
On the evening of December 16, the Japanese brought 50-kilo bags of rice for the POWs. About half of the rice had fallen out of the bags because of the holes. Each POW was given three spoons of raw rice, and a quarter of a spoon of salt.
At about 8:00 AM on the morning of December 22, 22 trucks arrived at the tennis court. Rumors flew on where they were going to be taken. At about 4:00 PM, a Taiwanese guard told the POWs, in broken English, “No go Cabanatuan. Go Manila; maybe Bilibid.” The guard knew as little as the POWs.
Later on December 22, the POWs were taken by truck to San Fernando, Pampanga, arriving there about four or five in the afternoon. Once there, they were put in a movie theater. Since it was dark, the POWs saw it as a dungeon.
During their time at San Fernando, Pampanga, the POWs lived through several air raids. The reason for the air raids was the barrio was military headquarters for the area. Most of the civilians had been moved out of the barrio. Many of the Americans began to believe they had been taken there so that they would be killed by their own countrymen.
December 23, at about 10:00 PM, the Japanese interpreter came and spoke to the ranking American officer about moving the POWs. The Japanese loaded the seriously ill POWs into a truck. Those remaining behind believed they were taken to Bilibid. The remaining POWs were moved to a trade school building in the barrio.
After 10:00 AM on December 24, the POWs were taken to the train station. The POWs saw that the station had been hit by bombings and that the cars they were to board had bullet holes in them from strafing. 180 to 200 were packed into steel boxcars with four guards also in the cars. The doors of the boxcars were kept closed and the heat in the cars was terrible. Ten to fifteen POWs rode on the roofs of the cars along with two guards. The guards told these POWs that it was okay to wave to the American planes.
On December 25, the POWs disembarked at San Fernando, La Union, at 2:00 AM and disembarked. They walked two kilometers to a schoolyard on the southern outskirts of the barrio. From December 25 until the 26. The POWs were held in a schoolhouse.
On the morning of December 26, the POWs were marched to a beach. During this time the prisoners were allowed one handful of rice and a canteen of water. The heat from the sun was so bad that men drank seawater. Many of those men died.
The POWs were taken by boats out to the ships. After they had boarded the ships, the ships made the journey to Formosa safely arriving on December 31, 1945, and dropped anchor in the harbor at about 11:30 A.M. On January 6, the POWs on the Brazil Maru were transferred to Enoura Maru. The coal in the forward hold was emptied, and 500 POWs were put into the hold. Leroy and Merrifield were two of these men.
On January 9, 1945, as the ship sat in the harbor, it also came under attack by American planes. During the attack, the POWs watched two bombs fall toward the ship. They could do nothing but watch to see where the bombs would hit. One bomb exploded outside the bow of the ship blowing a hole in it. The other fell through the open hatch in the hold that Leroy and Merrifield were in on the ship. Merrifield was on the other end of the hold and was not wounded when it exploded, but Leroy was near the hatch opening.
Leroy’s right leg and foot were torn to pieces by the bomb. He was cared for by medics, but since they had almost no medical supplies, there was not much they could do for him. With the other surviving POWs, Leroy was placed on the Brazil Maru.
It was on this ship that 2nd Lt. Leroy A. Scoville died of his wounds on the morning of Wednesday, January 24, 1945. Before he died, he asked Robert Boehm, of A Company, to give his parents his last possession. He had lost everything else in the sinking of the Oryoku Maru. According to Jack Merrifield, LeRoy Scoville died at sea, and his remains were stripped of clothing and thrown overboard.
Since his remains were lost at sea, the name of 2nd Lt. Leroy A. Scoville appears on the Tablets of the Missing at the American Military Cemetery outside of Manila.
After his death, during December 1945, 2nd Lt. Leroy Scoville’s parents received a message from the War Department. The following is an excerpt from the message.
“MRS ALVIE SCOVILLE=
“464 SOUTH MADISON STREET EVANSVILLE WIS=
“THE SECRETARY OF WAR DEEPLY REGRETS TO INFORM YOU THAT YOUR SON 2ND LT LEROY A SCOVILLE WAS KILLED IN ACTION IN THE PACIFIC AREA 15 DECEMBER 44 WHILE BEING TRANSPORTED ABOARD A JAPANESE VESSEL=
CONFIRMING LETTER FOLLOWS=
=EDWARD F WITSELL ACTING ADJUTANT GENERAL OF THE ARMY
His family received a second message from the War Department amending the date o death to January 24, 1945, which were followed by several other letters correcting errors in previous letters.