Kubly, PFC Robert C.

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PFC Robert Conrad Kubly
Born: 31 March 1913 – Monticello, Wisconsin
Parents: Conrad and Emma Kubly
– father died during the 1920s
Siblings: 4 sisters
Home:
– 417 Johnson Street – Portage, Wisconsin
Residence:
– 7 East Main Street – Evansville, Wisconsin
Occupation: unemployed
Enlisted: Wisconsin National Guard
Inducted:
– U. S. Army
– 25 November 1940 – Janesville, Wisconsin
– A three-man advance detachment left for Fort Knox, Kentucky
– 27 November 1940
– they were followed by another detachment of 23 soldiers
– left the armory at 7:00 A.M. 
– roads were ice-covered so the trip was slow 
– one truck hit a civilian’s car
– no other information is available about the incident
– the roads improved the further south the convoy traveled
– the soldiers spent the night at an armory in Danville, Illinois
– they drove south to Ft. Knox arriving there sometime in the next afternoon
– 28 November 1940
– between 4:00 and 5:00 P.M., the main detachment of soldiers marched from the armory to the Milwaukee Road train station in Janesville
– they boarded special cars that had been added to the Marquette to Chicago train – – – one was a flatcar with the company’s two tanks on it
– at some point, the train cars were uncoupled from the train and switched onto the Chicago & Northwestern line
– the line went into Maywood, Illinois
– There, the members of B Company boarded the train
– their equipment – including their two tanks – was loaded onto the train
– in Chicago, the train cars were switched onto the Illinois Central Railroad
– the train took them to Ft. Knox arriving around 8:00 A.M.  
– trucks were waiting at the station to take them to the fort
– their first housing were six men tents
– their barracks were not finished
– the battalion had a total of eight tanks when they arrived
– First Six Weeks of initial training
– Week 1, the soldiers did infantry drilling
– Week 2, manual arms and marching to music
– Week 3, machine gun training
– Week 4, was pistol usage
– Week 5, M1 rifle firing
– Week 6, was training with gas masks, gas attacks, pitching tents, and hikes
– Weeks 7, 8, and 9 were spent learning the weapons, firing each one, learning the parts of the weapons and their functions, field stripping and caring for
   weapons, and the cleaning of weapons.
– Christmas
– one of the men who went home
– left Ft. Knox at about 1:00 P.M. on Saturday, December 21st by chartered bus
– arrived in Janesville at about 3:00 A.M. on Sunday, December 22
– Christmas Day – 1:00 P.M. – boarded a chartered bus for the return trip to Ft. Knox 
– 26 December 1940 – 1st Sgt. Dale Lawton was given the job of picking men to be transferred to HQ Company
– men were picked for who had special training
– many of these men received promotions and because of their rating received higher pay
Barracks
– moved into its barracks in December
– The men assigned to the HQ Company still lived with the A Company since their barracks were unfinished
– 25 men lived on each floor of the barracks
– the bunks were set up along the walls and alternated so that the head of one bunk was next to the foot of another bunk
– this allowed for more bunks to be placed in the least amount of space
– allowed for 25 men to sleep on each floor
– the first sergeant, staff sergeant, and master sergeant had their own rooms
– There was also a supply room, an orderly room – where the cooks could sleep during the day – and a clubroom.
– two-way speakers were seen as a problem
–  one speaker was in the main room of each floor of the barracks
– one was in the first sergeant’s office
– one was in the Capt. Walter Write’s office
– flipping a switch made the speaker a microphone
– the men watched what they said
– Hq Company moved into its own barracks by February
– the guardsmen were housed away from the regular army troops in the newly built barracks
– newspapers from that time state that the barracks were air-conditioned
– A Company shared D Company’s mess hall until the company’s mess hall opened.
– the area outside the barracks was described as muddy and dusty most of the time
– crush rock was brought in to improve walkways and roads
– Typical Day
– 6:15 A.M. – reveille
– most of the soldiers were up before this since they wanted to wash and dress. – 7:00 – 7:00 – breakfast
– 8:00 – calisthenics from 8:00
– 8:30 – the tankers went to various schools within the company
– 13 January 1941 – men assigned to schools
– The classes covered.30 and .50 caliber machine guns, pistol, map reading, care of personal equipment, military courtesy, and training in tactics.
– 11:30 the soldiers stopped what they were doing and cleaned up
– Noon – lunch
– 1:00 P.M. – attended the various schools which they had been assigned
–  mechanics, tank driving, radio operating. The classes lasted for 13 weeks
– Robert attended cook’s school and became A Company’s mess sergeant
– 4:30 P.M. – the soldiers called it a day and returned to their barracks and put on dress uniforms
– 5:00 – retreat
– 5:30 – dinner
– stood in line to wash their mess kits since they had no mess hall
– A Company’s meals were served in D Company’s mess hall
– its mess hall was finished in December
– after dinner, they were off duty
– the men could go to one of the three movie theaters on the outpost
– they also sat around and talked
– as the weather got warmer, the men tried to play baseball as often as possible in the evenings
– 9:00 P.M. – lights out
– but they did not have to turn in
– 10:00 – Taps was played
– the battalion had 16 operational tanks
– January 1941 — the first men from selective service were assigned to the company – – 10 January 1941 – these men took their first tank ride
– all of them had the chance to drive the tanks
– March – they would permanently join the company
– free time during the week
Weekends
– men with passes frequently went to Louisville which was 35 miles north of the fort – – others went to Elizabethtown sixteen miles south of the fort
– those men still on the base used the dayroom to read since it was open until 11:00 P.M.
– February – Capt Walter Write commanded a composite tank company made of men from all the companies of the battalion
– the company left Ft. Knox on a problematic move at  9:00 A.M.
– the company consisted of three motorcycles, two scout cars, sixteen tanks, one ambulance, and supply, fuel, and kitchen trucks
– the route was difficult and chosen so that the men could become acquainted with their equipment
– they also had to watch out for simulated enemy planes
– bridges were avoided whenever it was possible to ford the water.
– at noon, the column stopped for a short rest but lunch that did not materialize
– A guide had failed to stay at one of the crossings until the kitchen truck arrived there
– instead of turning into the woods, the truck went straight
– after the break, Capt. Write ordered the men back to Ft. Knox without having been fed
– late March 1941
– the entire battalion was moved to new barracks at Wilson Road and Seventh Avenue
– the barracks had bathing and washing facilities in them and a day room
– the new kitchens had larger gas ranges, automatic gas heaters, large pantries, and attached mess halls
– one reason for this move was the men from selective service were permanently joining the battalion
– 16 June 1941 – the battalion was broken into four detachments for a three-day tactical road march
– the most important part of this march was to train the soldiers in loading, unloading, and setting up the battalion’s administrative camps
– the battalion traveled with 20 tanks, 20 motorcycles, 7 armored scout cars, 5 jeeps, 12 peeps (later called jeeps), 20 large 2½ ton trucks (these carried the
   battalion’s garages for vehicle repair),
 5, 1½ ton trucks (which were the battalion’s kitchens), and 1 ambulance. The battalion traveled through Bardstown
   and Springfield before arriving at Harrodsburg at 2:30 P.M. where they set up their bivouac at the fairgrounds. The next morning, they moved to
   Herrington Lake east of Danville, where the men swam, boated, and fished. The battalion returned to Ft. Knox on Wednesday, June 18th through Lebanon,
   New Haven, and Hodgenville, Kentucky.
– it also prepared them for the Louisiana maneuvers which they were scheduled to take part in during September
Louisiana Maneuvers
– in the late summer of 1941
– the battalion took part in maneuvers from September 1 through 30
– the entire battalion was loaded onto trucks and sent in a convoy to Louisiana
– the tanks and wheeled vehicles were sent by train
– when they arrived they lived in tents
– snake bites were a major problem
– it appeared that every other man was bitten at some point by a snake
– the tank platoon commanders carried a snakebit kit
– they were used to create a vacuum to suck the poison out of the bite
– the bites were the result of the nights cooling down
– the snakes crawled under the soldiers’ bedrolls for warmth while the soldiers were sleeping
– one multicolored snake – about eight inches long –  was beautiful to look at, but if it bit a man he was dead
– the good thing was that these snakes would not just strike at the man
– they only struck if the man forced himself on it
– when the soldiers woke up in the morning they would carefully pick up their bedrolls to see if there were any snakes under them
– to avoid being bitten, men slept on the two and a half-ton trucks or on or in the tanks
– another trick the soldiers learned was to dig a small trench around their tents and lay rope in the trench
– the burs on the rope kept the snakes from entering the tents
– the snakes were not a problem if the night was warm
– they also had a problem with the wild hogs in the area
– at night while the men were sleeping, they would suddenly hear hogs squealing
– the hogs would run into the tents pushing on them until they took them down and dragged them away
– the food was also not very good since the air was always damp 
– this made it hard to get a fire started
– many of their meals were C ration meals of beans or chili that they choked down
– washing clothes was done when the men had a chance
– found a creek, looked for alligators, and if there were none, took a bar of soap and scrubbing whatever they were washing
– clothes were usually washed once a week or once every two weeks
– the tanks held defensive positions during the maneuvers
– usually were held in reserve by the higher headquarters
– the tanks were used to counter-attack and in support of infantry and held defensive positions for the first time
– some men felt that the tanks were finally being used like they should be used and not as “mobile pillboxes.” 
– some men described the maneuvers as being awakened at 4:30 A.M. and sent to an area to engage an imaginary enemy
– after engaging the enemy, the tanks withdrew to another area
– the crews had no idea what they were doing most of the time because they were never told anything by the higher-ups
– a number of men felt that they just rode around in their tanks a lot
– at Ft. Knox, the tankers were taught that they should never attack an anti-tank gun head-on
– one day, during the maneuvers, their commanding general threw away the entire battalion doing just that
– after sitting out a period of time, the battalion resumed the maneuvers
– at some point, the battalion also went from fighting in the Red Army to fighting for the Blue Army
– the sandy soil was a major problem for the tanks
– crews parked their tanks and walked away
– when they returned, the tanks had sunk into the soil up to their hauls
– to get them out, other tanks attempted to pull them out
– if that didn’t work, the tankers brought a tank wrecker in from Camp Polk to pull the tank out
– one good thing that came out of the maneuvers was that the tank crews learned how to move at night
– it was never done at Ft. Knox
– the night movements prepared them for what they would do in the Philippines
– the drivers learned how to drive at night and to take instructions from their tank commanders who had a better view from the turret
– at night a number of motorcycle riders from other tank units were killed
– they rode their bikes without headlights on
– this meant they could not see obstacles in front of their bikes
– when they hit something they fell to the ground and the tanks following them went over them
– this happened several times before the motorcycle riders were ordered to turn on their headlights
– the battalion was ordered to Camp Polk, Louisiana, after the maneuvers
– on the side of a hill, the soldiers learned they were being sent overseas
– men who were married or 29 years old, or older, were allowed to resign from federal service
– replacements came from the 753rd Tank Battalion
– the 192nd also got the 753rd’s tanks and half-tracks
– most men were given a 10-day furlough home to take care of unfinished business and say goodbye to family and friends
– when they returned to Camp Polk, they found themselves, once again, living in tents
– during their time there, it rained a great deal of the time
– the men always seemed to be wet and went over a week without taking a shower
Overseas Duty:
– two stories why the 192nd was being sent overseas
First Story: this move was caused by an event that took place in the summer of 1941
– A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf
– one of the pilots noticed something odd
– he took his plane down and identified a buoy, with a flag, in the water
– he came upon more flagged buoys
– they lined up – in a straight line – for 30 miles to the northwest,
– lined up in the direction of a Taiwan hundreds of miles away.
– the island had a large radio transmitter 
– the squadron continued its flight plan
– flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field
– when the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
– the next day planes were sent to the area
– the buoys had been picked up 
– a fishing boat was seen making its way toward shore
– it had a tarp covering something on its deck
– communication between the planes and the Navy was poor
– nothing was done to intercept the boat
– the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines
Second Story:
– the battalion had done extremely well during the Louisana maneuvers
– they were picked to go overseas by Gen. George Patton
– he had commanded their tanks during the maneuvers
– the is no proof he had picked them
Fact: The United States was building up its military presence in the Philippines
– many units were being sent there
First Tank Group
– the unit was fully operational by early June 1941
– 192nd Light Tank Battalion was part of the tank group
– 193rd Light Tank Battalion, at Ft. Benning, Georgia, was also in the tank group
– 194th Light Tank Battalion at Ft. Lewis, Washington, was also in the tank group
– two medium tank battalions were in the tank group
– 71st Tank Battalion and 191st Tank Battalion – both were at Ft. Meade, Maryland
– a heavy tank battalion was also supposed to join the tank group
– none was ever selected
–  it appears that the decision to send the tank group to the Philippines had been made before June 1941
– only the 192nd and 194th had arrived before the start of the Pacific War
– the 193rd was on its way when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor
– after arriving in Hawaii, it was held there
– the 71st and 191st never received orders to the Philippines 
Deployment:
– battalion traveled by train, over four different train routes to San Francisco, California
– each train was followed by a second train that each companies’ tanks
– taken to Angel Island in San Francisco Bay by the ferry the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
– October 25 & 26 – physicals were given by the battalion’s medical detachment
– some men released and replaced
– others held back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date
– Boarded: U.S.S. General H. L. Scott – Monday – 27 October 1941
– Sailed: same day
– Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii – Sunday – Sunday – 2 November 1941
– arrived in the morning
– they had a four-day layover
– soldiers receive shore leave
– Sailed: Thursday – 6 November 1941
– took a southern route away from main shipping lanes
– joined by the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and the transport, U.S.A.T. President Calvin Coolidge
– smoke was seen on the horizon
– Louisville revved its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it intercepted the ship
– the ship was from a neutral country
– Sunday – 9 November 1941 – crossed International Dateline
– soldiers woke up on Tuesday – 11 November 1941
– Arrived: Guam
– shiploads vegetables, bananas, water, coconuts put on the ship
– Sailed: next day
– Arrived: Manila, Philippine Islands – Thursday – 20 November 1941
– entered bay – 8:00 A.M.
– disembarked in the afternoon
– tanks unloaded by 17th Ordnance
– battalion rode buses to Fort Stotsenburg
Stationed:
– Ft. Stotsenburg
– Gen. Edward King greeted them
– Their Thanksgiving Dinner was a stew thrown into their mess kits
– lived in tents between the fort and Clark Field
– the tents were ragged WWI tents
– bivouac was at the end of a runway used by B-17s
– when the planes flew over the noise and flying dirt was unbelievable
– at night they heard Japanese reconnaissance planes flying over
– the lucky man was the one who washed near a faucet with running water
Work Day:
– 5:15 A. M. – reveille
– washing – the lucky man washed by a faucet with running water
– 6:00 A.M. – breakfast
– 7:00 to 11:30 A.M. 
– Noon – lunch
– 1:30 to 2:30 P.M. – worked
– the shorter afternoon work period was based on the belief that the climate made it too hot to work
– the tankers worked until 4:30 P.M.
– the term “recreation in the motor pool” was used for this work time
– term came from 194th Tank Battalion
– the tankers cleaned the cosmoline from the tanks’ guns
– also loaded ammunition belts
– 5:10 – dinner
– after dinner, the soldiers were free to do what they wanted to do
Recreation:
– the soldiers spent their free time bowling, going to the movies,
– they also played horseshoes, softball, badminton, or threw a football around
– on Wednesday afternoons, they went swimming 
– men were allowed to go to Manila in small groups
Uniforms:
– the battalion wore fatigues to do the work on the tanks
– the soldiers were reprimanded for not wearing dress uniforms 
– they continued to wear fatigues in their barracks area to do their work
– if the soldiers left the battalion’s area, they were expected to wear dress uniforms
Alert:
– 1 December 1941
– tanks ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field
– two tank crew members had to stay with the tanks at all time
– 194th guarded the north end of the airfield and the 192nd Tank Battalion guarded the south end
– meals served to men at the tanks by food trucks
– those not assigned to a tank or half-track remained at the command post
Engagements:
– Battle of Luzon
– 8 December 1941 – 6 January 1942
– tank battalions last units to disengage from the Japanese during withdrawal to Bataan
– 12 December 1941 – Barrio of Dau
– guarded a road and railway
– 23/24 December 1941
– Urdaneta. Pangatian Province
– while outside barrio the company’s commander Captain Walter Write was killed
– the tanks were not allowed to withdraw, they almost were captured
– tanks made an end run to a bridge in the Bayambang Province over the Agno River
– 25 December 1941 – tanks held the south bank of Agno River from Carmen to Taehyung
– held the position until 5:30 A.M. until December 27
– prevented the Japanese from crossing
– 30 December 1941
– A Company wiped out a Japanese Bicycle Battalion that rode into its bivouac at night
– the company had bivouacked on both sides of a road
– a noise was heard – the tankers grabbed Tommy-guns and stood behind their tanks
– as they watched the bicycle battalion rode into their bivouac
– the tankers opened up with everything they had
– when they ceased fire, the entire battalion had been wiped out
– A Company attached to 194th – east of Pampanga
– withdrew from the area
– 2nd Lt. William Read killed during withdraw
– Battle of Bataan – 7 January 1942 – 9 April 1942
– 27 December 1941 -at Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan
– 28 and 29 December 1941 – at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan 
– 31 December/January 1 – the tanks were stationed on both sides of the Calumpit Bridge 
– received conflicting orders, from Gen. MacArthur’s chief of staff, about whose command they were under
– ordered to withdraw from the bridge
-they were attempting to stop the Japanese advance down Route 5 
– this would allow the Southern Luzon Forces to enter Bataan
– General Wainwright was unaware of the orders
– the orders caused confusion among the Filipinos and American forces defending the bridges
– about half the defenders withdrew
– due to the efforts of the Self Propelled Mounts, the 71st Field Artillery, and a frenzied attack by the 192nd Tank Battalion the Japanese were halted
– 2 January to 4 January – the 192nd held the road open from San Fernando to Dinalupihan so the southern forces could escape
– at 2:30 A.M., the night of January 5/6, the Japanese attacked at Remedios in force and using smoke as cover
– The attack was an attempt to destroy the tank battalions
– at 5:00 A.M., the Japanese withdrew having suffered heavy casualties
– January 6/7 – that night the tanks withdrew into the peninsula 
– the 192nd held its position so that the 194th could leapfrog past it and cross the bridge
– the 194th covered the 192nd’s withdrawal over the bridge
– the 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan before the engineers blew up the bridge at 6:00 A.M.
– The next day, the battalion was between Culo and Hermosa
– assigned a road to enter Bataan on which was worse than having no road
– the half-tracks kept throwing their rubber tracks
– the members of 17th Ordnance assigned to each battalion had to re-track them in dangerous situations
– after daylight, Japanese artillery fire was landing all around the tanks.
– A composite tank company was formed, the next day, under the command of Capt. Donald Hanes, B Co.
– its job was to protect the East Coast Road north of Hermosa and keep it open 
– it was also to stop Japanese tanks attempting to use the road to overrun the next defensive line that was forming
– while in this position, the tanks were under constant enemy artillery fire
– the rest of the tanks were ordered to bivouac south of the Abucay-Hacienda Road
– word came that a bridge was going to be blown up, all the tanks were ordered out of the area, including the composite company
– this could have resulted in a catastrophe, but the Japanese did not take advantage of the situation
– the tanks bivouacked south of the Pilar-Bagac Road and about two kilometers from the East Coast Road
– almost one month since the tank crews had a rest and the tanks had maintenance work done on them by 17th Ordnance
– most of the tank tracks had worn down to the bare metal
– the radial engines were long past their 400-hour overhauls

It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver: “Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal. If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay.”

– 25 January 1942 – the battalions were sent to cover the junctions of the Back Road and East Road with the Abucay-Hacienda Road
– the 45th Infantry, Philippine Scouts, fought its way to the position at 3:00 A.M.
— one tank platoon was sent to the front of the column of trucks which were loading the troops
– the tanks provided heavy fire so that the infantry could withdraw
– inflicted heavy losses on the Japanese
– Later on January 25, both the 192nd and 194th held a defensive line on the Bakanga-Cardre-BaniBani Roads
– the withdrawal was completed at midnight
– the tanks held the position until the next night
– 26/27 January 1942 – they dropped back to a new defensive line roughly along the Pilar-Bagac Roads.
– ordered to withdraw to the new line
– the 192nd found that the bridge at Balanga had been destroyed by enemy fire
– to withdraw, they had to used secondary roads to get around the barrio
– tanks were still straggling in at noon the next day
– The Battle of the Points
– on the west coast of Bataan
– Japanese troops  landed ended up trapped
– Gunawan-Aglaloma point from January 22 to February 8
– Sililam-Anyasan point from January 27 to February 13
– the defenders successfully eliminated the points 
– drove their tanks along the Japanese defensive line firing their machine guns
– the Japanese had dug “spider holes” among the roots of the trees
– made it hard to eliminate foxholes
– the tankers could not get a good shot at the Japanese
– The 45th Infantry, Philippine Scouts followed the tanks eliminating any resistance – – drove the Japanese Marines over the edge of the cliffs
– they hid in caves
– the tanks fired into the caves killing or forcing them out of them and into the sea
– 27 January 1942
– tanks held the position for six hours to allow a new line of defense to form
– tanks and self-propelled mounts inflict 50% casualties on three Japanese units
– 28 January 1942 – beach duty
– prevented the Japanese from landing troops on Bataan
– The 192nd was assigned the coastline from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan’s east coast
– the battalion’s half-tracks were used to patrol the roads
– Battle of the Pockets
– 23 January 1942 – 17 February 1942
– wiped out Japanese troops cut off behind the main line of defense
– used two methods to do this
– one was to have three Filipinos ride on the back of a tank
– each man had a sack of grenades and dropped one into the foxhole when the tank went over it
– usually one of the three grenades exploded
– the second method was to park the tank with one track over the foxhole
– the driver gave power to the opposite track
– the tank went around in a circle dragging the unpowered track
– the unpowered track ground into the dirt
– the tankers slept upwind of their tanks
– they did not want to smell rotting flesh
– the Japanese sent soldiers with cans of gasoline against the tanks
– they attempted to jump onto the tanks and pour gasoline into the vents on the back of the tanks
– attempted to set the tanks on fire
– the tankers tried to machine-gun the Japanese before they got to a tank
– the other tanks would shoot them as they stood on a tank
– they did not like to do this because of what it did to the crew inside the tank
– when the bullets hit the tank, its rivets popped and wounded the men inside the tank
– the stress on the crews was tremendous
– the tanks rotated into the pocket one at a time
– a tank entered the pocket
– the next tank waited for the tank that had been relieved to exit the pocket before it would enter
– this was repeated until all the tanks in the pocket were relieved
– one C Company tank which had gone beyond the American perimeter was disabled and the tank just sat there
– when the sun came up the next day, the tank was still sitting there
– during the night, its crew was suffocated inside the tank, by the Japanese.
– they through dirt openings into the tank
– after the Japanese had been wiped out, the tank was turned on its side
– the crewmen were removed and dirt emptied out of the tank
– the tank was put back into use
– the battalion received one of its Distinguished Unit Citation for its performance during the battle
– 1 March 1942
– rations were cut in half again
– the soldiers ate anything they could get their hands on to eat
– Carabao was tough but if it was cooked long enough it could be eaten
– the Japanese also were dropping surrender leaflets with a scantily clad blond on them
– a leaflet with a hamburger and milkshake would have been more effective
– the amount of gasoline in was reduced to 15 gallons a day for all vehicles except the tanks
– Gen. Weaver suggested to Gen. Wainwright that a platoon of tanks should be sent to Corregidor
– Wainwright declined
Hospitalized:
– at some point, Robert was hospitalized at Hospital #2, Cabcaben
– it is not known if he had been wounded or suffering from malaria or dysentery
– when he was released from the hospital is not known but he returned to his company before the surrender
– 3 April 1942
– Japanese launch new offensive
– tanks sent into various sectors to stop the Japanese advance
– 6 April 1942
– four tanks sent to support the 45th Philippine Infantry and 75th Infantry, Philippine Scouts
– one tank knocked out by anti-tank fire at the junction of Trails 8 & 6
– other tanks covered withdraw
– near Mt. Samat ran into heavy Japanese force
– the tanks withdrew to Marivales
– 8 April 1942
– Gen. Edward P. King decided that further resistance was futile since approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight
– he estimated they would last one more day
– In addition, he had over 6,000 troops who sick or wounded and 40,000 civilians who he feared would be massacred
– His troops were on one-quarter rations, and even at that ration, he had two days of food left.
– 6:30 P.M. – order went out. “You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word ‘CRASH’, all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished.”
– 10:30 P.M. – the decision was made to send a white flag across the battle line
– 11:00 P.M. – the company is given a half-hour to leave the ordnance depot before the ammunition dumps are destroyed
– 11:40 P.M. – ammunition dumps were blown up
– Midnight – B and D Companies and A Co. 194th were ordered to stand down
– At 2:oo A.M. April 9, Gen. King sent a jeep under a white flag carrying Colonel Everett C. Williams, Col. James V. Collier, and Major Marshall Hurt to meet
   with the Japanese commander about terms of surrender.
 – The white flag was bedding from A Company, 192nd Tank Battalion
– Shortly after daylight Collier and Hunt returned with word of the appointment
– the tankers received this message over their radios at 6:45 A.M. on 9 April 1942
– circled tanks and fired an armor-piercing shell into each tank’s engine
– opened gasoline cocks and dropped grenades into the crew compartment
– as King left to negotiate the surrender, he went through the area held by B company and spoke to them
– he told them, “Boys. I’m going to get us the best deal I can. When you get home, don’t ever let anyone say to you, you surrendered. I was the one who surrendered.”
– Gen. King with his two aides, Maj. Cothran and Captain Achille C. Tisdelle Jr. got into a jeep carrying a large white flag
– They were followed by another jeep – also flying another large white flag – with Col. Collier and Maj. Hurt in it
– As the jeeps made their way north they were strafed and small bombs were dropped by a Japanese plane
– The drivers of both jeeps and the jeeps were provided by the tank group and both men managed to avoid the bullets
– The strafing ended when a Japanese reconnaissance plane ordered the fighter pilot to stop strafing
– About 10:00 A.M. the jeeps reached Lamao where they were received by a Japanese Major General who informed King that he reported his coming to
   negotiate a surrender and that an officer from the Japanese command would arrive to do the negotiations
– The Japanese officer also told him that his troops would no attack for thirty minutes while King decided what he would do
– After a half-hour, no Japanese officer had arrived from their headquarters and the Japanese attack had resumed.
– King sent Col. Collier and Maj. Hunt back to his command with instructions that any unit in line with the Japanese advance should fly white flags
– Shortly after this was done a Japanese colonel and interpreter arrived.
– King was told the officer was Homma’s Chief of Staff and he had come to discuss
   King’s surrender
– King attempted to get insurances from the Japanese that his men would be treated as prisoners of war, but the Japanese officer – through his interpreter
– he was accused of declining to surrender unconditionally
– At one point King stated he had enough trucks and gasoline to carry his troops out of Bataan
– He was told that the Japanese would handle the movement of the prisoners
– The two men talked back and forth until the colonel said through the interpreter, “The Imperial Japanese Army are not barbarians.”
– King found no choice but to accept him at his word
6:45 A.M. – the order “CRASH” was sent for equipment to be destroyed
Prisoner of War:
– 9 April 1942
– Prisoner of War
– the March
– remained in bivouac until the Japanese made contact with them
– ordered to Mariveles
– Mariveles – POWs started the march at the southern tip of Bataan
– POWs ran past Japanese artillery firing at Corregidor
– the Japanese guards only walked a predetermined distance
–  to finish faster they made the POW move at a faster pace
– Americans on Corregidor returned fire
– Filipinos put containers of water along the sides of the road
– the POWs could scoop the water into their canteens without stopping
– the water saved many lives
– the POWs put into a metal building
– sat in human waste
– they received their first food
– San Fernando – POWs put into small wooden boxcars
– boxcars were known as “forty or eights”
– each boxcar could hold eight horses or forty men
– 100 POWs packed into each car
– POWs who died remained standing since they could not fall to the floors
– Capas – the dead fell to the floors as living left boxcars
– POWs walked the last ten miles to Camp O’Donnell
POW Camps:
– Philippine Islands:
Camp O’Donnell
– 1 April 1942 – unfinished Filipino training base Japanese put into use as a POW camp
– Japanese believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs
– POWs searched upon arrival at camp
– those found with Japanese money were accused of looting
– sent to the guardhouse
– over several days, gunshots heard southeast of the camp
– POWs who had money on them had been executed
– Japanese took away any extra clothing from POWs as they entered the camp and refused to return it
– since no water was available to wash clothing, the POWs threw soiled clothing away
– clothing was taken from dead
Hospital
– few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing
– POWs were not allowed to bathe
– only one water spigot for the entire camp
– POWs waited 2½ hours to 8 hours to get a drink
– water frequently turned off by Japanese guards and the next man in line waited as long as 4 hours for the water to be turned on again
– the POWs dug a trench, found the pipe, and added a second water line
– the Japanese turned it off when they wanted water
– unknown to them, the POWs could turn the water on again
– mess kits could not be cleaned
– POWs had to carry water 3 miles from a river to cook their meals
Food:
 – three meals a day which were mainly rice
– breakfast, they were fed a half cup of soupy rice and occasionally some type of coffee
– lunch each day was a half of a mess kit of steamed rice and a half cup of sweet potato soup
– dinner was the same meal
– all meals were served outside regardless of the weather
–  the food had improved a little with the issuing of a little wheat flour, some native beans, and a small issue of coconut oil
– About once every ten days, 3 or 4 small calves were brought into the camp
– when meat was given out, there was only enough for one-fourth of the POWs 
– each received a piece that was an inch square
– camote – a native potato was given to the POWs
– most were rotten and thrown out
– the POWs had to post guards to prevent other POWs from eating them
– Black Market and POWs who had money could buy a small can of fish from the guards for $5.00.
Barracks:
– the barracks could hold 40 men
– 80 to 120 POWs were in each one
– this contributed to the spread of disease
– men slept on the ground under the barracks
– the ranking American officer was slapped after asking for building materials to repair the buildings
– slit trenches overflowed since many of the POWs had dysentery
– flies were everywhere including in camp kitchens and food
– the camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant
– the senior POW doctor wrote a list of medicines he wanted to treat the sick and was told by the camp commandant, Capt. Yoshio Tsuneyoshi, never to
  write another letter
– Tsuneyoshi said that all he wanted to know about the American POWs were their names and numbers when they died
– refused to allow a truckload of medicine sent by the Archbishop of Manila into the camp
– 95% of the medicine sent by the Philippine Red Cross was taken by the Japanese for their own use
– POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow
– operations on POWs were performed with mess kit knives
– only one medic out of six medics – assigned to care for 50 sick POWs in the hospital – was well enough to work
– as many as 50 POWs died each day
– each morning dead were found everywhere in the camp and stacked up under the hospital
– the dead were moved to one area
– the ground under the hospital was scraped and covered with lime to clean it
– the dead were moved to the cleaned area and the area where they had lain was scraped and covered with lime
– usually, the dead were not buried for two or three days
– at one point 80 bodies lay under the hospital
– work details: if a POW could walk, he was sent out on a work detail
– POWs on burial detail often had dysentery and malaria
– Japanese opened a new POW camp to lower the death rate
– 1 June 1942 – POWs formed detachments of 100 men
– POWs marched out the gate and marched toward Capas
– Filipino people gave POWs small bundles of food
– the guards did not stop them
– At Capas, the POWs were put into steel boxcars and rode the boxcars to Manila
– the train stopped at Calumpit and switched onto the line to Cabanatuan
– POWs disembarked the train at 6:00 P.M. and put into a schoolyard
– fed rice and onion soup
Scrap Metal Detail – San Fernando
– POWs tied disabled vehicles together with ropes and tied a rope to an operating vehicle
– POWs steered each vehicle as they were pulled to San Fernando or Caloocan
– at the barrios, POWs attempted to get the vehicles running
– if they did get them running, the vehicles were sent to the Bachrach Garage for more repairs
– vehicles that would not run were stripped of spare parts and sent to Manila 
– there, they were crushed and loaded into ships as scrap metal
– Robert became ill and sent to the hospital
– Bilibid Hospital
– admitted: 10 October 1942
– suffered from dysentery and malaria
– discharged – not known
– In May 1942, his family received this letter from the War Department.

“Dear Mrs. E. Kubly:

        “According to War Department records, you have been designated as the emergency addressee of Private First Class Robert C. Kubly, 20,645,206, who, according to the latest information available, was serving in the  Philippine Islands at the time of the final surrender. 

        “I deeply regret that it is impossible for me to give you more information than is contained in this letter.  In the last days before the surrender of Bataan, there were casualties which were not reported to the War Department.  Conceivably the same is true of the surrender of Corregidor and possibly other islands of the Philippines.  The Japanese Government has indicated its intention of conforming to the terms of the Geneva Convention with respect to the interchange of information regarding prisoners of war.  At some future date, this Government will receive through Geneva a list of persons who have been taken prisoners of war.  Until that time the War Department cannot give you positive information. 

        “The War Department will consider the persons serving in the Philippine Islands as “missing in action” from the date of surrender of Corregidor, May 7, 1942, until definite information to the contrary is received.  It is to be hoped that the Japanese Government will communicate a list of prisoners of war at an early date.  At that time you will be notified by this office in the event that his name is contained in the list of prisoners of war.   In the case of persons known to have been present in the Philippines and who are not reported to be prisoners of war by the Japanese Government, the War Department will continue to carry them as “missing in action” in the absence of information to the contrary, until twelve months have expired.  At the expiration of twelve months and in the absence of other information the War Department is authorized to make a final determination.

        “Recent legislation makes provision to continue the pay and allowances of persons carried in a “missing” status for a period not to exceed twelve months;  to continue, for the duration of the war, the pay and allowances of persons known to have been captured by the enemy; to continue allotments made by missing personnel for a period of twelve months and allotments or increase allotments made by persons by the enemy during the time they are so held;  to make new allotments or increase allotments to certain dependents defined in Public Law 490, 77th Congress.  The latter dependents generally include the legal wife, dependent children under twenty-one years of age and dependent mother, or such dependents as having been designated in official records.  Eligible dependents who can establish a need for financial assistance and are eligible to receive this assistance the amount allotted will be deducted from pay which would otherwise accrue to the credit of the missing individual.

                                                                                                                                                                    “Very Truly yours

                                                                                                                                                                            J. A. Ulio (signed) 
                                                                                                                                                                       Major General
                                                                                                                                                                   The Adjutant General”
 

In July 1942, the family received a second letter. The following is an excerpt from it.

“The last report of casualties received by the War Department from the Philippines arrived early in the morning of May 6. Through this date, PFC Robert C. Kubly had not been reported as a casualty. The War Department will consider the persons serving in the Philippine Islands as “missing in action” from the date of the surrender of Corregidor, May 7, until definite information to the contrary is received. “Efforts to secure prisoner of war lists from the Philippines have not been successful to this date due to the lack of communication and the fact that the Japanese Government has not yet given permission for the Swiss representative and the International Red Cross delegates to make visits to prisoner of war camps in the islands. When the lists of prisoners are received, we will clear the name of your son and send you any additional information that we may have.”

– 10 October 1942 – admitted to Naval Hospital at Bilibid Prison
– admitted to Ward 8 – Bilibid Prison
– malaria
– Discharged: 17 May 1943
– sent to Cabanatuan
– Cabanatuan #1
– original name – Camp Pangatian
– Philippine Army Base built for the 91st Philippine Army Division
– 1 June 1941 – put into use by the Japanese as a POW camp
– actually three camps
– Camp 1: POWs from Camp O’Donnell sent there in an attempt to lower the death rate
– Camp 2: two miles away
– all POWs moved from there because of a lack of water
– later used for Naval POWs
– Camp 3: six miles from Camp 2
– POWs from Corregidor and from hospitals sent there
– camp created to keep Corregidor POWs separated from Bataan POWs
– Corregidor POWs were in better shape
– 30 October 1942 – POWs from Camp 3 consolidated into Camp 1
– Camp Administration:
– the Japanese left POWs to run the camp on their own
– Japanese entered camp when they had a reason
– POWs patrolled fence to prevent escapes
– Note: men who attempted to escape were recaptured
– Japanese beat them for days
– executed them
– Blood Brother Rule
– POWs put into groups of ten
– if one escaped the others would be executed
– housed in the same barracks
– worked on details together
– Barracks:
– each barracks held 50 men
– often held between 60 and 120 men
– slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, and mosquito netting
– diseases spread easily
– no showers
– Meals
– Rice was the main food given to the POWs
– fed to them as “lugow” which meant “wet rice”
– the rice smelled and appeared to have been swept up off the floor
– the other problem was that the men assigned to be cooks had no idea of how to prepare the rice
– they had no experience in cooking it
– during their time in the camp, they received few vegetables and almost no fruit
– once in a while, the POWs received corn to serve to the prisoners
– from the corn, the cooks would make hominy
– the prisoners were so hungry that some men would eat the corn cobs
– this resulted in many men being taken to the hospital 
– the cobs removed because they would not pass through the men’s bowels
– sometimes they received bread
– if they received fish it was rotten and covered with maggots
– To supplement their diets, the men would search for grasshoppers, rats, and dogs to eat
– the POWs assigned to handing out the food used a sardine can to assure that each man received the same amount
– they were closely watched by their fellow prisoners
– they wanted to make sure that everyone received the same portion and that no one received extra rice
– Morning Roll Call:
– stood at attention
– frequently beaten over their heads for no reason
– when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in their shins with their
  hobnailed boots because they didn’t like the way the POWs lined up
– Work Details:
– Two main details
– the rice paddies and airfield
– work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens and plant rice
– they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
– POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on
– the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
– if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn’t doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
– Airfield Detail:
– Japanese built an airfield for fighters
– POWs cut grass, removed dirt, and leveled ground
– at first moved dirt in wheelbarrows
– later pushed mining cars
– Guards:
– Air Raid
– in charge
– usually fair but unpredictable
– had to watch him
– Donald Duck
– always talking
– sounded like the cartoon character
– unpredictable – beat POWs
– POWs told him that Donald Duck was a big American movie star
– at some point, he saw a Donald Duck cartoon
– POWs stayed away from him when he came back to camp
– Work Day: 7:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
– worked 6 days a week
– had Sunday off
– Other Details:
– work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens and plant rice
– they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
– POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on to drive them deeper into the mud
– the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
– if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn’t doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
– many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
– Burial Detail
– POWs worked in teams of four
– carried 4 to 6 dead to the cemetery at a time in litters
– a grave contained from 15 to 20 bodies
– daily POW meal
– 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn
– rice was the main staple, few vegetables or fruits
– Camp Hospital:
– 30 Wards
– each ward could hold 40 men
– frequently had 100 men in each
– two tiers of bunks
– sickest POWs on the bottom tier
– each POW had a 2 foot by 6-foot area to lie in
– Zero Ward
– given the name, because it had been missed when counting wards
– became the ward where those who were going to die were sent
– fenced off from other wards
– Japanese guards would not go near it
– POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving
– medical staff had little to no medicine to treat sick
– many deaths from disease caused by malnutrition
– went out on work detail
– 14 October 1942 – Japanese claimed food rations improved
– 550 grams of rice, 100 grams of meat, 330 grams of vegetables, 20 grams of fat, 20 grams of sugar, 15 grams of salt, and 1 gram of tea
– at some point, 50 grams of mongo beans replaced some of the rice
– sick POWs also received an additional 50 grams of meat
– Meals were actually
– wet rice and rice coffee for breakfast
– Pechi green soup and rice for lunch
– Mongo bean soup, Carabao meat, and rice for dinner
– 4 November 1942 – 1300 POWs selected to be sent to Japan
– Japanese issued each man 1 pair of shoes, 1 undershirt, and 1 blue denim uniform
– told to put on their best clothing
– marched to a ball field
– told to remove clothing and issued Japanese clothing
– 11 November 1942 – deep latrines dug in camp
– at least 18 feet deep
– 12 November 1942 – Fr. Bruttenbruck – a German Catholic priest brought packages for POWs and medicine
– 15 November 1942 – 100 POWs worked in the hospital area of the camp
– cut grass, dug drainage ditches, dug latrines, dug sump holes
– 20 November 1942 – Pvt. Donald K. Russell – left camp at 9:30 P.M.
– got past guards
– at 12:30 A.M. – caught trying to reenter the camp
– had a large bag of canned goods
– 21 November 1942 -12:30 P.M. – he was shot
– 23 November 1942 – Farm Detail
– Japanese wanted 750 healthy POWs for farm work 
– wanted to get the farm started
– there were only 603 healthy officers and enlisted men in the camp
– from this time on, they wanted 1000 men daily for the details
– POWs cleared land and grew camotes, cassava, taro, sesame, and various greens
– Japanese took what was grown
– Guards:
– Big Speedo – spoke little English
– in charge of the detail
– fair in his treatment of POWs
– spoke little English
– to get POWs to work faster said, “speedo”
– Little Speedo
– also used “speedo” when he wanted POWs to work faster
– he punished the POWs by making them kneel on stones
– Smiley
– a Korean guard
– always smiling
– could not be trusted
– meanest of guards
– 16 November 1942 – Cpl. Peter Lanianuskas shot while attempting to escape
– POWs believed he was really executed
– 26 November 1942 – Thanksgiving Day
– POWs did not work because the guards had been out all night chasing guerrillas
– meal – double meat ration and mongo beans
– 28 November 1942 – it was noted the POWs were receiving carabao meat every day
– 850 blankets were also issued, but a large number of men still did not have blankets
– 1 December 1942 – meals:
– breakfast – wet rice and rice coffee for breakfast
– lunch – pichi green soup and rice
– dinner – mongo bean soup with carabao meat and rice
– 12 December 1942 to 19 December 1942 – only 20 POWs died in the camp that week
– 14 December 1942 – Fr. Bruttenbruck – a German Catholic priest brought a truckload of medicine to camp
– turned away because he did not have the correct paperwork
– 19 December 1942 – Red Cross packages arrived in the camp
– POWs were told it was for two months
– 21 December 1942 – 1000 POWs put to work on farm detail and other details
– 200 worked on the farm
– 24 December 1942 – Fr. Bruttenbruck arrived with two trucks of presents for the POWs individual men
– each POW received a gift bag
– Christmas
– each POW received the POWs received 2½ Red Cross boxes
– each box milk in some form, corn beef, fish, stew beef, sugar, meat and vegetable, tea, and chocolate
– the POWs also received bulk corn beef, sugar, meat and vegetables, stew, raisins, dried fruit, and cocoa which they believed would last them three months
– POWs also received packages from Fr. Bruttenbruck
– contained: fish, soap, cigarettes, cigars, and tobacco
– they were given four days off of work
– 11 January 1943 – POWs watched Japanese dive bombers attack a barrio
– it was located 30 kilometers from the camp
– some of the explosions were loud
– heard scuttlebutt that 102 Filipino men, women, and children had been killed during the attack
– also heard a rumor that half of an area on Cabanatuan that had warehouses had been burned down by guerrillas
– in retaliation for the attack
– February 1943 – multiple details left camp
– some details were small while others had 1255 to 1450 POWs on them
– 7 February 1943 – POWs received Christmas telegrams
– 11 February 1943 – POWs watched movies
– Japanese propaganda newsreels and the Marx Brothers movie “Room Service”
– 12 February 1943 – noted that no POW had died in 8 days
– three POWs died the next day
– also ordered all POWs to turn in illegal radios
– 22 February 1943 – Japanese issued blankets to POWs who did not have one
– 3 March 1943 – program started to stop the spread of dysentery
– POWs received two biscuits and some cigarettes for catching flies and rodents
– POWs had caught 320 rats and 12 million flies
– 6 April 1943- two POWs escaped
– had an hour headstart on guards
– other POWs punished by having movies night taken away that night
– the two men were recaptured
– both men were shot outside the POWs’ barracks
– 11 April 1943
– work schedule changed
– 5:30 A.M. – revelle
– 6:00 A.M. – 7:00 A.M. – breakfast
– 10:30 A.M. – returned to camp
– Noon – lunch
– 1:00 P.M. – 6:00 P.M. – work
– 6:30 P.M. – dinner
– 7:00 P.M. – roll call
– 9:00 P.M. – lol call again – lights out
– 14 April 1943 – another POW attempted to escape
– he was on the guard detail to prevent escapes
– caught by Japanese 
– 30 June 1943 – the War Department officially listed him as a Prisoner of War
– his mother had received this news several weeks earlier

REPORT JUST RECEIVED THROUGH THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS STATES THAT YOUR SON PRIVATE FIRST CLASS ROBERT C KUBLY IS A PRISONER OF WAR OF THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT IN PHILIPPINE ISLANDS LETTER OF INFORMATION FOLLOWS FROM THE PROVOST MARSHALL GENERAL=
ULIO THE ADJUTANT GENERAL=

A week or so after this notification, they received a letter from the War Department.

Mrs. E. Kubly
417 Thompson Street
Portage

The Provost Marshal General directs me to inform you that you may communicate with your son, postage free, by following the inclosed instructions:

It is suggested that you address him as follows:

PFC Robert C. Kubly, U.S. Army
Interned in the Philippine Islands
C/O Japanese Red Cross, Tokyo, Japan
Via New York, New York

Packages cannot be sent to the Orient at this time. When transportation facilities are available a package permit will be issued you.

Further information will be forwarded you as soon as it is received.

                                                                                                                                                Sincerely

                                                                                                                                               Howard F. Bresee
                                                                                                                                               Colonel, CMP
                                                                                                                                               Chief Information Bureau

– 11 July 1943 – a POW named Conley escaped
– 11:00 PM, POWs heard a lot of noise
– the next morning the POWs saw his body in the camp morgue
– Conley’s jaw had been crushed as was the top of his skull, his teeth had all been knocked out
– his left leg had been crushed
– he had been bayoneted in the eyes and scrotum
– July 1943 – 500 names posted
– 22 July 1943 – the POWs were issued new shoes, a suit of “Philippine Blues”
– also received – 2 cans of corn beef and 3 cans of milk
– informed they would be taking a 21-day trip
– the detachment left the camp that night
– when they arrived in Manila, they were used in the Japanese propaganda film The Dawn of Freedom
– film supposedly showed how Americans mistreated the Filipinos
– POWS sent to Port Area of Manila and boarded onto the Clyde Maru
– selected for transfer to Japan – September 1943
– sent to Bilibid Prison
Hell Ship:
Taga Maru – ship was also known as Coral Maru
– Sailed: Manila – 20 September 1943
– Arrived: Takao, Formosa – 23 September 1943
– Sailed: Takao – 26 September 1943
– Arrived: Moji, Japan – 5 October 1943
POW Camp:
– Japan:
Sakurajima
– Work: Osaka Iron Works
– the camp was destroyed in the air raid
Nagoya #9
– 29 May 1945 – 5 September 1945
– Work: Stevedores Iwase docks
– Camp had a ten-foot fence around it
– Work:
– POWs worked as stevedores on docks loading and unloading ships
– the workday went from 7:00 A.M.to 6:30 P.M.
– 1 hour for lunch and two half-hour breaks
– when docks were busy, 100 POWs returned at 8:00 P.M. and worked to midnight or 4:00 A.M.
– 100 POWs worked in the camp garden
– Barracks:
– 100 feet long by 24 feet wide
– two tiers of platforms around the perimeter for sleeping
– POWs slept on straw mats
– an eight-foot-wide aisle down the middle of barracks
– floors were dirt
– Meals:
– six POWs assigned to the kitchen
– primarily rice, wheat, and soybeans
– sometimes vegetables like onions or daikons a Japanese beet
– fish that was fried or in a soup
– Clothing:
– provided by the Japanese Army
– many POWs wore Japanese Army uniforms and the traditional Japanese shoe, the geta
– those who still had GI shoes were given leather to repair them
– Work Clothes: straw shoes, hats, raincoats that were used at work
– Work:
– most of the POWs walked three-quarters of a mile and worked on the docks loading and unloading coal, rice, and beans
– worked from 7:30 A.M. until 6:30 P.M.
– received an hour lunch and two half-hour breaks
– when the port was extremely busy, 100 POWs worked from 8:00 P.M. until midnight or 4:00 A.M.
– Punishment:
– collective punishment practiced toward the POWs
– usually involved stealing rice or beans at docks
– on occasion, the POWs were denied coal, during the winter, for 7 days because one POW broke a rule
– on another occasion, 15 POWs were accused of stealing rice from sacks they were unloading from a ship
– when they returned to camp, they were forced to kneel for 1½ to 5 hours to get them to confess
– six of the fifteen men confessed and the remainder were fed and sent to the barracks
– when the camp commandant left at 8:00 P.M. the men sent to their barracks were called outside
– they were ordered to stand at attention and were beaten with pickax handles, rope, that was about 3 inches round and 5 feet long, clubs, and farrison
  belts across their buttocks, faces, and legs
– one POW said he was hit 150 times on his face and 20 times on his buttocks
– POWs often were kicked with hobnailed boots
– POWs who passed out were thrown into a large tub of water – with their hands and feet
   bound – or they had water poured on them to revive them
– when they were revived, they were beaten again
– Red Cross Boxes:
– the Japanese misappropriated the canned meats, canned fruits, cigarettes, medicine, and medical supplies
– also used Red Cross clothing and shoes
– Hospital:
– 42-foot long by 24-foot wide area at the end of barracks was walled off to create one
– had beds for 20 patients
– on average 100 POWs were sick each day
– American doctor, four American medics, and a Japanese medical technician
– the American doctor was a dentist
– pneumonia killed many POWs
– men suffering from dysentery and diarrhea not considered ill and had to work
– beaten with shovels to get them to work
– meal rations cut
– 16 August 1945 – all medical records destroyed
– Burials:
– bodies put in a 4 foot square by two-foot-tall wooden box with handles
– carried to crematorium behind a Buddhist priest, wearing white and gold robes, from the
   local village
– ashes returned to camp in 4-inch square by 12-inch high wooden box
– man’s name and serial number on the box
– given to camp commandant who kept it in his office
– POWs were working when they heard the word that the war was over
– they knew it was true from the looks on the faces of the Japanese
– 5 September 1945 – Swiss Red Cross enter the camp
– 9 September 1945 – liberated
– made contact with American troops
– taken by train to Tokyo docks for processing and medical exams on U.S.S. Rescue
– returned to the Philippines
– His parents received a telegram from the War Department:

“Mr. & Mrs. Kubly: The secretary of war has asked me to inform you that your son, PFC Robert C. Kubly was returned to military control Sept. 4 and is being returned to the United States within the near future. He will be given the opportunity to communicate with you upon his arrival if he has not already done so.

“E. F. Witsell

“Acting Adjutant General of the Army”

Promoted: Sergeant
Sailed: Manila – U.S.S. Yarmouth
Arrived: San Francisco – 8 October 1945
Discharged: 14 May 1946
Married: Josephine Soderstrom
– 27 November 1945 – Rockford, Illinois
Children:
– 1 daughter
– died as infant
– 1 son
Residence:
– moved to California in 1948
Died:
– 7 December 2004 – Ontario, California

Default Gravesite 1

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