Wilson, PFC Frank T.

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PFC Frank Thomas Wilson
Born: 25 October 1908 – Sallisaw, Oklahoma
Mother: James P. Wilson and Alice B. Porter-Wilson 
Siblings: 1 brother 
Home: Mailbox 35, U.S. Highway 101 – Salinas, California 
Married: Eileen Gosney-Wilson 
Occupation: worked in the family’s landscaping business 
Enlisted: California National Guard 
– 2 June 1940 
Selective Service Registration: 16 October 1940
– He did not register since he was in the National Guard
Inducted: 
– U.S. Army 
– 10 February 1941 – Salinas Army Airfield 
Unit:
– C Company, 194th Tank Battalion
Training:
– Fort Lewis, Washington
– described as constantly raining during the winter
– many men ended up in the camp hospital with colds
– Typical Day – after they arrived at Ft. Lewis
– 6:00 A.M. – first call
– 6:30 A.M. – breakfast
– During this time the soldiers made their cots, policed the grounds around the barracks, swept the floors of their barracks, and performed other duties.
– 7:30 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. – drill
– 11:30 A.M. – 1:00 P.M. – lunch
– 1:00 P.M. – 4:30 P.M. – drill
– 5:00 P.M. – retreat
– 5:30 P.M. – dinner
– men were free after this
– a canteen was located near their barracks and was visited often
– the movie theater on the base that they visited.
– The theater where the tanks were kept was not finished, but when it was, the tankers only had to cross the road to their tanks.
– Saturdays the men had off, and many rode a bus 15 miles northeast to Tacoma which was the largest town nearest to the base
– Sundays, many of the men went to church and services were held at different times for the different denominations
Training:
– the battalion went on long reconnaissance with trucks and tanks
– drove all over reservation following maps and learned from observation what the land surrounding the fort looked like
– the purpose was to collect tank data which they would use later
– often had to live off the land
– 30 April 1941 – battalion went on an all-day march
– ate dinner in woods brought to them by the cooks in trucks
– march was two hours one way and covered about 10 miles total
– stopped in an abandoned apple orchard in bloom
– Motorcycles:
– first motorcycles arrived in May 1941
– all battalion members had to learn to ride them
– in early May 1941, the battalion, except men who had been drafted, went on its first overnight bivouac
– the new men did not have shelter halves
– left around noon and returned around noon the next day
Specialized Training:
– some members of the battalion received specific training
– many went to Ft. Knox, Kentucky, for training in tank maintenance, radio operation, and other specific jobs
– those men who remained at Ft. Lewis often found themselves policing the base collecting garbage and distributing coal for the base during the week
– the battalion did most of its tank training on weekends
– member of tank company of Pvt. Marshall Thorp, Sgt. Victor Gosney, Pvt. David Jaramillo
– tank driver
Overseas Duty:
– On August 15, 1941, from Ft. Knox, Kentucky, the 194th received orders for duty in the Philippines because of an event that happened during the summer.
– A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd
– He took his plane down and identified a buoy, with a flag, in the water. He came upon more flagged buoys that lined up – in a straight line – for 30 miles
   to the northwest, in the direction of a Japanese occupied island, with a large radio transmitter, hundreds of miles away.
– The squadron continued its flight plane and flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field. When the planes landed, it was too late to do
   anything that day.
– The next day – when planes were sent to the area – the buoys had been picked up and a fishing boat – with a tarp covering something on its deck – was
    seen making its way toward shore.
– communication between the Air Corps and the Navy was poor, so the boat escaped
– the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines
Deployment:
– 4 September 1941 
– the battalion traveled by train to Ft. Mason in San Francisco, California
– Arrived: 7:30 A.M. – 5 September 1941
– ferried to Ft. McDowell, Angel Island on U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
– given physicals and inoculations
– men with medical conditions replaced
– Ship: S.S. President Calvin Coolidge
– Boarded: Monday – 8 September 1941 – 3:00 P.M.
– Sailed: 9:00 P.M. – same day
– Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii – Saturday – 13 September 1941 – 7:00 A.M.
– Sailed: 5:00 P.M. – same day
– escorted by the heavy cruiser, U.S.S. Astoria, and the U.S.S. Guadalupe a replenishment oiler
– smoke was seen on the horizon several times
– cruiser intercepted ships
– Tuesday – 16 August 1941 – crossed International Dateline
– date changed to – Thursday – 18 August 1941
– Arrived: Manila – Friday – 26 September 1941
– disembark ship – 3:00 P.M.
– taken by bus to Fort Stotsenburg
– maintenance section with 17th ordnance remained behind to unload the tanks and attached turrets
-27 September 1941 – job completed at 9:00 A.M.
Stationed:
– Ft. Stotsenburg
– lived in tents until barracks completed – 15 November 1941
– the barracks walls were open and screened three feet from the bottom of the wall to the floor
– above that, the walls were woven bamboo that allowed the air to pass through
– washing facilities seemed to be limited with the lucky man being able to wash by a faucet with running water
Work Day:
– 5:15 A. M. – reveille
– soldiers washed
– 6:00 A.M. – breakfast
– 7:00 to 11:30 A.M. 
– Noon – lunch
– 1:30 to 2:30 P.M. – worked
– the belief on the base was that it was too hot in the afternoon to work
– the tankers worked until 4:30 P.M.
– this was referred to as “recreation in the motor pool”
– 5:10 – dinner
Recreation:
– the soldiers spent their free time bowling and going to the movies,
– they also played horseshoes, softball, badminton, or threw a football around
– on Wednesday afternoons, they went swimming
– they also went to Mt. Aarayat National Park and swam in the swimming pool there that was filled with mountain water
– men put their names in to be allowed to go to Manila in small groups
– they also went to canoeing at Pagsanjan Falls in their swimsuits
– the country was described as being beautiful
Uniforms:
– the battalion wore coveralls to do the work on the tanks
– the soldiers were reprimanded for not wearing dress uniforms while working
– they continued to wear coveralls in their barracks area to do their work
– if the soldiers left the battalion’s area, they were expected to wear dress uniforms; including going to the PX
Alert:
– 1 December 1941 – tanks ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field
– their job was to protect the airfield from enemy paratroopers
– two tank crew members remained with each tank at all times
– 194th guard north end of the airfield and the 192nd Tank Battalion guarded the south end of the airfield
– meals served by food trucks to men with the tanks
– those not assigned to a tank or half-track remained at the command post
Engagements:
– Battle of Luzon
– 8 December 1941
– Clark Field – lived through the attack on the airfield
– after attack 194th sent to a bivouac three kilometers north of Clark Field
– from there they were sent to Barrio of San Joaquin on the Malolos Road
– 12 December 1941
– C Company was sent to southern Luzon and put under the command of Brigadier General Albert M. Jones
– To avoid Japanese planes, the company tried to cover the distance at night.
– They were successful and going 40 miles during the night but had to make a run for it during the day.
– They successfully reached Muntinlupa and made it to Tagatay Ridge on December 14.
– The tanks remained at Tagatay until December 24
– During this time, they did reconnaissance and hunted for fifth columnists who would signal planes with mirrors during the day near ammunition dumps
   resulting in the dumps being bombed and shelled.
– at night, the fifth columnists shot off flares near the ammunition dumps
– The activity ended, when the company shot up native huts suspected as being used by the fifth columnists.
– At 2:00 A.M. on December 24, the Japanese landed 7,000 troops at Lamon Bay. – – The Japanese began advancing in the direction of Lucban.
– The company took a position to aid the 1st Infantry Regiment, Philippine Army, that was fighting the Japanese. 
– One platoon of five tanks – on December 26 – was ordered to advance down a trail in an area where the Japanese were known to be.
– A major ordered the tanks to advance even though no reconnaissance had been done.
– The trail made a sharp turn, and when the tanks made the turn, the first was knocked out by a Japanese anti-tank gun killing the platoon commander and
   the driver of the tank.
– The other two crewmen escaped into the jungle. The remaining four tanks were also knocked out by enemy fire resulting in two more men being killed.
– From this point on the tanks fell back toward Bataan and were serving as the rear guard for Gen. Jones’ troops when they withdrew past Manila.
– C Company at one point saw 100 to 150 trucks belonging to the Philippine Army pass warehouses full of food and other supplies.
– It was at this time that the 192nd Tank Battalion and A Company, 194th Tank Battalion were fighting to keep the roads open so that the troops
   withdrawing from southern Luzon would not be cut off.
– The southern Luzon force with C Company serving as its rearguard crossed the Calumpit Bridge on January 1st.
– After the company crossed the bridge was destroyed. the tanks went through San Fernando and formed roadblocks to keep the junction of Routes 3 and
   7 open.
– Also on January 1, conflicting orders were received by the defenders of the northern force who were attempting to stop the Japanese advance down
   Route 5.
– The orders came from Gen. MacArthur’s chief of staff and told the units holding open the bridges to withdraw.
– General Wainwright – who was in command – was unaware of the orders.
– Because of the orders, there was confusion among the Filipinos and American forces defending the bridges over the Pampanga River and half of the
   defenders had withdrawn.
– When Gen Wainwright became aware of what was going on, he countermanded the orders.
– Due to the efforts of the Self-Propelled Mounts, the 71st Field Artillery, and a frenzied attack by the 192nd Tank Battalion the Japanese were halted
   allowing the southern forces – including C Company – to escape. 
– 5 January 1942
– rejoined rest of 194th at Guagua Mounts
– ambushed a Japanese force of 750 to 800 attempting to cut the highway
– Japanese lost half their force
– Labao was burning when tanks left the area
– 6 January 1942
– Remedios new defensive line established along a dry creek bed
– 1:50 A.M. – Japanese attempted to infiltrate the line
– bright moon made them easy to see
– tanks opened up on them
– Japanese laid down smoke which blew back into them
– 3:00 A.M.
– Japanese broke off the attack
– 6/7 January 1942 – tank battalions withdraw across the bridge at Culis Creek at night
– 194th withdraw across the bridge covered by 192nd
– bridge destroyed after 192nd crossed bridge
– Battle of Bataan
– 7 January 1942 
– tank companies reduced to three tanks per platoon
– 2nd Lt. Weeden Petree and Pvt Walter Martella wounded
– Martella shielded Capt Fred Moffit from enemy shrapnel
– Petree was also hit by shrapnel
It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver: “Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal. If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay.”
– 8 January 1942
– composite tank company made up of tanks from the 192nd and 194th sent to protect East Coast Road north of Hermosa
– their job was to keep the East Road open north of Hermosa and prevent the Japanese from driving into Bataan before the main battle line had been
  formed
– the remainder of tanks ordered to bivouac for night south of Aubucay-Hacienda Road
– tankers had been fighting for a month without a rest
– tanks also needed overdue maintenance by 17th Ordnance
– 12 January 1942
– C Company, with D Company, 192nd, sent to Cadre Road
– a forward position with little alert time
– 13 January 1942
– mines planted by ordnance prevented them from reaching Cadre Road
– returned to battalion
– 16 January 1942 – Bagac
– sent to open Moron Road so General Segunda’s forces could move south
– the antitank gun fired at lead tank, but the shell went over the turret
– the lead tank fired and knocked out the gun
– two tanks were lost to landmines but towed out the next day for spare parts
– mission abandoned
– Segunda’s forces escaped along beach losing its heavy equipment
– 20 January 1942
– west of Bani Bani Road – tanks were sent to save the 31st Infantry command post
– 24 January 1942
– tanks order to Hacienda Road in support of troops
– landmines planted by ordnance prevented them from reaching the road
– 26 January 1942
– battalion holding a position a kilometer north of Pilar-Bagac Road
– four SPMs with the battalion
– 9:45 A.M. – warned by Filipino a large Japanese force was coming
– when the enemy appeared they opened up with all the battalion had
– estimated they lost 500 of 1800 men
– 10:30 A.M. – Japanese withdrew from the area
– prevented new defensive line being formed from being breached
– 28 January 1942
– 194th tanks given beach duty protecting southern beaches
– guarded coast from Limay to Cabcaben
– half-tracks patrolled roads
– maintained radio contact with on-shore and off-shore patrols
– March 1942
– two tanks were bogged down in mud
– the tankers were working to get them out
– Japanese Regiment entered the area
Lt. Col. Ernest Miller ordered tanks and artillery to fire at point-blank range
– Miller ran from tank to tank directing fire
– wiped out Japanese regiment
– gasoline rations cut to 15 gallons a day for all vehicles except the tanks
– Weaver suggested to Gen. Wainwright that one platoon of tanks be sent to Corregidor
– Wainwright rejected idea
– April 1942
– tanks sent into various sectors in an attempt to stop the Japanese advance
– 3 April 1942
– Japanese launch new offensive
– tank sent in to attempt to stop the advance
– 6 April 1942
– C Company was attached to 192d Tank Battalion
– four tanks sent to support 45th Philippine Infantry and 75th Infantry, Philippine Scouts
– one tank knocked out by anti-tank fire at the junction of Trails 8 & 6
– other tanks covered withdraw
– 3rd Platoon sent up the west coast road
– near Mt. Samat ran into heavy Japanese force
– the tanks withdrew to Marivales
– 7 April 1942
– Hospital #2, Cabcaben, Bataan  – Frank was hospitalized
– had malaria
– 8 April 1942
– Gen. Edward P. King decided that further resistance was futile since approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight
– he estimated they would last one more day
– In addition, he had over 6,000 troops who sick or wounded and 40,000 civilians who he feared would be massacred
– His troops were on one-quarter rations, and even at that ration, he had two days of food left.
– 6:30 P.M. – order goes out to be prepared to destroy all equipment of use to the Japanese
– 10:30 P.M. – decision made to send white flag across the battle line
– 11:40 P.M. – ammunition dumps were blown up
– At 2:oo A.M. April 9, Gen. King sent a jeep under a white flag carrying Colonel Everett C. Williams, Col. James V. Collier and Major Marshall Hurt to meet
   with the Japanese commander about terms of surrender.
 – The white flag was bedding from A Company, 192nd Tank Battalion
– the driver was also from the Provisional Tank Group
– Shortly after daylight Collier and Hunt returned with word of the appointment
– the tankers received this message over their radios at 6:45 A.M. – 9 April 1942
– circled tanks and fired an armor-piercing shell into each tank’s engine
– opened gasoline cocks and dropped grenades into the crew compartment
– Gen. King with his two aides, Maj. Cothran and Captain Achille C. Tisdelle Jr. got into a jeep carrying a large white flag
– They were followed by another jeep – also flying another large white flag – with Col. Collier and Maj. Hurt in it
– As the jeeps made their way north they were strafed and small bombs were dropped by a Japanese plane
– The drivers of both jeeps and the jeeps were provided by the tank group and both men managed to avoid the bullets
– The strafing ended when a Japanese reconnaissance plane ordered the fighter pilot to stop strafing
– About 10:00 A.M. the jeeps reached Lamao where they were received by a Japanese Major General who informed King that he reported his coming to
   negotiate a surrender and that an officer from the Japanese command would arrive to do the negotiations
– The Japanese officer also told him that his troops would no attack for thirty minutes while King decided what he would do
– After a half-hour, no Japanese officer had arrived from their headquarters and the Japanese attack had resumed. King sent Col. Collier and Maj. Hunt back
   to his command with instructions that any unit inline with the Japanese advance should fly white flags
– Shortly after this was done a Japanese colonel and interpreter arrived. King was told the officer was Homma’s Chief of Staff and he had come to discuss
   King’s surrender
– King attempted to get insurances from the Japanese that his men would be treated as prisoners of war, but the Japanese officer – through his interpreter
– he was accused of declining to surrender unconditionally
– At one point King stated he had enough trucks and gasoline to carry his troops out of Bataan
– He was told that the Japanese would handle the movement of the prisoners
– The two men talked back and forth until the colonel said through the interpreter, “The Imperial Japanese Army are not barbarians.” 
– Gen. King had to take him at his word
Prisoner of War:
– 9 April 1942
– Bataan surrendered
– Cabcaben POW Camp
– in the hospital when Bataan was surrendered
– 22 April 1942 – the Japanese had set up artillery next to the hospital to use POWs as a human shield
– the islands returned fire but attempted to stay away from the hospital area
– shells from Corregidor and Ft. Drum hit a building killing 22 POWs
– 29 April 1942 – the hospital was shelled again
– Ward 14 hit and five POWs died
– POWs were still hit by shrapnel
– Wilson said, “I got off luckier than most of the boys.”
– man in bed next to him was wounded by shrapnel
– Gen. Johnathan Wainwright gave the order for American forts not to return fire
– Ward 14 was hit and five POWs died
– 12 May 1942 – hospital closed and the POWs marched to Hospital #1 at Little Baguio
– as they marched they saw the dead still lying along the road
– 19 May 1942 – identified as in the Cabcaben Detachment
– 20 May 1942 – POWs were taken by a truck convoy to Bilibid Prison
– remained there for three days
– POWs slept in the prison hospital on the concrete floor
– 30 May 1942 – rode the train to the barrio of Cabanatuan
– 75 to 100 men in each steel boxcar
– marched about 1¼ miles to a schoolyard and spent the night there
– the ground was covered with human waste 
– 31 May 1942 – the POWs were told they would  be shot if they fell, but those men who did were beaten with canes until they got back up
– POWs were marched 8.7 miles to Cabanatuan Camp #2
– at the camp, the POWs were given showers
– 1 June 1942 – they were marched back to Cabanatuan #1
– not too long after their arrival, the POWs from Camp O’Donnell arrived
POW Camps
– Philippine Islands
– Cabanatuan
– original name – Camp Pangatian
– Philippine Army Base built for 91st Philippine Army Division
– put into use by the Japanese as a POW camp
– actually three camps
– Camp 1: POWs from Camp O’Donnell sent there in an attempt to lower the death rate among the POWs
– POWs from Bataan hospitals also sent there
– Camp 2: two miles away
– all POWs moved from there because of a lack of water
– later used for Naval POWs
– Camp 3: six miles from Camp 2
– POWs from Corregidor and from hospitals sent there
– camp created to keep Corregidor POWs separated from Bataan POWs
– June 1944
– POWs from Camp 3 consolidated into Camp 1 in December 1942
– Camp Administration:
– the Japanese left POWs to run the camp on their own
– Japanese entered camp when they had a reason
– POWs patrolled fence to prevent escapes
– Note: men who attempted to escape were recaptured
– Japanese beat them for days
– executed them
– Barracks:
– each barracks held 50 men
– often held between 60 and 120 men
– slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, and mosquito netting
– diseases spread easily
– no showers
– Morning Roll Call:
– stood at attention
– frequently beaten over their heads for no reason
– when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in
their shins with their hobnailed boots because they didn’t like the way the POWs lined up
– Work Details:
– Two main details
– the farm and airfield
– farm detail
– POWs cleared land and grew camotes, cassava, taro, sesame, and various greens
– Japanese took what was grown
– occasionally the Japanese let the POWs have the green tops from the potatoes or radishes
– Frank worked on this detail
– caught stealing a potato
– guard broke his arm and forced him to stand at attention the rest of day with his hands above his head until work was
completed for the day
– Guards:
– Big Speedo – spoke little English
– in charge of detail
– fair in treatment of POWs
– spoke little English
– to get POWs to work faster said, “speedo”
– Little Speedo
– also used “speedo” when he wanted POWs to work faster
– fair in treatment of POWs
– Smiley
– always smiling
– could not be trusted
– meanest of guards
– Airfield Detail:
– Japanese built an airfield for fighters
– POWs cut grass, removed dirt, and leveled ground
– at first moved dirt in wheelbarrows
– later pushed mining cars
– Guards:
– Air Raid
– in charge
– usually fair but unpredictable
– had to watch him
– Donald Duck
– always talking
– sounded like the cartoon character
– unpredictable – beat POWs
– POWs told him that Donald Duck was a big American movie star
– at some point, he saw a Donald Duck cartoon
– POWs stayed away from him when he came back to camp
– Work Day: 7:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
– worked 6 days a week
– had Sunday off
– Other Details:
– work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens and plant rice
– they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
– POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on
– the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
– if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn’t doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
– many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
– Meals:
– 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn
– rice was main staple, few vegetables or fruits
– Camp Hospital:
– 30 Wards
– each ward could hold 40 men
– frequently had 100 men in each
– two tiers of bunks
– sickest POWs on bottom tier
– each POW had a 2 foot by 6 foot area to lie in
– Zero Ward
– given name because it had been missed when counting wards
– became ward where those who were going to die were sent
– fenced off from other wards
– Japanese guards would not go near it
– POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving
– medical staff had little to no medicine to treat sick
– many deaths from disease caused by malnutrition
– with his brother-in-law, Victor Gosney, when he died
– at that time, Frank was married to Gosney’s sister
– Propaganda Broadcasts:
– 13 December 1943
– Provost Marshall General sent this message to his wife:

“I am well and uninjured. Do not worry. Hope that you and the folks are well. Tell dad to celebrate for both of us on his birthday. Take good care of the folks. Say hello to all my friends. Wish you all the happiness and luck in the world. Write to me in care of the Red Cross. Love to all–Frank.”
– 20 June 1944
– Provost Marshall General sent this message to his wife:

“I am well and doing all right. Received your box and was sure glad to get it. I have not received a letter from you but received one from mom and dad. Also received one from Jean and Maude. Tell them I was glad to hear from them. Hope you will write often. Please write me and tell me if you are getting your allotment. Take care of yourself honey. I hope to be with you soon. Tell mother and dad hello for me. I hope dad is getting all the work he wants to do and please tell mother to keep up her gardening. My regards to all of the friends. If you can send a package, send a Schick injector razor and blades, please. Food and tobacco would also be appreciated around.”

– POW Post Card
– 17 January 1945
– card dated: 29 April 1944

“Received your letters, and was glad to hear from you. Hoping receive more mail from you. Hope you both well. Give my love to Jean. Tell her write. Would sure like to hear from her. Hope she is well and comes to see you often.”
– 1945 – POWs who remained in camp were considered “too ill” to be sent to Japan
– Burial Detail:
– POWs worked in teams of four men to bury dead
– carried as many as six dead POWs in slings to cemetery
– buried in graves that contained 16 to 20 bodies
– of life in the camp he said, “There was nothing to do but wait for the return of the Yanks. I knew something would happen.”
– Japanese guards in towers would take aim on a POW below for the fun of it and kill the man . Of this, he said, “There was nothing we could do about it.”
– He recalled that after the Americans landed on Luzon, the Japanese told them that they were no longer prisoners. “But they added, ‘If one of you goes outside the walls he will be shot.'”
Liberated:
– 31 January 1945 – U.S. Army Rangers
– left behind a roster of the 194th that he had promised to try to get out of the camp
– the roster was recovered and is now in the National Archives in Washington D.C.
– After he was liberated he spoke to NBC Radio, he said, “The chow is swell. This bully beef and hash spuds taste like chicken and dumplings compared to the Japanese ‘breakfast of champions’.”
– He also said, to NBC, the POWs made wooden shoes, wooden musical instruments, wooden spoons, forks, and the Japanese were impressed with their ingenuity, “The Japanese commander said that if he didn’t watch us, we’d make a train out of wood and ride it to freedom.”
– 28 February 1945
– sent message home: “Everything O.K. Home soon. Tell mother and dad. Love all.”
Hospitalized:
– Letterman General Hospital – San Francisco, California
– March 1945
– hospitalized with pneumonia
– 1 April 1945 – returned to Salinas
– after he returned home, he was given a roster of C Company
– he looked at it and said, “There were so many I haven’t seen since Bataan–it’s hard to remember all of them.”
– when asked how he had learned Japanese, he said, “Those men just learned. You can learn most anything at the point of a bayonet.”
Selective Service Registration: 9 July 1945
– registration indicated he was a discharged veteran
Married and Divorced
Married: Glenna R. Row – 19 November 1950
Children: 2 step-sons
Occupation: Pacific Gas & Electric
– Repairman
Died: 25 April 1957
– never recovered from his time as a POW
– complications from war-related illnesses
Buried: Garden of Memories – Salinas, California

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