Klein, Pvt. Clayton C.

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Pvt. Clayton Cameron Klein 
Born: 13 November 1919 – Arkansas 
– the family moved to Oregon in 1930 
Parents: Otto P. Klein and Ethel McFarland-Klein 
Siblings: 2 sisters, 1 brother 
Home: 1604 Y Avenue – La Grande, Oregon 
Education: 
– LaGrande High School 
– Class of 1937 
– Eastern Oregon College  
– left after one year 
Enlisted:
– Oregon National Guard
– 2 October 1939
Inducted:
– U. S. Army
– 16 September 1940 – La Grande, Oregon
Training:
– Camp Murray, Washington
– Fort Lewis, Washington
Unit:
– 41st Infantry Division
– Company E, 186th Infantry Regiment
– transferred to 194th Tank Battalion as they prepared to go overseas
– had never been in a tank
– 194th Tank Battalion
Overseas Duty:
– On August 15, 1941, from Ft. Knox, Kentucky, the 194th received orders for duty in the Philippines
– this was the result of an event that happened during the summer.
– A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf
– one of the pilots noticed something odd
– he took his plane down and identified a buoy, with a flag, in the water
– he came upon more flagged buoys that lined up – in a straight line – for 30 miles to the northwest
– they lined up in the direction of a Japanese occupied island, with a large radio transmitter, hundreds of miles away
– the squadron continued its flight plane
– it flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field
– when the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
– the next day planes were sent to the area
– the buoys had been picked up
– a fishing boat – with a tarp covering something on its deck – was seen making its way toward shore.
– communication between the Air Corps and the Navy was poor
– the boat escaped
– the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines
Deployment:
– 4 September 1941
– the battalion traveled by train to Ft. Mason in San Francisco, California
– Arrived: 7:30 A.M. – 5 September 1941
– ferried to Ft. McDowell, Angel Island on U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
– given physicals and inoculations
– men with medical conditions replaced
– Ship: S.S. President Calvin Coolidge
– Boarded: Monday – 8 September 1941 – 3:00 P.M.
– Sailed: 9:00 P.M. – same day
– Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii – Saturday – 13 September 1941 – 7:00 A.M.
– Sailed: 5:00 P.M. – same day
– escorted by the heavy cruiser, U.S.S. Astoria, and an unknown destroyer, the U.S.S. Guadalupe, a replenishment oiler
– heavy cruiser intercepted several ships after smoke was seen on the horizon
– ships belonged to friendly countries
– Arrived: Manila – Friday – 26 September 1941
– disembarked ship – 3:00 P.M.
– taken by bus to Fort Stotsenburg
Stationed:
– Ft. Stotsenburg
– lived in tents upon arriving
– received their meals from food trucks
– 15 November 1941 – moved into barracks
– the barracks were open three feet from the bottom of the exterior walls
– above that, the walls were woven bamboo that allowed the air to pass through
Work Day:
– 5:15 A. M. – reveille
– washing – the lucky man washed by a faucet with running water
– 6:00 A.M. – breakfast
– 7:00 to 11:30 A.M. 
– Noon – lunch
– 1:30 to 2:30 P.M. – worked
– the shorter afternoon work period was based on the belief that the climate made it too hot to work
– the tankers worked until 4:30 P.M.
– the term “recreation in the motor pool” was used for this work time
– during this time, the tank crews learned about the M3A1 tanks
– tank commanders read manuals on tanks and taught crews about the tanks
– studied the 30-caliber and 50 caliber machineguns
– spent three hours of each day taking the guns apart and putting them back together
– did it until they could disassemble and assemble the guns blindfolded
– could not fire guns since they were not given ammunition
– the base commander was waiting for General MacArthur to release the ammunition
– 5:10 – dinner
– after dinner, the soldiers were free to do what they wanted to do
Uniforms:
– the battalion wore fatigues to do the work on the tanks
– the soldiers were reprimanded for not wearing dress uniforms 
– they continued to wear fatigues in their barracks area to do their work
– if the soldiers left the battalion’s area, they were expected to wear dress uniforms
– this included going to the PX
Recreation:
– the soldiers spent their free time bowling, going to the movies,
– they also played horseshoes, softball, badminton, or threw a football around
– on Wednesday afternoons, they went swimming
– they also went to Mt. Aarayat National Park and swam in the swimming pool there that was filled with mountain water
– men were allowed to go to Manila in small groups
– they also went to canoeing at Pagsanjan Falls in their swimsuits
– the country was described as being beautiful
Alert:
– 1 December 1941
– tanks ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field
– two tank crew members had to stay with the tanks at all time
– 194th guarded the north end of the airfield and the 192nd Tank Battalion guarded the south end
– meals served to men at the tanks by food trucks
– those not assigned to a tank or half-track remained at the command post
Engagements:
– Battle of Luzon
– 8 December 1942 – 6 January 1942
– Battle of Bataan
– 7 January 1942 – 9 April 1942
– During this time HQ Company supplied the tank companies as they fought to cover the
   withdrawal toward Bataan
– 8 December 1941
– lived Japanese attack on Clark Field
– planes did not go after tanks
– after attack 194th sent to a bivouac three kilometers north of Clark Field
– from there they were sent to Barrio of San Joaquin on the Malolos Road
– 12 December 1941
– moved to new bivouac south to San Fernando near Calumpit Bridge
– arrived at 6:00 A.M.
– 15 December 1941
– received 15 Bren gun carriers
– turned some over to 26th Cavalry, Philippine Scouts
– 22 December 1941
– sent to Rosario
– west and north of the barrio
– ordered out of the 71st Division Commander
– said they would hinder the cavalry’s operation
– 22/23 December 1941
– operating north of Agno River
– main bridge at Carmen bombed
– 24/25 December 1941
– tank battalions made an end run to get south of Agno River
– ran into Japanese resistance but successfully crossed the river
– 25/26 December 1941
– held south bank of Agno River from west of Carmen to Carmen-Akcaka-Bautista Road
– 192nd held from Carmen to Route 3 to Tayug to the northeast of San Quintin
– 26/27 December 1941
– ordered to withdraw
– Lt. Harold Costigan’s platoon forced its way through Carmen
– lost two tanks
– one tank belonged to the company commander, Captain Edward Burke
– believed dead, but was actually captured
– one tank crew rescued
– new line Santa Ignacia-Gerona-Santo Tomas-San Jose
– rest of battalion made a dash out
– lost one tank at Bayambang
– another tank went across front receiving fire and firing on Japanese
– Lt. Weeden Petree’s platoon fought its way out and across Agno River
– D Company, 192nd, lost all its tanks except one
– the tank commander found a crossing
– Japanese would use tanks later on Bataan
– 29/30 December 1941
– new line at Bamban River established
– tank battalions held the line until ordered to withdraw
– 30/31 December 1941
– tank battalions held Calumpit Bridge
– covering withdraw of Philippine Divisions south on Rt. 3, San Fernando
– 2 January 1942
– both tank battalions ordered to withdrawal to Lyac Junction
– 194th withdrew there on Highway 7
– 5 January 1942
– C Company and A Company, 192nd Tank Battalion, withdrew from Guagua-Porac Line and moved into position between Sexmoan and Lubao
– 1:50 A.M. – Japanese attempted to infiltrate
– bright moonlight made them easy to see
– tanks opened fire
– Japanese lay down smoke which blew back into them
– 3:00 A.M. – Japanese broke off the engagement
– suffered 50% casualties
– Remedios – established a new line along a dried creek bed
– 6/7 January 1942
– 194th, covered by 192nd, crosses Culis Creek into Bataan
– both battalions bivouacked south of Aubucay-Hacienda Road
– rations cut in half
– Battle of Bataan – 7 January 1942 – 9 April 1942
– 8 January 1942
– composite tank company made up of tanks from the 192nd and 194th sent to protect East Coast Road north of Hermosa
– their job was to keep the East Road open north of Hermosa and prevent the Japanese from driving into Bataan before the main battle line had been
  formed
– the remainder of tanks ordered to bivouac for night south of Aubucay-Hacienda Road
– tankers had been fighting for a month without a rest
– tanks also needed overdue maintenance
– 17th Ordnance
– all tank companies reduced to ten tanks
– three per tank platoon
– sent to reopen Moron Road so General Segunda’s forces could withdraw
– tanks knock out an anti-tank gun
– two tanks disabled by landmines but recovered
– mission abandoned
– Gen. Segunda’s troops escaped using the beach but lost their heavy equipment
– 12 January 1942
– C Company, with D Company, 192nd, sent to Cadre Road
– a forward position with little alert time
– 13 January 1942
– mines planted by ordnance prevented them from reaching Cadre Road
– returned to battalion
– 16 January 1942
– C Company sent to Bagac to reopen Moron Highway
– the highway had been cut by Japanese
– Moron Highway, and Junction of Trail 162
– tank platoon fired on by antitank gun
– tanks knock out the gun
– cleared roadblock with support of infantry
– 20 January 1942
– Bani Bani Road -tanks sent in to save 31st Infantry command post
– 24 January 1942
– tanks order to Hacienda Road in support of troops
– landmines planted by ordnance prevented them from reaching the road
– 26 January 1942
– the battalion held a position a kilometer north of the Pilar-Bagac Road
– four self-propelled mounts with the battalion
– 9:45 A.M. – warned by Filipino a large Japanese force was coming
– when the enemy appeared they opened up with all the battalion had
– 10:30 A.M. – Japanese withdrew after losing 500 of 1200 men
– prevented new defensive line being formed from being breached
– 28 January 1942
– 194th tanks given beach duty protecting southern beaches
– guarded coast from Limay to Cabcaben
– half-tracks patrolled roads
– maintained radio contact with on-shore and off-shore patrol
It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver: “Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal. If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay.”
– February 1942
– tank battalions on their own guarded airfields
– battalions also guarded beaches to prevent Japanese from landing troops
– March 1942
– two tanks were bogged down in mud
– the tankers were working to get them out
– Japanese Regiment entered the area
Lt. Col. Ernest Miller ordered tanks and artillery to fire at point-blank range
– Miller ran from tank to tank directing fire
– wiped out Japanese regiment
– 31 March 1942 – his family received a letter from him
– 3 April 1942
– Japanese launch new offensive
– tank sent in to attempt to stop the advance
– 8 April 1942
– Gen. Edward P. King decided that further resistance was futile since approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight
– he estimated they would last one more day
– In addition, he had over 6,000 troops who sick or wounded and 40,000 civilians who he feared would be massacred
– His troops were on one-quarter rations, and even at that ration, he had two days of food left.
– 6:30 P.M. – order goes out to be prepared to destroy all equipment of use to the Japanese
– 10:30 P.M. – decision made to send white flag across the battle line
– 11:40 P.M. – ammunition dumps were blown up
– Midnight – A Company and B and D Companies, 192nd, received orders to stand down
– the companies had been ordered to make a suicide attack the morning of April 9 in an attempt to stop the Japanese advance
– At 2:oo A.M. April 9, Gen. King sent a jeep under a white flag carrying Colonel Everett C. Williams, Col. James V. Collier and Major Marshall Hurt to meet
   with the Japanese commander about terms of surrender.
 – The white flag was bedding from A Company, 192nd Tank Battalion
– Shortly after daylight Collier and Hunt returned with word of the appointment
– the tankers received this message over their radios at 6:45 A.M.
– 9 April 1942
– circled tanks and fired an armor-piercing shell into each tank’s engine
– opened gasoline cocks and dropped grenades into the crew compartment
– Gen. King with his two aides, Maj. Cothran and Captain Achille C. Tisdelle Jr. got into a jeep carrying a large white flag
– They were followed by another jeep – also flying another large white flag – with Col. Collier and Maj. Hurt in it
– As the jeeps made their way north they were strafed and small bombs were dropped by a Japanese plane
– The drivers of both jeeps and the jeeps were provided by the tank group and both men managed to avoid the bullets
– The strafing ended when a Japanese reconnaissance plane ordered the fighter pilot to stop strafing
– About 10:00 A.M. the jeeps reached Lamao where they were received by a Japanese Major General who informed King that he reported his coming to
   negotiate a surrender and that an officer from the Japanese command would arrive to do the negotiations
– The Japanese officer also told him that his troops would no attack for thirty minutes while King decided what he would do
– After a half-hour, no Japanese officer had arrived from their headquarters and the Japanese attack had resumed. King sent Col. Collier and Maj. Hunt back
   to his command with instructions that any unit inline with the Japanese advance should fly white flags
– Shortly after this was done a Japanese colonel and interpreter arrived. King was told the officer was Homma’s Chief of Staff and he had come to discuss
   King’s surrender
– King attempted to get insurances from the Japanese that his men would be treated as prisoners of war, but the Japanese officer – through his interpreter
– he was accused of declining to surrender unconditionally
– At one point King stated he had enough trucks and gasoline to carry his troops out of Bataan
– He was told that the Japanese would handle the movement of the prisoners
– The two men talked back and forth until the colonel said through the interpreter, “The Imperial Japanese Army are not barbarians.” 
– 6:45 A.M. – the order “CRASH” was sent for equipment to be destroyed
– King found no choice but to accept him at his word
– made the decision to attempt to reach Corregidor
Battle of Corregidor
– assigned to unit defending the island
– Japanese lunch an all-out attack
Prisoner of War:
– 6 May 1942
– Corregidor surrenders
POW Camps:
– Philippine Islands:
– Corregidor
– marched in groups to the south end of the tunnel
– Japanese order barrage to end resistance
– all resistance ended
– one POW beheaded for not following orders
– POWs were taken to 92nd Garage Area on Monkey Point
– held on the beach for two weeks
– poor sanitation and medical care
– no shade to get out of the sun
– POWs volunteered to work burial detail
– they could get water and hunt for food
– taken by barge to a point off Luzon
– POWs jumped into the water and swam to shore
– marched down Dewey Boulevard as part of the Japanese victory parade
– In May 1942, his family received this message from the War Department

“Dear Mrs. E. Klein:

        “According to War Department records, you have been designated as the emergency addressee of Private Clayton C. Klein., 20,935,174, who, according to the latest information available, was serving in the  Philippine Islands at the time of the final surrender. 

        “I deeply regret that it is impossible for me to give you more information than is contained in this letter.  In the last days before the surrender of Bataan, there were casualties which were not reported to the War Department.  Conceivably the same is true of the surrender of Corregidor and possibly other islands of the Philippines.  The Japanese Government has indicated its intention of conforming to the terms of the Geneva Convention with respect to the interchange of information regarding prisoners of war.  At some future date, this Government will receive through Geneva a list of persons who have been taken prisoners of war.  Until that time the War Department cannot give you positive information. 

        “The War Department will consider the persons serving in the Philippine Islands as “missing in action” from the date of surrender of Corregidor, May 7, 1942, until definite information to the contrary is received.  It is to be hoped that the Japanese Government will communicate a list of prisoners of war at an early date.  At that time you will be notified by this office in the event that his name is contained in the list of prisoners of war.   In the case of persons known to have been present in the Philippines and who are not reported to be prisoners of war by the Japanese Government, the War Department will continue to carry them as “missing in action” in the absence of information to the contrary, until twelve months have expired.  At the expiration of twelve months and in the absence of other information the War Department is authorized to make a final determination.

        “Recent legislation makes provision to continue the pay and allowances of persons carried in a “missing” status for a period not to exceed twelve months;  to continue, for the duration of the war, the pay and allowances of persons known to have been captured by the enemy; to continue allotments made by missing personnel for a period of twelve months and allotments or increase allotments made by persons by the enemy during the time they are so held;  to make new allotments or increase allotments to certain dependents defined in Public Law 490, 77th Congress.  The latter dependents generally include the legal wife, dependent children under twenty-one years of age and dependent mother, or such dependents as having been designated in official records.  Eligible dependents who can establish a need for financial assistance and are eligible to receive this assistance the amount allotted will be deducted from pay which would otherwise accrue to the credit of the missing individual.

                                                                                                                                                                    “Very Truly yours

                                                                                                                                                                            J. A. Ulio (signed) 
                                                                                                                                                                       Major General
                                                                                                                                                                   The Adjutant General”
 

– Bilibid Prison
– held there for two or three days
– taken to train station
– rode the train to Calumpit
– marched by Cabanatuan Camp 1 to Cabanatuan Camp 3
– Cabanatuan
– original name – Camp Pangatian
– Philippine Army Base built for 91st Philippine Army Division
– put into use by the Japanese as a POW camp
– actually three camps
– Camp 1: POWs from Camp O’Donnell sent there in an attempt to lower the death rate
– Camp 2: two miles away
– all POWs moved from there because of a lack of water
– later used for Naval POWs
– Camp 3: six miles from Camp 2
– POWs from Corregidor and from hospitals sent there
– camp created to keep Corregidor POWs separated from Bataan POWs
– Corregidor POWs were in better shape
– January 1943 – POWs from Camp 3 consolidated into Camp 1
– Camp Administration:
– the Japanese left POWs to run the camp on their own
– Japanese entered camp when they had a reason
– POWs patrolled fence to prevent escapes
– Note: men who attempted to escape were recaptured
– Japanese beat them for days
– executed them
– Blood Brother Rule
– POWs put into groups of ten
– if one escaped the others would be executed
– housed in the same barracks
– worked on details together
– Barracks:
– each barracks held 50 men
– often held between 60 and 120 men
– slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, and mosquito netting
– diseases spread easily
– no showers
– Morning Roll Call:
– stood at attention
– frequently beaten over their heads for no reason
– when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in  their shins with their
  hobnailed boots since they didn’t like the way the POWs looked
– Work Details:
– Two main details
– the farm and airfield
– farm detail
– POWs cleared land and grew camotes, cassava, taro, sesame, and various greens
– Japanese took what was grown
– Guards:
– Big Speedo – spoke little English
– in charge of the detail
– fair in the treatment of POWs
– spoke little English
– to get POWs to work faster said, “speedo”
– Little Speedo
– fair in the treatment of POWs
– Smiley
– always smiling
– could not be trusted
– meanest of guards
– Airfield Detail:
– Japanese built an airfield for fighters
– POWs cut grass, removed dirt, and leveled ground
– at first moved dirt in wheelbarrows
– later pushed mining cars
– Guards:
– Air Raid
– in charge
– usually fair but unpredictable
– had to watch him
– Donald Duck
– always talking
– sounded like the cartoon character
– unpredictable – beat POWs
– POWs told him that Donald Duck was a big American movie star
– at some point, he saw a Donald Duck cartoon
– POWs stayed away from him when he came back to camp
– Work Day: 7:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
– worked 6 days a week
– had Sunday off
– Other Details:
– work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens and plant rice
– they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
– POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on
– the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
– if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn’t doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
– many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
– Burial Detail
– POWs worked in teams of four
– carried 4 to 6 dead to the cemetery at a time in litters
– a grave contained from 15 to 20 bodies
– daily POW meal
– 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn
– rice was the main staple, few vegetables or fruits
– Camp Hospital:
– 30 Wards
– each ward could hold 40 men
– frequently had 100 men in each
– two tiers of bunks
– sickest POWs on the bottom tier
– each POW had a 2-foot by 6-foot area to lie in
– Zero Ward
– given the name, because it had been missed when counting wards
– became ward where those who were going to die were sent
– fenced off from other wards
– Japanese guards would not go near it
– POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving
– medical staff had little to no medicine to treat sick
– many deaths from disease caused by malnutrition
– His family received a second message from the War Department during July 1942. This is an excerpt from it.

“The last report of casualties received by the War Department from the Philippines arrived early in the morning of May 6. Through this date, Private Clayton C. Klein had not been reported as a casualty. The War Department will consider the persons serving in the Philippine Islands as “missing in action” from the date of the surrender of Corregidor, May 7, until definite information to the contrary is received.

“Efforts to secure prisoner of war lists from the Philippines have not been successful to this date due to the lack of communication and the fact that the Japanese Government has not yet given permission for the Swiss representative and the International Red Cross delegates to make visits to prisoner of war camps in the islands. When the lists of prisoners are received, we will clear the name of your son and send you any additional information that we may have.”

Hell Ship:
Tottori Maru
– 5 October 1942 – POWs left Cabanatuan for Manila
– housed in a warehouse on Pier 7
– 7 October 1942 €“ POWs boarded onto Tottori Maru
– 1961 POWs put on the ship
– 500 in the front hold and 1461 in the rear hold
– Sailed: Manila €“ 8 October 1942
– Note: 9 October 1942 – American submarine fired two torpedoes at the ship
– the ship passed a mine laid by an American submarine
– Arrived: Takao, Formosa – 12 October 1942
– Sailed: 16 October 1942
– returned to Takao
– Sailed: 18 October 1942
– Arrived: Pescadores Islands
– anchored off the Pescadores Islands the same day
– remained anchored for several days
– two POWs died and were buried at sea
– Sailed: 27 October 1942
– Arrived: Takao – 27 October 1942
– 28 October 1942 – POWs were taken ashore and bathed with firehoses
– Sailed: 30 October 1942
– Arrived: 30 October 1942 – Makou, Pescadores Islands
– Sailed: 31 October 1942
– Arrived: Fusan, Korea – 7 November 1942
– 8 November 1942 – POWs disembarked the ship
– sick POWs left behind at Fusan
– those who recovered came to Mukden at a later date
– white boxes contained the ashes of POWs who died
– June 1943 – his parents were notified by the War Department he was a Prisoner of War

“REPORT JUST RECEIVED THROUGH INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS STATES THAT YOUR SON PRIVATE CLAYTON C KLEIN IS A PRISONER OF WAR OF THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT IN PHILIPPINE ISLANDS LETTER OF INFORMATION FOLLOWS FROM THE PROVOST MARSHALL GENERAL=
        “ULIO THE ADJUTANT GENERAL=”

Within days of receiving the first message, they received a second message:

“Mrs. Ethel Klein
1604 Y Avenue
LaGrande Oregon

“The Provost Marshal General directs me to inform you that you may communicate with your son, postage free, by following the inclosed instructions:

“It is suggested that you address him as follows:

“Pvt. Clayton C. Klein, U.S. Army
Interned in the Philippines Islands
C/O Japanese Red Cross, Tokyo, Japan
Via New York, New York

“Packages cannot be sent to the Orient at this time. When transportation facilities are available a package permit will be issued you.

“Further information will be forwarded you as soon as it is received.

                                                                                                                                                “Sincerely

                                                                                                                                               Howard F. Bresee
                                                                                                                                               Colonel, CMP
                                                                                                                                               Chief Information Bureau”

POW Camp:
– Mukden, Manchuria
– 11 November 1942 – arrived Mukden
– POWs worked in a machine shop that was supposed to manufacture weapons for the Japanese
– selected for transfer to Japan
Hell Ship:
Nissyo Maru
– Sailed: 24 May 1944
– Arrived: 26 May 1944 – Takao, Formosa
– Sailed: same day
– Arrived: 29 May 1944 – Moji, Japan
– Sailed: 24 May 1944
– Arrived: 26 May 1944 – Takao Formosa
– Sailed: same day
– 28 November 1944 – his parents were notified he was a POW at Mukden, Manchuria
POW Camp:
– Japan
Kamioka #1-B
– also known as Nagoya 1-B
– His POW detachment became known as the 2nd American Company
– Barracks:
– POWs slept on straw mats
– rooms built to hold 10 men held 24 men
– heated by a fire pit in the middle of barracks
– received two handfuls of charcoal a day
– POWs had to shovel snow off roofs so that the buildings would not collapse
– Meals:
– rice and maize
– one ounce of fish each month
– 5 ounces of soybean each month for working hard
– Work:
– zinc & lead mining
– POWs worked in zinc and lead mines
– POWs had to climb 340 steps to leave mine
– in winter the POWs had to go through 4 to 5 foot high snow
– wore canvas shoes issued by Japanese
– lined them with air raid material from blackout curtains to prevent frostbite
– Japanese did not issue Red Cross shoes
– Punishment:
– Japanese brutally treated POWs after each air raid
– eight to ten POWs selected for beatings
– put in the guardhouse and forgotten about for days
– as the end of war got closer, the beatings became more frequent and brutal
– beaten on heads and all over their bodies until they were unconscious
– revived the men and continued beating
– burned after a flammable substance put on them
– one guard burned the rising sun around the navels of the POWs
– stood naked in inclement weather
– made to assume painful positions
– Medical Treatment:
– Red Cross medical supplies withheld from POWs
– sick forced to work to meet the quota of workers needed each day
– those who could walk had to work
– Japanese beat those who refused
– sick POWs were given “light work”
– Japanese made them haul contaminated slug up a mountain
– the guard would not go near the slug
– nothing grew where it was dumped
– worked 12 hours a day, 7 days a week
– Japanese limited the number of POWs who could be in the hospital at any time
– an “old” sick POW was replaced with a “new” sick POW
– Red Cross Boxes:
– Japanese did not issue Red Cross packages
– misappropriated food and clothing
– 8 May 1945 – short wave broadcast
– people who heard it contacted his parents
– said he was in good health
Atomic Bomb:
– POWs felt atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki
– After the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, the Japanese made POWs do close order drill
– POWs learned of surrender from a newspaper they bought on Black Market
– 4 September 1945 – B-29s drop food and clothing to POWs
Liberated: 4 September 1945
– POWs left camp and driven to the train station
– arrived at Yokohama docks
– deloused and given new clothing
– taken by ship to Okinawa
– flown back to the Philippines
– 12 September 1945 – his parents learned he had been liberated

“Mr. and Mrs. Otto Klein: The secretary of war has asked me to inform you that your son, Pvt Clayton C Klein was returned to military control Sept. 4 and is being returned to the United States within the near future. He will be given the opportunity to communicate with you upon his arrival if he has not already done so.

“E. F. Witsell

“Acting Adjutant General of the Army”

Promoted: Corporal
Transport:
U.S.S. Joseph T. Dyckman
– Sailed: Manila – not known
– Arrived: San Francisco – 16 October 1945
– taken to Letterman General Hospital
Hospitalized:
– Moore General Hospital – North Carolina
Discharged: 25 July 1946
– Ft. Lewis, Washington
Selective Service Registration: 29 July 1946
Contact person: Otto Paul Klein – father
Employment: Modern Laundry – Lagrande, Oregon
Married: Dorothy Cox
– 28 July 1946
Children: 3 sons
– one died as an infant
Education:
– attended college on G. I. Bill
Occupation: Teacher
– later sold real estate and became a policeman
Died: 28 December 1979 – Roseburg, Oregon
Buried:
– Roseburg Veterans Cemetery – Roseburg, Oregon
– Section: C Row: 8 Site: 1

Default Gravesite 1

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