PFC Henry Guy Peck was the son of Charley & Lucy Peck. He was born on January 1, 1921, in South Dakota and had three sisters and three brothers. When he was ten, his family moved from Huron, South Dakota. His family later moved to Minnesota. He attended school in a one-room schoolhouse east of Brainerd, Minnesota in Maple Grove Township. He worked on his family’s farm and at a neighbor’s farm.
In 1940, Henry enlisted in the Minnesota National Guard. While on maneuvers at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, his company learned that they were being federalized. On February 10, 1941, they were sent to Ft. Lewis, Washington for training. Harry was assigned to Reconnaissance Section of the battalion with his friends Milan Anderson and Larry Alberg.
On August 15, 1941, the 194th received orders, from Ft. Knox, Kentucky, for duty in the Philippines because of an event that happened during the summer. A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd. He took his plane down and identified a buoy in the water. He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of a Japanese occupied island, hundreds of miles away that had a large radio transmitter. The squadron continued its flight plan and flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field. By the time the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
The next morning, another squadron was sent to the area and found that the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat which was seen making its way toward shore. Since communication between and Air Corps and Navy was poor, the boat was not intercepted. It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
In September 1941, the battalion, minus B Company, traveled by train to Ft. Mason in San Francisco, California. From there, on the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe, they were ferried to Fort McDowell on Angel Island and given physicals and inoculated. Men who had medical conditions were held back and replaced.
The tankers boarded the S.S. President Calvin Coolidge on September 8th at 3:00 P.M. and sailed at 9:00 P.M. for the Philippine Islands. To get the tanks to fit in the ship’s holds, the turrets had serial numbers spray painted on them and were removed from the tanks. They arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Saturday, September 13 at 7:00 A.M., and most of the soldiers were allowed off the ship to see the island but had to be back on board before the ship sailed at 5:00 P.M.
After leaving Hawaii, the ship took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes. It was at this time that it was joined by the U.S.S. Astoria, a heavy cruiser, that was its escort. During this part of the trip, on several occasions, smoke was seen on the horizon, and the Astoria took off in the direction of the smoke. Each time it was found that the smoke was from a ship belonging to a friendly country.
The Coolidge entered Manila Bay at 7:00 A.M. and reached Manila several hours later. The soldiers disembarked at 3:00 P.M., and were driven on buses to Clark Field. The maintenance section of the battalion and members of 17th Ordnance remained at the dock to unload the battalion’s tanks and reattach the turrets.
On December 1st, the tankers were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field to guard against Japanese paratroopers. Two members of each tank and half-track crew remained with their vehicles at all times and received their meals from food trucks.
The morning of December 8, 1941, at 8:30, the planes of the Army Air Corps took off and filled the sky. At noon the planes landed to be refueled, line up in a straight line, and the pilots went to lunch in the mess hall. At 12:45 in the afternoon, just ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Danny lived through the Japanese attack on Clark Airfield.
When the Japanese were finished, there was not much left of the airfield. The soldiers watched as the dead, dying, and wounded were hauled to the hospital on bomb racks, trucks, and anything that could carry the wounded was in use. When the hospital filled, they watched the medics place the wounded under the building. Many of these men had their arms and legs missing.
That night, most men slept under their tanks since it was safer than sleeping in their tents. They had no idea that they had slept their last night in a bed. They lived through two more attacks on December 10. The night of the 12th/13th, the battalion was ordered to bivouac south of San Fernando near the Calumpit Bridge. Attempting to move the battalion at night was a nightmare, and they finally arrived at their new bivouac at 6:00 A.M. on December 13.
The battalion received 15 Bren Gun carriers on the 15th, and gave some to the 26th Cavalry, Philippine Scouts. They used the carriers to test the ground to see if it was solid enough to support tanks. They next were ordered to support the 71st Division in the area of Rosario on the 22nd, but the division’s commanding officer ordered them out of the area since he believed they would interfere with operations.
The night of the 22nd/23rd, the battalions were operating north of the Agno River when they found that the bridge they were supposed to use had been bombed. On December 23rd and 24th, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta and found the bridge they were going used to cross the Agno River was destroyed. The tankers made an end run to get south of the river and ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening, but they successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
Later on the 24th, the battalions formed a defensive line along the southern bank of the Agno River with the tanks of the 192nd holding the Agno River from Carmen to Tayug, and the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27 when they withdrew, following the Philippine Army, to the Tarlac-Cabanatuan Line and were near Santo Tomas and Cabanatuan on the 28th and 29th.
The tank battalions next covered the withdrawal of the Philippine Army at the Pampanga River. The battalion’s tanks were on both sides of the on December 31st at the Calumpit Bridge.
On January 1st, conflicting orders, about who was in command, were received by the defenders who were attempting to stop the Japanese advance down Route 5 and allowing the Southern Luzon Forces to withdraw toward Bataan. General Wainwright was unaware of the orders since they came from Gen. MacArthur’s chief of staff.
Because of the orders, there was confusion among the Filipinos and American forces defending the bridge over the Pampanga River about withdrawing from the bridge with half of the defenders withdrawing. Due to the efforts of the Self Propelled Mounts, the 71st Field Artillery, and a frenzied attack by the 192nd Tank Battalion the Japanese were halted. From January 2nd to 4th, the 192nd held the road open from San Fernando to Dinalupihan so the southern forces could escape.
At 2:30 A.M., on January 6, the Japanese attacked at Remedios in force using smoke which was an attempt by the Japanese to destroy the tank battalions. That night the tanks withdrew into the peninsula with the 192nd holding its position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leapfrog past it, cross the bridge, and then cover the 192nd’s withdraw over the bridge. The 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan.
The night of January 7, the tank battalions were covering the withdrawal of all troops around Hermosa. Around 6:00 A.M., before the bridge had been destroyed by the engineers, the 192nd crossed the bridge.
The next day, the battalion was between Culo and Hermosa and assigned a road to enter Bataan on which was worse than having no road. The half-tracks kept throwing their rubber tracks and members of 17th Ordnance assigned to each battalion had to re-track them in dangerous situations. After daylight, Japanese artillery fire was landing all around the tanks.
The next day, a composite tank company was formed under the command of Capt. Donald Hanes, B Co., 192nd. Its job was to protect the East Coast Road north of Hermosa open and to stop Japanese tanks attempting to use it to overrun the next defensive line that was forming. While in this position, the tanks were under constant enemy artillery fire. The rest of the tanks were ordered to bivouac south of the Abucay-Hacienda Road.
When word came that a bridge was going to be blown up, all the tanks were ordered out of the area, which included the composite company. This could have resulted in a catastrophe, but the Japanese did not take advantage of the situation.
The tanks bivouacked south of the Pilar-Bagac Road and about two kilometers from the East Coast Road. It had almost been one month since the tank crews had a rest and the tanks had maintenance work done on them by 17th Ordnance. It was also on this day that the tank platoons were reduced to three tanks per tank platoon. The men rested and the tanks received the required maintenance. Most of the tank tracks had worn down to bare metal and the radial engines long past their 400-hour overhauls.
The battalions were sent to cover the junctions of the Back Road and East Road with the Abucay-Hacienda Road on January 25th. While holding the position, the 45th Infantry, Philippine Scouts, fought its way to the position at 3:00 A.M. One platoon was sent to the front of the column of trucks which were loading the troops. The tanks provided heavy fire so that the infantry could withdraw and inflicted heavy losses on the Japanese.
Later on January 25, both the 192nd and 194th held a defensive line on the Bakanga-Cardre-BaniBani Roads until the withdraw was completed at midnight. They held the position until the night of January 26/27, when they dropped back to a new defensive line roughly along the Pilar-Bagac Roads. When ordered to withdraw to the new line, the 192nd found that the bridge at Balanga, that they were supposed to use had been destroyed by enemy fire. To withdraw, they had to use secondary roads to get around the barrio and tanks were still straggling in at noon.
The tank battalions, on January 28, were given the job of protecting the beaches, while the battalion’s half-tracks were used to patrol the roads. The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.
The tank battalions, on their own, took up the job of protecting the airfields at Cabcaban, Bataan, and Mariveles, since Japanese paratroopers were known to be available. The tanks and half-tracks were well hidden in the jungle around the airfields and different plans were in place to be used against Japanese forces. There was only one major alert in March when 73 Japanese planes came over.
It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver: “Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal. If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay.”
In February, the tanks had the job of protecting beaches so that the Japanese could not land troops on them. At the same time, the tank battalions took it upon themselves to protect three airfields from Japanese paratroopers.
In March, the amount of gasoline was reduced to 15 gallons a day for all vehicles except the tanks. This would later be dropped to ten gallons a day. At the same time, food rations were cut in half again. Also at this time, Gen. Weaver suggested to Gen. Wainwright that a platoon of tanks be sent to Corregidor.
The Japanese launched an all-out attack on April 3. On April 7, the 57th Infantry, Philippine Scouts, supported by tanks, attempted to restore the line, but Japanese infiltrators prevented this from happening. During this action, one tank was knocked out but the remaining tanks successfully withdrew. C Company, 194th, which was attached to the 192nd, had only seven tanks left.
The tanks became a favorite target of the Japanese receiving fire on trails and while hidden in the jungle. and could not fight back. The situation was so bad that other troops avoided being near the tanks, and the 26th Cavalry turned down a tank company’s offer of assistance in a counter-attack.
The tank battalion commanders received this order on April 8, “You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word ‘CRASH’, all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished.”
When it became apparent to Gen. Edward King that the situation was hopeless and he wanted to prevent a massacre since he only 25% of his troops were healthy enough to fight, while approximately 6,000 troops were hospitalized from wounds or disease. In addition, there were approximately 40,000 civilians. The night of April 8, he sent his staff officers to negotiate surrender terms with the Japanese.
The tankers received the order “crash” sometime between 6:30 and 6:45, in the morning, on April 9th, and destroyed anything that had military value for the Japanese. To destroy their tanks, they circled them, fired an armor-piercing shell into the engine of each tank, opened the gasoline cocks in the crew compartments, and dropped hand grenades into them. Once this was done, they were ordered to Provisional Tank Group Headquarters and ordered to remain there.
The night before the start of the march, Henry had an attack of malaria. In his own words about the march, “I managed to stagger along. When you have a bayonet looking at you, you can do most anything.” The Japanese arrived the morning of April 10th and ordered the Prisoners of War to the trail that ran near the headquarters. The trial the POWs were on ended when they reached the main road.
The 194th was near Cabcaban when the order to surrender came. They were ordered to remain where they were until receiving orders from the Japanese. On April 10, Japanese officers on horseback came into their area and ordered them to Mariveles.
The Prisoners of War were then left in the sun for the rest of the day. That night they were ordered north. The members of the 194th did receive orders to march until around 7:00 P.M. and were marched until 3:00 in the morning. At that time, the marchers were given a one hour break. At 4:00 A.M., they began to march again. They reached the barrio of Lamao at around 8:00 A.M. the morning of April 11th. There the POWs were allowed to try to find food, but little was found.
The POWs again were ordered to move at 9:00 A.M. and reached Limay at noon. It was at this time the Japanese put officers, with the rank of major and higher, in trucks and drove them to Balanga. These officers were then marched to Orani. For the lower-ranking officers and enlisted men, Limay was where they really started the death march. Up to this time, the guards, regular combat soldiers, had shown a great deal of respect for them. As they got further north, and the guards were changed, the treatment got worse.
They marched north through Orani and noticed they were being marched at a faster pace and that the guards seemed nervous. The POWs made their way north to Hermosa, where the road went from gravel to pavement. The change in the surface made the march easier on the men. When they were allowed to sit, those who attempted to lay down were jabbed with bayonets.
They resumed the march and at some point, it began to rain. Many of the POWs attempted to get drinks from the rain. The POWs reached San Fernando and were herded into a bullpen. The ground was covered in human waste from previous POWs. They next made their way to the train station. The Japanese made them form a detachment of 100 men and marched them to the train station, where they were packed into small wooden boxcars that could hold forty men or eight horses. The Japanese packed 100 POWs into each car and closed the doors.
The POWs rode the train to Capas, where they disembarked from the cars and walked the last eight kilometers to Camp O’Donnell. It took Henry seven days to complete the march and said of it, “I managed to stagger along. When you have a bayonet looking at you, you can do almost anything.”
The POWs marched eight kilometers to Camp O’Donnell. The camp was an unfinished Filipino Army Training Base. The Japanese pressed the camp into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942. When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese confiscated any extra clothing that the POWs had and refused to return it to them. They searched the POWs and if a man was found to have Japanese money on them, they were taken to the guardhouse. Over the next several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of the camp. These POWs had been executed for looting.
There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two to eight hours waiting for a drink. The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and the next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again. This situation improved when a second faucet was added.
There was no water for washing clothes so the POWs would throw out their clothing when it had been soiled. In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the camp and mess kits could not be washed. The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon overflowing since most of the POWs had dysentery. The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp including the POW kitchens and in the food.
The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant. When the ranking American doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies, he was told never to write another letter. The ranking American officer was severely beaten after requesting additional food, medicine, and building materials to repair the huts.
The Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the camp, the Japanese commandant refused to allow the truck into the camp. When the Japanese Red Cross sent medical supplies the camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them. When a representative of the Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150-bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a Japanese lieutenant.
Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to the hospital and placed underneath it. The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried in the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria. To clean the ground under the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it. The bodies of the dead were placed in the area, and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
Work details were sent out on a daily basis. Each day, the American doctors gave a list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work. If the quota of POWs needed to work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick but could walk, to work. The death rate among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day. The Japanese finally acknowledge that they had to do something, so the opened a new POW camp at Cabanatuan.
On June 1, 1942, the POWs formed detachments of 100 men each and were marched to Capas. There, they were put in steel boxcars with two Japanese guards. At Calumpit, the train was switched onto another line which took it to Cabanatuan. The POWs disembarked and were taken to a schoolyard where they were fed cooked rice and onion soup. From there, they were marched to Cabanatuan which had been the headquarters of the 91st Philippine Army Division and was formerly known as Camp Pangatian.
To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a detail that patrolled the fence of the camp. The reason this was done was that those who did escape and were caught were tortured before being executed, while the other POWs were made to watch. It is believed that no POW successfully escaped from the camp.
The POWs were sent out on work details to cut wood for the POW kitchens. Meals on a daily basis consisted of 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, and sweet potato or corn. Other POWs worked in rice paddies. Each morning, after arriving at the farm, the POWs went into a tool shed to get their tools. As they left the shed, the guards hit them on their heads. While working in the fields, the favorite punishment given to the men in the rice paddies was to have their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on by a guard. Returning from a detail the POWs bought or were given, medicine, food, and tobacco, which they somehow managed to get into the camp even though they were searched when they returned.
Henry did go out on daily work details while he was a POW. The details worked on farms, cut wood for the camp kitchen, planted rice, and load trucks. On several occasions when he returned to camp, the officers could tell that he had been drinking. He would wake the other POWs up in the barracks because he was so loud. Lt. Ted Spaulding, who was trying to get Henry to settle down, got in a fistfight with Henry and broke his hand when he punched Henry in the nose and broke it. According to the medical records kept by the camp doctors, Henry was admitted into the camp hospital on June 12, 1942, suffering from malaria. The records also show he was discharged from the hospital on December 23, 1942.
It is known that Henry was on a work detail to Lipa, Batangas. The POWs on the detail built runways and revetments with picks and shovels. He most likely remained on this detail until 1944.
While in the hospital, Henry noticed that the Japanese were cutting the grass near the wire. He attempted to make his bed more comfortable by stuffing his mattress with the grass. The result was that he awoke covered in bug bites. Inside the bites, the bugs had laid eggs, along his waistline, under his skin. He was lucky enough to find what may have been DDT. He was told not to put it on his skin, but he did. The result was that it killed the bugs.
For over a year, Henry’s family only knew that he was Missing in Action. It was not until January 1943, that his parents received word that he was a POW.
Henry went out on a work detail to Lipa Batangas during January 1943. The POWs on the detail built runways at a Lipa Airfield and every other day they worked on a farm. The detail ended on September 23, 1944, and the POWs were returned to Cabanatuan.
On October 1, 1944, Henry was boarded onto the Hokusen Maru. A total of 110 POWs were on the ship and put into its hold. The ship sailed but dropped anchor at the breakwater and remained there for three days. During this time POWs began losing their minds from the heat in the hold. The men would scream endlessly. The Japanese threatened to shoot the POWs unless something was done to silence them. The sane POWs strangled and hit the men with canteens to silence them. The ship finally sailed and hugged the coast of Bataan. It stopped at Cabcaban before sailed for San Fernando, La Union. The ships stayed close to the shoreline to prevent submarine attacks which failed since, on October 6th, two of the ships were sunk.
The ships were informed, on October 9th, that American carriers were seen near Formosa and sailed for Hong Kong when it received word American planes were in the area. During this part of the trip, the ships ran into American submarines which sank two more ships. The Hokusen Maru arrived at Hong Kong on October 11. While it was in port, American planes bombed the harbor on October 16th. On October 21st, the ship sailed for Takao, Formosa, arriving on November 1st.
The POWs were in such bad shape that the Japanese took them ashore, on November 8, and sent them to Inrin Temporary. The camp was specifically opened for them and they only did light work and grew vegetables to supplement their diets. Many of the men recovered while in the camp.
Henry and the other POWs were boarded onto another hell ship the Melbourne Maru. The ship sailed from Takao, Formosa, for Moji, Japan, arriving there on January 23. The POWs were disembarked and taken by train to Sendai #8.
It was while Henry was in this camp, on January 19, 1945, that his parents received a POW postcard from him that he had written while a POW in Batangas, Philippine Islands. In the card, he said, “My health is good. Received your letter. I hope you are well. Tell all my friends hello and ask them to write if possible. Keep your chins up as I am hoping to see you soon.” His parents had no idea that he was a POW in Japan.
At the camp, the prisoners lived in wooden barracks that were 40 feet long and 20 feet wide. During the winter, the POWs received three pieces of wood each day. Those POWs caught smuggling coal or wood into the camp were beaten. The POW food was inadequate and those men caught smuggling food were also beaten.
Punishments took on various forms in the camp. At times it was collective, and all the POWs were punished because of the actions of one or a few men. One occasion, a POW stole blanket and the entire camp was made to stand at attention until the man confessed. After his confession, all the POWs had to walk past him and slap him in the face. When this ended, he was put in the guardhouse for two days. Another time five POWs violated a camp rule and had to stand nude in the cold for an hour and a half.
Beatings were a common punishment given to the POWs. They were slapped, kicked, punched, hit with iron bars, and sheathings from swords. If a POW reported for sick call, the man was beaten. Often, after the beating, the man was put in the guardhouse – without adequate food – for several days.
Clothing for the POWs was Japanese summer uniforms which were inadequate for the cold winters. Although the Red Cross had sent, food, blankets, clothing, shoes, and medical supplies to the camp, the Japanese did not issue it to the POWs. Instead, they used the supplies themselves.
The POWs worked in a copper mine owned Fujita-Gumi Construction Company. The civilian employees were allowed to beat the POWs if they thought they weren’t working hard enough. He remained in this camp until the end of the war.
The POWs heard rumors that the war was over, but had no proof of it. They convinced their commanding officer, Capt. Thomas Walker Davis to approach the Japanese camp commander and ask. He did, and the Japanese officer offered his hand to shake hands. It was when the two men shook hands that the prisoners knew the war was over.
The guards had also leaned their rifles along the side of a building. The POWs made a break for them. They got to the guns before the Japanese.
A few days later, an American plane flew over the camp and dropped a note that told the POWs to put one man in the middle of the camp for every 100 POWs that were in the camp. The POWs put four men in the camp’s center.
The next day B-29s appeared over the camp and began to drop 55-gallon drums. One drum hit the camp kitchen. To stop this from happening again, the POWs drew a circle for a drop zone. There was no more damage after this was done.
It was a month before the POWs were moved from the camp. They were taken by train to Tokyo. When he was liberated, Henry weighed 80 pounds. Henry was boarded onto a British destroyer and returned to the Philippines. When declared healthy, he was boarded onto the S.S. Simon Bolivar, from Manila, and arrived at San Francisco on October 21, 1945.
Henry was taken to the Presidio. He was ordered to remain on base. In his own words, he said, “To hell with this! I have been told what to do in camp every day for the last 42 months!” He and a friend went for a beer. When he got back to the base, he expected to be court-martialed, but nothing was done to either man.
Henry was debriefed and took a train to Clinton, Iowa. He then took a bus to Little Falls, Minnesota. From there, he called his family to tell them that he would be home soon. He then took another bus to Brainerd.
At Hines Veterans Administration Hospital, in the western suburbs of Chicago, he was discharged from the army. He was happy since he had had his fill of military life. He returned home to Minnesota.
Henry went back to farming. He also worked for a lumber company as a lumberjack and truck driver. Henry Peck married Lilah Ann Sinclair on October 19, 1946. He was the father of four daughters and two sons. One son died as an infant.
Henry’s wife passed away in 1987, and he remarried. Henry Peck spent the rest of his life in Brainerd and passed away on February 28, 2011. He was buried at Lake Edward Cemetery in Crow Wing County, Minnesota.