S/Sgt. Howard Ival Massey Sr.
S/Sgt. Howard I. Massey Sr. was born in January 3, 1911, in Farmersburg, Sullivan County, Indiana. He was the son Albert & Gertrude Massey and was one of the couple's four children. Howard married Margaret Gilmore in 1932 and was the father of three sons, Gerald, Richard, and Howard, Jr. The couple divorced in 1937 and joined the Army in 1938. Howard married a second time to Ruby Beavers and the couple had a son, Morris.
In 1941 while stationed at Fort
Knox, Kentucky, Howard became a member of
medical detachment of the 192nd Tank
Battalion. After the Louisiana maneuvers of
1941, the members of the battalion learned that
the 192nd was being sent overseas. Being
over 29 years old, he was given the opportunity
to resign from federal service. He chose
to remain with the battalion and received a
leave home to say his goodbyes and then returned
to Camp Polk. Louisiana.
Traveling west over different train routes, the
battalion arrived in San Francisco, California,
where they were ferried, on the U.S.A.T
General Frank M. Coxe, to Angel Island and
given physicals and inoculations. The
members of the medical detachment administered
the physicals to the soldiers of the tank
companies. Men with minor medical
conditions were held on the island and scheduled
to rejoin the battalion at a later date.
Other men were simply replaced.
The morning of December 8, 1941, just ten hours
after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the
tankers learned about the attack. That
morning, they were ordered to the perimeter of
Clark Airfield to guard against
paratroopers. The medics remained behind
in the bivouac. At 12:45 P.M., the
Japanese attacked the airfield. During the attack, the medics
took cover since they had no weapons.
Battle of the Philippines, Howard, with the
other members of the medical detachment, worked
to provide medical care to the members of the
letter companies of the battalion. On one
occasion Howard was with Capt. Alvin
Poweleit, M.D., Pfc. Curtis Massey and Cpl.
John Reynolds of the medical detachment
making the rounds to the aid stations in an
ambulance. As night was falling, they
came under heavy fire from Japanese
artillery. To get out of the line of
fire, they pulled off the road and
camouflaged the ambulance.
Howard went down a slope to the bed of a creek. While there, he heard the sound of twigs cracking. He ran to the ambulance and told the other soldiers what he had heard, and each man gave his opinion of the situation. Just in case the noise was caused by the Japanese, the soldiers readied their guns. Soon they saw eight camouflaged men approaching. The men were Japanese soldiers.
Howard planned the method of attack. Capt. Poweleit would take the first man, he would take the second, Cpl. Reynolds the third and Pvt. Massey the fourth. They would do the same with the remaining Japanese soldiers. The four men opened fired and wiped out the patrol. Knowing that more Japanese were in the area, they got in the ambulance and out of the area as fast as they could.
occasion, Howard and Capt. Poweleit came to a
stream to get water. While filling their
canteens with water they noticed gold colored
rocks in the creek. They collected some
but never told anyone of what they had
found. Howard and Poweleit never did learn
if the rocks were gold.
On April 9, 1942, the order to surrender was given. Howard and the other medics made their way to Mariveles at the southern tip of Bataan. From there, Howard started what became known as the death march.
At San Fernando, Howard and the other Prisoners Of War were boarded into small wooden boxcars used to haul sugarcane. The cars where known as forty or eights since each car could hold forty men or eight horses. The Japanese put 100 POWs into each car and closed the doors. Those POWs who died remained standing until the POWs disembarked at Capas. From Capas, they walked the last few miles to Camp O'Donnell.
held at Camp O'Donnell and Cabanatuan. In
June 1942, he was sent to Clark Field on a work
detail to build runways. Being a medic, he
provided what medical treatment to the other
POWs. Howard remained on the detail until
he developed beriberi and was sent to medical
ward at Bilibid Prison and was admitted to the
hospital on July 6, 1943. He remained in
the hospital until September 20, 1943, when he
was discharged to Building #18 at Bilibid.
As the American military forces advanced on the Philippine Islands, the Japanese military made the decision to send the POWs to Japan or other more secure occupied territories. On December 12, 1944, the POWs heard rumors that a detail was being sent out. Those who were on the draft went through what was a farce of an inspection. They were told cigarettes, soap, and salt would be issued to them and that they would also receive a meal to eat and one to take with them. The Japanese stated they would leave Bilibid by 7:00 in the morning, so the lights were left on all night. At 4:00 a.m. the morning of December 13th, the POWs were awakened.
By 7:00, the selected POWs were lined up and roll call was taken. It took until 9:00 A.M. to finish the roll call, so the prisoners were allowed to roam the compound until they were told to "fall-in." The men were fed a meal and than marched to Pier 7 in Manila. During the march down Luzon Boulevard, the POWs saw that the street cars had stopped running and many things were in disrepair.
POWs saw that the American bombers were doing a
job on the Japanese transports, since there were
at least forty wrecked ships in the bay.
When the POWs reached Pier 7, there were three
ships docked. One was a old run down ship,
the other two were large and in good shape.
They soon discovered one of the two nicer ships
was their ship.
While the POWs were at Olongapo, a Japanese officer, Lt. Junsaburo Toshio, told the ranking American officer, Lt. Col. E. Carl Engelhart, that those too badly wounded to continue the trip would be returned to Bilibid. Fifteen men were selected and loaded onto a truck. They were taken into the mountains and never seen again. What was learned is that these men were taken to a cemetery and shot. They were buried at a cemetery nearby. The remainder of the POWs remained on the tennis courts for five or six days. During that time, they were given water but not fed.
The POWs remained on the tennis court for nine days. During their time on the court, American planes attacked the area around them. The men watched as the fighter bombers came in vertically releasing bombs as they pulled out of the dives. On several occasions, the planes dove right at the POWs, dropped their bombs, and pulled out. The bombs drifted over the POWs and landed away from them exploding on contact.
Since the POWs had no place to hide, they watched and enjoyed the show. They believed that the pilots knew they were Americans but had no way of knowing if this was true. But what is known is that not one bomb was dropped on them even though they could be seen from the planes.
The evening of December 16th, the Japanese brought 50 kilo bags of rice for the POWs. About half of the rice had fallen out of the bags because of holes. Each POW was given three spoons of raw rice, and a quarter of a spoon of salt.
At about 8:00 AM on the morning of December 22nd, 22 trucks arrived at the tennis court. Rumors flew on where they were going to be taken. At about 4:00 PM, a Taiwanese guard told the POWs, in broken English,"No go Cabanatuan. Go Manila; maybe Bilibid." The guard knew as little as the POWs.
On December 21st, the POWs were taken by truck to San Fernando, Pampanga, arriving there about four or five in the afternoon. Once there, they were put in a movie theater. Since it was dark, the POWs saw as a dungeon.
During their time at San Fernando, Pampanga, the POWs lived through several air raids. The reason for the air raids was the barrio was military headquarters for the area. Most of the civilians had been moved out of the barrio. Many of the Americans began to believe they had been taken there so that they would be killed by their own countrymen.
December 23rd, at about 10:00 PM, the Japanese interpreter came and spoke to the ranking American officer about moving the POWs. The Japanese loaded the seriously ill POWs into a truck. Those remaining behind believed they were taken to Bilibid. The remaining POWs were moved to a trade school building in the barrio.
After 10:00 AM on December 24th, the POWs were taken to the train station. The POWs saw that the station had been hit by bombings and that the cars they were to board had bullet holes in them from strafing. 180 to 200 were packed into steel boxcars with four guards. The doors of the boxcars were kept closed and the heat in the cars was terrible. Ten to fifteen POWs rode on the roofs of the cars along with two guards. The guards told these POWs that it was okay to wave to the American planes.
On December 25th, the POWs disembarked at San Fernando, La Union, at 2:00 AM and disembarked. They walked two kilometers to a school yard on the southern outskirts of the barrio. From December 25th until the 26th. The POWs were held in a school house. The morning of December 26th, the POWs were marched to a beach. During this time the prisoners were allowed one handful of rice and a canteen of water. The heat from the sun was so bad that men drank seawater. Many of those men died.
The remaining prisoners at
San Fernando La Union where they boarded onto
the Brazil Maru on December 27th at 8:00
A.M. With the Enoura
Maru the ship sailed for Takao,
Formosa. During the night of December
30th, the POWs heard the sound of depth charges
exploding in the water. The ships arrived
at Takao, Formosa, on December 31st around 11:30
A.M. and dropped anchor in the harbor.
arriving at Takao, Formosa, each POW received a
six inch long, 3/4 inch wide piece hardtack to
eat. This was the first bread they had
since receiving crackers in their Red Cross
packages in 1942. During the time in the harbor,
the POWs received little water.
The Enoura Maru also
came under attack by American planes the morning
of January 9th. One bomb hit the ship
exploded in the corner of the forward hold
killing 258 prisoners. The surviving POWs
remained in in the hold for three days with the
dead, and the stench filled the
air. A barge was brought to
the ship, and the dead were taken to
shore. The POWs on this detail were too weak to lift
the bodies, so ropes were tied to the legs and
they were dragged to shore. Once there,
they were buried in a mass grave on a beach near
S/Sgt. Howard I. Massey died on Tuesday, January 9, 1945, during the attack on the Enoura Maru and was buried on Formosa in a mass grave. After the war, his remains, and those of other POWs, were recovered and reburied at the National Cemetery of the Pacific in the Punch Bowl at Hawaii.
According to the record kept by 2nd Lt. Jack Merrifield, Howard survived the attack on the Enoura Maru and died from dysentery on Thursday, January 15, 1945.
Since S/Sgt. Howard I. Massey's remains were not identified, his name appears on The Tablets of the Missing at the American Military Cemetery outside Manila. Above his name is the name of Pfc. Curtis Massey who was also a medic with his battalion.
It should be noted that while Howard was a Japanese POW, his second wife filed for divorce so that she could remarry. His two sons, by his first wife, ended up being raised by his relatives.