Shubert, Sgt. Robert W.


Sgt. Robert W. Shubert
Born: 11 December 1916 – Shawnee, Ohio
Parents: Theodore Shubert and Rosa White-Shubert 
Siblings: 2 sisters, 1 brother
– mother passed away in 1937 
– Shawnee, Ohio 
Occupation: Glass factory worker
– 1940 – living at 620 Elm Street – Shawnee, Ohio – lodger 
– Selective Service
– 16 October 1940 – Logan, Ohio
– Contact: Nelson Logan
–  brother
– U. S. Army 
– 5 February 1941 – Ft. Hayes, Columbus, Ohio 
Contact: Mrs. Bertha Gabriel
– 38½ West Main Street, Logan, Ohio 
– his sister
– Fort Knox, Kentucky 
– Basic Training
– soldiers rushed through basic training
– Week 1: infantry drilling
– Week 2: manual arms and marching to music
– Week 3: machine gun
– Week 4: pistol
– Week 5: M1 rifle
– Week 6: field week – training with gas masks, gas attacks, pitching tents, and hikes
– Weeks 7: Time was spent learning the weapons, firing each one, learning the parts of the weapons and their functions, field stripping and caring for
   weapons, and the cleaning of weapons
– C Company moved into new barracks
Tactical Maneuver
– 14 June 1941 – C Company, D Company, par to of Hq Company, and part of the Medical Detachment go on a three-day tactical road trip
– the purpose of the trip was to give the battalion experience of loading, unloading, and setting up administrative camps
– Each tank company traveled with 20 tanks, 20 motorcycles, 7 armored scout cars, 5 jeeps, 12 peeps (later called jeeps), 20 large 2½ ton trucks (these
  carried the battalion’s garages for vehicle repair), 5, 1½ ton trucks (which included the companies’ kitchens), and 1 ambulance.
– The detachments traveled through Bardstown and Springfield before arriving at Harrodsburg at 2:30 P.M. where they set up their bivouac at the
– The next morning, they moved to Herrington Lake east of Danville, where the men swam, boated, and fished. The battalion returned to Ft. Knox through
  Lebanon, New Haven, and Hodgenville, Kentucky. At Hodgenville, the men were allowed to visit the birthplace of Abraham Lincoln. 
– the morning of June 16 – A and B Companies, the other half of HQ Company, and the other half of the Medical Detachment left Ft. Knox on a similar
  road trip
Louisiana Maneuvers
– 1 September 1941 to 30 September 1941
– battalion boarded trucks and rode to Louisiana
– tanks and other vehicles sent by train
– maneuvers from September 1 through 30.
– the medical detachment treated injuries, snakebites, and other ailments. 
– One of the major problems was snake bites
– every other man was bitten at some point by a snake
– The platoon commanders and medics carried a snakebit kit
– used to create a vacuum to suck the poison out of the bite
– The bites were the result of the nights cooling down and snakes crawling under the soldiers’ bedrolls for warmth while the soldiers were sleeping on.
– a multicolored snake that was about eight inches long was deadly
–  The good thing was that these snakes would not just strike at the man
– only struck if the man forced himself on it
– When the soldiers woke up in the morning they would carefully pick up their bedrolls to see if there were any snakes under them. 
– To avoid being bitten, men slept on the two and a half-ton trucks or on or in the tanks.
– Another trick the soldiers learned was to dig a small trench around their tents and lay rope in the trench.
– The burs on the rope kept the snakes from entering the tents. The snakes were not a problem if the night was warm.
– During the maneuvers that tanks held defensive positions and usually were held in reserve by the higher headquarters.
– For the first time, the tanks were used to counter-attack and in support of infantry. – Some men felt that the tanks were finally being used as they should
  be used and not as “mobile pillboxes.” 
– other men described the maneuvers as being awakened at 4:30 A.M. and sent to an area to engage an imaginary enemy.
– After engaging the enemy, the tanks withdrew to another area.
– The crews had no idea what they were doing most of the time
– crews stated they were never told anything by the higher-ups
– men felt that they just rode around in their tanks a lot 
– The medics traveled with the companies in the half-tracks.
– at Ft. Knox, the tankers were taught that they should never attack an anti-tank gun head-on
– One day during the maneuvers, their commanding general threw away the entire battalion doing just that.
– After sitting out a period of time, the battalion resumed the maneuvers
– At some point, the battalion also went from fighting for the Red Army to fighting for the Blue Army.
– wild hogs were a problem
– In the middle of the night while the men were sleeping in their tents they would suddenly hear hogs squealing.
– The hogs would run into the tents pushing on them until they took them down and dragged them away. 
– food was also not very good
– it was always damp from the humidity which made it hard to get a fire started
– Many of their meals were C ration meals of beans or chili
– they choked the meals down.
– washing clothes was done when the men had a chance
– found a creek and looked for alligators
– if there were none, took a bar of soap and scrubbed whatever they were washing
– clothes were usually washed once a week or once every two weeks
– the sandy soil was a problem for the tanks
– tanks were parked and the crews walked away from them
– when they returned, the tanks had sunk into the sandy soil up to their hauls
– To get them out, other tanks were brought in and attempted to pull them out.
– If that didn’t work, a tank wrecker came from Camp Polk to pull the tank out.
– one good thing that came out of the maneuvers was that the tank crews learned how to move at night.
– this was never done at Ft. Knox
– the night movements were preparing them for what they would do in the Philippines
– The drivers learned how to drive at night and to take instructions from their tank commanders who had a better view from the turret.
– a number of motorcycle riders from other tank units were killed
– rode their motorcycles without headlights at night 
– this meant they could not see obstacles in front of their bikes
– When they hit something they fell to the ground
– the tanks following them went over them
– This happened several times before the motorcycle riders were ordered to turn on their headlights.
– the battalion was ordered to Camp Polk
Overseas Duty:
– Camp Polk, Louisiana
– informed they were being sent overseas
– men 29 years old or older or married were given the chance to resign from military service
– rode trains to San Francisco, California
– two trains
– one train carried the soldiers
– a second train followed the first train and carried the company’s tanks
– a box car and passenger car – with some soldiers – were at the end of the second train
– ferried to Angel Island on the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
– the battalion received physicals from the battalion’s medical detachment
– men with minor medical conditions remained on the island
– scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date
– some men were released from service and replaced
– the soldiers put cosmoline on the tanks’ guns and anything else that could rust
– Boarded: U.S.A.T. Hugh L. Scott
– Sailed: San Francisco – Monday – 27 October 1941
– Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii – Sunday – 2 November 1941
– soldiers give shore leave
– Sailed: Wednesday – 5 November 1941
– took a southerly route away from main shipping lanes
– joined by U.S.S. Louisville and U.S.A.T. President Calvin Coolidge
– 15 November 1941 – U.S.S. Louisville intercepted a ship after smoke was seen on the horizon
– the Louisville intercepted two other ships that were Japanese freighters carrying scrap metal to Japan
– Arrived: Guam – 16 November 1941
– ships take on coconuts, water, vegetables, bananas
– Sailed: 17 November 1941
– Arrived: Manila, Philippine Islands
– Thursday – Thursday – 20 November 1941
– the ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M.
– docked at Pier 7 later that morning
– their arrival was that different
– no band or a welcoming committee was waiting at the pier
– a military party came aboard the ship carrying guns
– they told the soldiers, “Draw your firearms immediately; we’re under alert. We expect a war with Japan at any moment. Your destination is Fort Stotsenburg, Clark Field.” 
– 3:00 P.M., as the enlisted men left the ship
– a Marine checked off their names
– the Marine responded with, “Hello sucker,” when they said their names
– Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort,
– the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks
– battalion rode a train to Ft. Stotsenburg
– Ft. Stotsenburg
– housed in tents along the main road between fort and Clark Field
– General Edward King greeted them and apologize about their living quarters
– the battalion was issued tents to live in until their barracks were completed
– made sure that the soldiers had Thanksgiving dinner – a stew thrown into their mess kits – before he had his own
– bivouac was WW I tents shared by five men
– the area was near a runway used by B-17s to take off
– planes flew over tents at 100 feet
– the planes blew dirt onto everything
– the noise was unbelievable
Radio Communications:
– the battalion had a large number of ham radio operators
– within hours, they had set up radio communications with the U.S.
– sent home messages from the men to their families
– radio communications monitoring in Manila suddenly noted the increase in radio traffic and searched for the source
– after learning it was the 192nd, they gave the battalion assigned frequencies
Work Day:
– 5:15 A. M. – reveille
– washing – the lucky man washed by a faucet with running water
– 6:00 A.M. – breakfast
– 7:00 to 11:30 A.M. 
– Noon – lunch
– 1:30 to 2:30 P.M. – worked
– the shorter afternoon work period was based on the belief that the climate made it too hot to work
– the tankers worked until 4:30 P.M.
– the term “recreation in the motor pool” – a term they took from the 194th Tank Battalion – was used for this work time
– 5:10 – dinner
– after dinner, the soldiers were free to do what they wanted to do
– the soldiers spent their free time bowling, going to the movies,
– they also played horseshoes, softball, badminton, or threw a football around
– on Wednesday afternoons, they went swimming
– men were allowed to go to Manila in small groups
– the battalion wore fatigues to do the work on the tanks
– the soldiers were reprimanded for not wearing dress uniforms 
– they continued to wear fatigues in their barracks area to do their work
– if the soldiers left the battalion’s area, they were expected to wear dress uniforms
– this included going to the PX
– 1 December 1941
– tanks ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field
– two tank crew members had to stay with the tanks at all time
– 194th guarded the north end of the airfield and the 192nd guarded the south end
– meals served to men at the tanks by food trucks
– those not assigned to a tank or assigned to a half-track remained at the command post
– December 8, 1941 – Major Ted Wickord, the battalion’s commanding officer, Gen. James Weaver, and Major Ernest Miller, CO of the 194th Tank
   Battalion, read the messages of the attack on Pearl Harbor
– the officers of the 192nd were called to the tent and informed of the Japanese attack
– all the members of the tank and half-track crews were ordered to the south end of Clark Field
– Hq Company remained behind in their bivouac
– the sky was filled with American planes
– Noon – the planes landed and the pilots went to lunch
– the planes were lined up in a straight line outside the pilots’ mess hall
– the pilots went to lunch
– 12:45 P.M. – 54 planes appeared over airfield
– bombs exploded on runways
– one bomb hit the pilots’ mess hall
– the soldiers watched took cover since few of their weapons that could be used against planes
– after the attack they watched as wounded were carried to the hospital on bomb racks, trucks, and anything that could carry them
– wounded put under hospital when it ran out of room
– most of the wounded were missing arms or legs
– Battle of Luzon – 8 December 1941 – 6 January 1942
– the 192nd remained at Clark Field
– lived through two more attacks
– 21 December 1941 – ordered north to Lingayen Gulf
– Japanese were landing troops
– due to logistical problems, the tanks from B and C Companies ran low on fuel
– only enough fuel was available for one tank platoon to continue north
– a B Company platoon was picked to continue to the gulf
– the tank companies made it to the gulf
– watched from a ridge as Japanese troops landed on beaches
– ordered to withdraw 
– from this point on the tanks served as a rearguard as troops repeatedly fell back
– 27 December 1941 – at Cabanatuan, the company destroyed large amounts of Japanese equipment
– 31 December 1941
– Baluiag – company’s tanks hid inside huts as Japanese crossed the bridge into the barrio
– tanks stayed hidden as the Japanese built up forces
– tanks open up on the Japanese tanks at the end of the bridge
– came bursting out of huts
– drove Japanese toward tanks of 2nd Lt. Marshall Kennady’s tanks who was waiting for them
– Kennady’s tanks held fire until the Japanese were in full view
– Americans chased the Japanese up and down the streets of the barrio and through buildings
– by the time they disengaged, they had destroyed eight Japanese tanks
– 192nd was the last unit to enter Bataan before the bridge is destroyed
– Battle of Bataan – 7 January 1942 – 9 April 1942
– 2 February 1942 – 5:15 P.M. – Platoon of C Company tanks ordered to Quinan Point
– Japanese landed troops on the point that were cut off from reinforcements
– tanks did reconnaissance and attacked from the left of the line
– sprayed Japanese with machine gunfire
– .37 milometer antitank gun spotted and tanks withdraw
– it was not known at the time, but the gun had been knocked out by mortar fire
– 3 February 1942 – repeated maneuver from the day before to left of the line of defense
– as the tanks moved forward, the 45th Infantry, Philippine Scouts follow
– tanks had to avoid tree stumps which they could hang up on
– the tree stumps made it hard for the tanks to maneuver
– tanks disengage returned to a tank group
– 4 February 1942
– 8:30 A.M. – five tanks and a radio car arrived at the point
– each tank crew received a walkie-talkie and given a number
– radio car also received a walkie-talkie
– tanks identified as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
– tanks were directed to where they were needed
– Japanese were driven back to the cliff line
– tanks returned to the tank group
– infantry left to mop up
– February 1942 – Battle of the Pockets
– Japanese offensive stopped and pushed back creating two pockets with trapped troops
– tanks sent in to support infantry
– one tank entered the pocket and the next tank waited for the relieved tank to exit the pocket before it entered
– Japanese attempted to pour gasoline into tank vents
– machine-gunned
– if they reached the tank, another tank sprayed the tank with machine gunfire
– did not like to do this because the rivets often popped wounding crew
– Two methods used to wipe out pockets
– First Method:- the tank carried three Filipino soldiers each with a sack of hand grenades
– as a tank approached, the Japanese dove into foxholes
– tank passed over the hole and each man dropped a grenade into the hole
– grenades were WWI ordnance and one out of three usually exploded
– Second Method:
– the driver parked the tank over a foxhole
– one track was over the hole
– the driver gave gas to the opposite track which caused the tank to go in a circle grinding the unpowered track into the ground
– tankers slept upwind from tanks because of rotting flesh in the tracks
– March 1942
– Japanese had been fought to a standstill
– suffered from the same illnesses affecting Americans
– the food ration was cut again
– Japanese dropped surrender leaflets of a scantily clad blond
– a picture of a hamburger and milk shake would have worked better
– 3 April 1942
– Japanese launch a new offensive with troops brought in from Singapore
– tanks sent into various sectors to stop the Japanese advance
– 6 April 1942
– four tanks sent to support 45th Philippine Infantry and 75th Infantry, Philippine Scouts
– one tank knocked out by anti-tank fire at the junction of Trails 8 & 6
– other tanks covered withdraw
– 3rd Platoon sent up the west coast road
– near Mt. Samat ran into heavy Japanese force
– the tanks withdrew to Marivales
– 8 April 1942
– Gen. Edward P. King decided that further resistance was futile since approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight
– he estimated they would last one more day
– In addition, he had over 6,000 troops who sick or wounded and 40,000 civilians who he feared would be massacred
– His troops were on one-quarter rations, and even at that ration, he had two days of food left.
– 6:30 P.M. – order goes out to be prepared to destroy all equipment of use to the Japanese
– 10:30 P.M. – the decision made to send white flag across the battle line
– 11:40 P.M. – ammunition dumps were blown up
– At 2:oo A.M. April 9, Gen. King sent a jeep under a white flag carrying Colonel Everett C. Williams, Col. James V. Collier, and Major Marshall Hurt to meet
   with the Japanese commander about terms of surrender.
 – The white flag was bedding from A Company, 192nd Tank Battalion
– Shortly after daylight Collier and Hunt returned with word of the appointment
– the tankers received this message over their radios at 6:45 A.M. – 9 April 1942
– circled tanks and fired an armor-piercing shell into each tank’s engine
– opened gasoline cocks and dropped grenades into the crew compartment
– Gen. King with his two aides, Maj. Cothran and Captain Achille C. Tisdelle Jr. got into a jeep carrying a large white flag
– They were followed by another jeep – also flying another large white flag – with Col. Collier and Maj. Hurt in it
– As the jeeps made their way north they were strafed and small bombs were dropped by a Japanese plane
– The drivers of both jeeps managed to avoid the bullets
– The strafing ended when a Japanese reconnaissance plane ordered the fighter pilot to stop strafing
– About 10:00 A.M. the jeeps reached Lamao where they were received by a Japanese Major General who informed King that he reported his coming to
   negotiate a surrender and that an officer from the Japanese command would arrive to do the negotiations
– The Japanese officer also told him that his troops would no attack for thirty minutes while King decided what he would do
– After a half-hour, no Japanese officer had arrived from their headquarters and the Japanese attack had resumed.
– King sent Col. Collier and Maj. Hunt back to his command with instructions that any unit inline with the Japanese advance should fly white flags
– Shortly after this was done a Japanese colonel and interpreter arrived. King was told the officer was Homma’s Chief of Staff and he had come to discuss
   King’s surrender
– King attempted to get insurances from the Japanese that his men would be treated as prisoners of war, but the Japanese officer – through his interpreter
– he was accused of declining to surrender unconditionally
– At one point King stated he had enough trucks and gasoline to carry his troops out of Bataan
– He was told that the Japanese would handle the movement of the prisoners
– The two men talked back and forth until the colonel said through the interpreter, “The Imperial Japanese Army are not barbarians.” 
– King found no choice but to accept him at his word
– 6:45 A.M. – the order “CRASH” was sent for equipment to be destroyed
Prisoner of War:
– 9 April 1942
– Death March
– Mariveles – POWs start the march at the southern tip of Bataan
– POWs ran past Japanese artillery firing at Corregidor
– Americans on Corregidor returned fire
– San Fernando – POWs put into small wooden boxcars
– each boxcar could hold eight horses or forty men
– 100 POWs packed into each car
– POWs who died remained standing since they could not fall to the floors
– Capas – dead fell to the floors as living left boxcars
– POWs walked last ten miles to Camp O’Donnell
POW Camps:
– Philippine Islands:
– Camp O’Donnell
– 1 April 1942 – unfinished Filipino training base Japanese put into use as a POW camp
– Japanese believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs
– POWs searched upon arrival at camp
– those found with Japanese money were accused of looting
– sent to guardhouse
– over several days, gunshots heard southeast of the camp
– POWs who had money on them had been executed
– Japanese took away any extra clothing from POWs as they entered the camp and refused to return it
– since no water was available for wash clothing, the POWs threw soiled clothing away
– clothing was taken from dead
– few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing
– POWs were not allowed to bathe
– only one water spigot for the entire camp
– POWs waited 2½ hours to 8 hours to get a drink
– water frequently turned off by Japanese guards when they wanted water
– the next man in line waited as long as 4 hours for the water to be turned on again
– the POWs installed a second water line
– found the pipe and dug the trench
– Japanese also turned the water off when they wanted water
– they did not know the POWs could turn the water back on
– mess kits could not be cleaned
– POWs had to carry water 3 miles from a river to cook their meals
– second water spigot installed a week after POWs arrived
– the camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant
– the senior POW doctor wrote a list of medicines he wanted to treat the sick and was told by the camp commandant, Capt. Yoshio Tsuneyoshi, never to
  write another letter
– Tsuneyoshi said that all he wanted to know about the American POWs was their names and numbers when they died
– slit trenches overflowed since many of the POWs had dysentery
– flies were everywhere including in camp kitchens and food
– refused to allow a truckload of medicine sent by the Archbishop of Manila into the camp
– 95% of the medicine sent by the Philippine Red Cross was taken by the Japanese for their own use
– a second truck sent by the Red Cross was turned away at the gate
– POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow
– operations on POWs were performed with mess kit knives
– only one medic – out of six medics assigned to care for 50 sick POWs in the hospital – was well enough to work
– as many as 50 POWs died each day
– each morning dead were found everywhere in the camp and stacked up under the hospital
– the ground under the hospital was scraped and covered with lime to clean it
– the dead were moved to this area and the section where they had laid was scraped and covered with lime
– usually not buried for two or three days
– at one point, 80 bodies lay under the hospital awaiting burial
– work details: if a POW could walk, he was sent out on a work detail
– POWs on burial detail often had dysentery and malaria
– Japanese opened a new POW camp at Cabanatuan to lower the death rate
– In May or early June, his parents received a message from the War Department

Dear Mrs. B. Gabriel:

        According to War Department records, you have been designated as the emergency addressee if Sergeant Robert W. Shubert, 35,002,377, who, according to the latest information available, was serving in the  Philippine Islands at the time of the final surrender. 

        I deeply regret that it is impossible for me to give you more information than is contained in this letter.  In the last days before the surrender of Bataan, there were casualties which were not reported to the War Department.  Conceivably the same is true of the surrender of Corregidor and possibly other islands of the Philippines.  The Japanese Government has indicated its intention of conforming to the terms of the Geneva Convention with respect to the interchange of information regarding prisoners of war.  At some future date, this Government will receive through Geneva a list of persons who have been taken prisoners of war.  Until that time the War Department cannot give you positive information. 

        The War Department will consider the persons serving in the Philippine Islands as “missing in action” from the date of surrender of Corregidor, May 7, 1942, until definite information to the contrary is received.  It is to be hoped that the Japanese Government will communicate a list of prisoners of war at an early date.  At that time you will be notified by this office in the event that his name is contained in the list of prisoners of war.   In the case of persons known to have been present in the Philippines and who are not reported to be prisoners of war by the Japanese Government, the War Department will continue to carry them as “missing in action” in the absence of information to the contrary, until twelve months have expired.  At the expiration of twelve months and in the absence of other information the War Department is authorized to make a final determination.

        Recent legislation makes provision to continue the pay and allowances of persons carried in a “missing” status for a period not to exceed twelve months;  to continue, for the duration of the war, the pay and allowances of persons known to have been captured by the enemy; to continue allotments made by missing personnel for a period of twelve months and allotments or increase allotments made by persons by the enemy during the time they are so held;  to make new allotments or increase allotments to certain dependents defined in Public Law 490, 77th Congress.  The latter dependents generally include the legal wife, dependent children under twenty-one years of age and dependent mother, or such dependents as having been designated in official records.  Eligible dependents who can establish a need for financial assistance and are eligible to receive this assistance the amount allotted will be deducted from pay which would otherwise accrue to the credit of the missing individual.

                                                                                                                                                                    Very Truly yours

                                                                                                                                                                            J. A. Ulio (signed) 
                                                                                                                                                                       Major General
                                                                                                                                                                   The Adjutant General

– 1 June 1942 – POWs formed detachments of 100 men
– POWs marched out the gate and marched toward Capas
– Filipino people gave POWs small bundles of food
– the guards did not stop them
– At Capas, the POWs were put into steel boxcars and rode them to Manila
– the train stopped at Calumpit and switched onto the line to Cabanatuan
– POWs disembarked the train at 6:00 P.M. and put into a schoolyard
– fed rice and onion soup
– 4 June 1942 – transfer of POWs completed
– only sick POWs remained at Camp O’Donnell
– Cabanatuan
– original name – Camp Pangatian
– Philippine Army Base built for 91st Philippine Army Division
– put into use by the Japanese as a POW camp
– actually three camps
– Camp 1: POWs from Camp O’Donnell sent there in an attempt to lower the death rate
– Camp 2: two miles away
– all POWs moved from there because of a lack of water
– later used for Naval POWs
– Camp 3: six miles from Camp 2
– POWs from Corregidor sent there
– camp created to keep Corregidor POWs separated from Bataan POWs
– Corregidor POWs were in better shape
– July 1942 – parents received a second message from the War Department

“The last report of casualties received by the War Department from the Philippines arrived early in the morning of May 6. Through this date, Sergeant Robert W. Shubert had not been reported as a casualty. The War Department will consider the persons serving in the Philippine Islands as “missing in action” from the date of the surrender of Corregidor, May 7, until definite information to the contrary is received.

“Efforts to secure prisoner of war lists from the Philippines have not been successful to this date due to the lack of communication and the fact that the Japanese Government has not yet given permission for the Swiss representative and the International Red Cross delegates to make visits to prisoner of war camps in the islands. When the lists of prisoners are received, we will clear the name of your son and send you any additional information that we may have.”

– January 1943 – POWs from Camp 3 consolidated into Camp 1
– Camp Administration:
– the Japanese left POWs to run the camp on their own
– Japanese entered camp when they had a reason
– June – four POWs escaped but recaptured
– tied to posts by main gate and beaten
– three days later cut from posts
– dug their own graves
– shot by a firing squad
– a Japanese lieutenant walked to each grave and shot the men
– Barracks:
– each barracks held 50 men
– often held between 60 and 120 men
– slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, and mosquito netting
– diseases spread easily
– no showers
– the men worked together 
– divided into groups of ten men
– Blood Brother Rule
– if one man escaped the other nine would be executed
– Morning Roll Call:
– stood at attention
– frequently beaten over their heads for no reason
– when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in their shins with their
  hobnailed boots because they didn’t like the way the POWs lined up
– June – diphtheria began to spread through camp
– 130 POWs died before the Japanese issued medicine to treat it
– Work Details:
– went out on work detail
– became ill
– returned to Cabanatuan
Hospitalized: Thursday – 17 September 1942 – malaria and malnutrition
– admitted to Building 17
– Friday – 18 September 1942 – malaria and malnutrition
– Approximate time of death – 4:00 AM
– he was the 1,713 POW to die at the camp
– it was reported that he had no possessions
– his family learned of his death – June 1943
– Cabanatuan Camp Cemetery
War Department Letter
– May 1943 – family received notification he was dead

                    J A ULIO THE ADJUTANT GENERAL.”

– American Military Cemetery – Manila, Philippine Islands
– Plot: A Row: 12 Grave: 173
Memorial Service:
– Shawnee Methodist Church – 15 August 1943


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