Cpl. William Vincent McKeon was born on May 5, 1905, in Minneapolis, Minnesota, to Michael and Alice McKeon. He, with his three brothers and sister, grew up at 1855 Portland Avenue in Saint Paul, Minnesota.
Bill registered on October 16, 1940, at Local Board 11 when the Selective Service Act took effect. On the form, he stated he worked for F.E. Quimby in St. Paul. It is not known when William entered the Army, but it is known that he was assigned to the 194th Tank Battalion as a medic. At that time the Army there Army believed that medics should receive hands-on training. This training was done by the battalion’s doctors. When he finished his training, he was assigned to A Company as a medic. This meant he lived with the members of the company at Fort Lewis, Washington.
On August 15, 1941, the 194th received orders, from Ft. Knox, Kentucky, for duty in the Philippine Islands because of an event that happened during the summer. A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd.
He took his plane down and identified a buoy in the water. He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of a Japanese occupied island, with a large radio transmitter, hundreds of miles away. The squadron continued its flight plane and flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field. By the time the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
The next morning, by the time another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat which was seen making its way toward shore. Since communication between and Air Corps and Navy was poor, the boat was not intercepted. It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
In September 1941, the 194th, minus B Company, was ordered to San Francisco, California, for transport to the Philippine Islands. Arriving, by train, at Ft. Mason in San Francisco, they were taken by the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe, to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island where they received physicals and inoculations from the battalion’s medical detachment. Those men found with medical conditions were replaced.
The tankers boarded the S.S. President Calvin Coolidge on September 8 at 3:00 P.M. and sailed at 9:00 P.M. for the Philippine Islands. To get the tanks to fit in the ship’s holds, the turrets had serial numbers spray painted on them and were removed from the tanks. They arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Saturday, September 13 at 7:00 A.M., and most of the soldiers were allowed off the ship to see the island but had to be back on board before the ship sailed at 5:00 P.M.
After leaving Hawaii, the ship took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes. It was at this time that it was joined by the U.S.S. Astoria, a heavy cruiser, that was its escort. During this part of the trip, on several occasions, smoke was seen on the horizon, and the Astoria took off in the direction of the smoke. Each time it was found that the smoke was from a ship belonging to a friendly country.
The Coolidge entered Manila Bay at 7:00 A.M., on September 26, and reached Manila several hours later. The soldiers disembarked at 3:00 P.M. and were driven on buses to Clark Field. The maintenance section of the battalion and members of 17th Ordnance remained at the dock to unload the battalion’s tanks and reattach the turrets.
The battalion rode buses to Fort Stotsenburg and taken to an area between the fort and Clark Field, where they were housed in tents since the barracks for them had not been completed. They were met by General Edward P. King, commanding officer of the fort who made sure they had what they needed. On November 15th, they moved into their barracks.
The description of the barracks was that from the floor, the barrack’s walls were open with screening going up three feet from the bottom of the outside walls. Above that, the walls were woven bamboo that allowed the air to pass through them. Bathroom facilities appeared to be limited and a man was considered lucky if he washed by a faucet with running water.
The workday was from 7:00 to 11:30 A.M. and from 1:30 to 2:30 P.M. The belief was it was too hot to work after that time. After 2:30, the tankers took part in “recreation in the motor pool” which meant they worked to 4:30. The medics received training from the battalion’s two doctors, while tank commanders studied books on their tanks and instructed their crews on the 30 and 50 caliber machine guns. The tankers learned to dismantle the guns and put them together. Did it’s often many men could take the guns apart and assemble them with blindfolds on. They never fired the guns because Gen. King could not get Gen. MacArthur to release ammunition for them.
For recreation, the soldiers spent their free time bowling or going to the movies at the base theater. They also played horseshoes, softball, badminton, or threw a football around to pass the time. On Wednesday afternoons, they went swimming.
Activities off base were available and they also went to Mt. Aarayat National Park and swam in the swimming pool there that was filled with mountain water. The men were allowed to go to Manila in small groups. They also went to canoeing at Pagsanjan Falls in their swimsuits and described the country was described as being beautiful.
At Ft. Stotsenburg, the soldiers were expected to wear their dress uniforms. Since working on the tanks was a dirty job, the battalion members wore fatigues to do the work on the tanks. When they were discovered working in their fatigues, the soldiers were reprimanded for not wearing dress uniforms while working. The decision was made by Major Ernest Miller to continue wearing fatigues in their barracks area to do their work but if the soldiers left the battalion’s area, they were expected to wear dress uniforms. This included going to the PX.
Ten days before the attack on Pearl Harbor, the reconnaissance pilots reported that Japanese transports were milling around in a large circle in the China Sea. On Monday, December 1, the tanks were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field to guard against paratroopers. The 194th Tank Battalion guarded the northern portion of the airfield and the 192nd guarded the southern portion. At all times, two members of each tank and half-track remained with their vehicles. Meals were served to the tankers from food trucks.
One day, he was with Harold Kurvers of A Company. Bill made a statement to Kurvers that the Japanese would never attack the Philippines because they would be defeated within three weeks. On December 8, ten hours after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Bill’s words came back to haunt him, and he would hear about his prediction, from Kurvers, the rest of his life.
On the morning of December 8, 1941, the battalion was brought up to full strength at the perimeter of Clark Field because the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor hours earlier. As the tankers guarded the airfield, they watched American planes flying in every direction. At noon the planes landed, to be refueled, and the pilots went to lunch. It was 12:45, and as the tankers watched, a formation of 54 planes approached the airfield from the north. When bombs began exploding on the runways, the tankers knew the planes were Japanese.
When the Japanese were finished, there was not much left of the airfield. The soldiers watched as the dead, dying, and wounded were hauled to the hospital on bomb racks, trucks, and anything that could carry the wounded was in use. When the hospital filled, they watched the medics place the wounded under the building. Many of these men had their arms and legs missing.
The 194th was sent to Mabalcat on December 10th, and it was at this time that C Company was sent to southern Luzon where the Japanese were landing. On the 12, the A and D Company, 192nd, were sent to a new bivouac south of San Fernando and arrived at 6:00 A.M. They received Bren gun carriers on the 15th and used them to test the ground to see if it could support the weight of a tank.
During the night of December 12 and 13, the battalion was ordered to bivouac south of San Fernando near the Calumpit Bridge. Attempting to move the battalion at night was a nightmare, and they finally arrived at their new bivouac at 6:00 A.M. on December 13.
Although the medical detachment was not at the front lines, it was always near the area the tanks were assigned to cover. Around December 22nd, the tanks were near Rosario, to slow the advancing Japanese who had landed troops at Lingayen Gulf. On December 25, the tanks had taken positions west of Carmen. When they began taking fire from a strong Japanese force, he ordered the tanks to open fire with their machine guns. Realizing that they had a very good chance of being cut off, he ordered his tanks to withdraw through Carmen the evening of December 26.
The battalions were holding the Tarlac Line on December 28 and withdrew to form the Bamban Line the night of the 29/30 which they held until they were ordered to +withdraw. On January 2 the battalions withdrew to Layac Junction with the 194th using highway 7. The 194th, covered by the 192nd, withdrew across the Culis Creek into Bataan. After the 192nd crossed the bridge, it was blown starting the Battle of Bataan.
In January 1942, the tank companies were reduced to three tanks in each platoon. This was done so that D Company, 192nd – which was attached to the 194th – would have tanks. The company had abandoned its tanks after the bridge they were scheduled to use had been destroyed by the engineers before they had crossed.
On January 20, A Company was sent to save the command post of the 31st Infantry. On the 24, they supported the troops along the Hacienda Road, but they could not reach the objective because of landmines that had been planted by ordinance.
The battalion held a position a kilometer north of the Pilar-Bagac Road with four self-propelled mounts. At 9:45 A.M., a Filipino warned the tankers that a large force of Japanese was on there way. When they appeared the battalion, and self-propelled mounts opened up with everything they had. The Japanese broke off the attack, at 10:30 A.M., after losing 500 of their 1200 men.
On January 28, the tank battalions were given beach duty with the 194th assigned the coast from Limay to Cacaben. The half-tracks were used to patrol the roads.
In March, the 194th was attempting to free two tanks that were stuck in the mud. As the tankers worked to get them out, the Japanese Regiment entered the area. Lt. Col. Ernest Miller ordered the tanks to fire at point-blank range and ran from tank to tank directing fire. When they stopped firing, they had wiped out the regiment.
At this time, Gen. Weaver also suggested to Gen Wainwright that a platoon of tanks be sent to Corregidor. This idea was rejected by Wainwright. The Japanese brought fresh troops to Bataan, from Singapore, since the Americans and Filipinos with the help of tropical illnesses had fought the Japanese to a standstill. On April 4, the Japanese launched a major offensive. In an attempt to stop them, the tanks were sent into various sectors. It was also at this time that tanks became the favorite targets of Japanese planes artillery.
The evening of April 8, 1942, Gen. Weaver determined that only 25% of his troops were healthy enough to continue to fight, and if they did, they would last only one more day. He had almost 6,000 men who were wounded or sick, and an additional 40,000 civilians who he believed would be slaughtered. It was at that time he decided to send his staff officers to negotiate surrender terms.
Tank battalion commanders received this order: “You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word ‘CRASH’, all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished.”
Somewhere between 6:30 and 6:45 in the morning the tankers received the order “crash” and destroyed their tanks. The tanks were circled and an armor-piercing shell was fired into the engines of each tank. Afterward, the gasoline cocks were opened in the crew compartment and hand grenades were dropped into the crew compartments.
The company remained in its bivouac until April 10th when the Japanese arrived and ordered the medical detachment to move to the headquarters of the Provisional Tank Group, which was at kilometer marker 168.2. They remained there until 7:00 P.M. on the 10th, the
POWs were ordered to march. They made their way from the former command post, and at first, found the walk difficult. When they reached the main road, walking became easier. At 3:00 A.M., they were given an hour break before being ordered to move again at 4:00 A.M. The column reached Lamao at 8:00 A.M., where the POWs were allowed to forage for food before marching again at 9:00.
When the POWs reached Limay, officers with ranks of major or higher were separated from the enlisted men and the lower-ranking officers. It was there that they joined the main march from Bataan. The higher-ranking officers were put on trucks and driven to Balanga from where they march north to Orani. The lower-ranking officers and enlisted men reached the barrio later in the day having marched through Abucay and Samal.
With him on the march were Bernard Fitzpatrick and Phil Brain. During the march, a Filipino boy ran into the POWs and pushed a melon into Phil Brain’s hands. Since he couldn’t open it, he and the other soldiers smashed it on a rock. As Bill ate it, he asked if anyone had any salt. Hearing this, they all broke into laughter.
The men were marched until 4:00 P.M. when they reached San Fernando. Once there, they were herded into a bullpen, surrounded by barbwire, and put into groups of 200 men. One POW from each group went to the cooking area which was next to the latrine and received a box of rice that was divided among the men. Water was given out in a similar manner with each group receiving a pottery jar of water to share.
At 4:00 A.M., the Japanese woke the men up and organized them into detachments of 100 men. From the compound, they were marched to the train station, where they were packed into small wooden boxcars known as “forty or eights.” Each boxcar could hold forty men or eight horses, but the Japanese packed 100 men into each car and closed the doors. The POWs were packed in so tightly that the dead could not fall to the floor. At Capas, as the living left the cars and those who had died – during the trip – fell to the floors of the cars. As they left the cars, the Filipino civilians threw sugarcane and gave the POWs water.
The POWs walked the last eight kilometers to Camp O’Donnell which was an unfinished Filipino Army Base that the Japanese put into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942. They believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs. When the POWs arrived at the camp, they were searched and anyone found with Japanese money was separated from the other POWs and sent to the guardhouse. These POWs were accused of looting the bodies of dead Japanese soldiers. Over several days, gunshots were heard coming from southeast of the camp as they were executed.
The Japanese also took away any extra clothing that the POWs carried with them and refused to return it. Since there was no water to wash their clothing, the POWs threw away soiled clothing and stripped the dead of their clothing. Few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing.
There was only one water faucet for the entire camp and men stood in line from 2½ to 8 hours waiting for a drink. The Japanese guard in charge of the spigot would turn it off, for no reason, and the next man in line would have to wait up to four hours for it to be turned on again. Water for cooking food had to be hauled three miles to the camp. Mess kits could not be cleaned.
Since most of the POWs had dysentery, the slit trenches overflowed which resulted in flies being everywhere in the camp including the camp kitchen and in the food. The camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant which also caused diseases to spread. When the ranking American doctor presented a letter with the medicines and medical supplies they needed to treat the sick, the camp commander, Captain Yoshio Tsuneyoshi, told him never to write another letter. He also said that the only things he wanted to know about the POWs were their names and serial numbers after they died.
The Archbishop of Manila sent a truck full of medical supplies to the camp, but the Japanese refused to let it into the camp. When a representative of the Philippine Red Cross told a Japanese lieutenant that they could set up a 150-bed hospital for the POWs, he was slapped in the face by the lieutenant. Medicines sent to the camp by the Philippine Red Cross were confiscated by the Japanese for their own use.
The POWs called the hospital “Zero Ward” because most of the men who entered it never came out alive. The Japanese were so afraid of contracting an illness that they put a barbed wire fence up around it. The POWs in the hospital lay elbow to elbow on the floor and operations were performed with knives from mess kits. Only one medic, out of every six assigned to treat the sick, was healthy enough to perform his duties.
Each morning, the POWs walked around the camp and collected the bodies of the dead and placed them under the hospital building. To clean the ground, the POWs moved the bodies, scraped the ground, and put down lime to sterilize the ground. They then moved the bodies to the cleaned area and repeated the process where the bodies had lain. It took two to three days to bury a man after he died.
Any POW, if he could walk, went out on a work detail for the day such as the one collected wood for the POW kitchen. Some POWs went out on work details which lasted for months to get out of the camp. The worse detail a man could be put on was the burial detail. On this detail, two POWs carried a dead man to the camp cemetery. Once there, they put the body in a grave and held the body down with a pole, since the water table was high, and covered it with dirt. The next morning, when the burials resumed, the dead were often sitting up or had been dug up by wild dogs.
Conditions in the camp were so bad that Bill volunteered to go out on a work detail. The work detail’s job was to collect scrap metal for the Japanese. Most of this metal was cars and trucks destroyed by the Americans as they fell back into Bataan. Since these vehicles could not run on their own, the Americans tied them together with ropes behind a working vehicle. Then each man drove a vehicle to San Fernando and left them in a large park. From there, the vehicles were taken to Manila.
During May while he was on the detail, his parents received their first message from the War Department.
“Dear Mrs. A. McKeon:
“According to War Department records, you have been designated as the emergency addressee if Corporal William V. McKeon, 37,026,135, who, according to the latest information available, was serving in the Philippine Islands at the time of the final surrender.
“I deeply regret that it is impossible for me to give you more information than is contained in this letter. In the last days before the surrender of Bataan, there were casualties which were not reported to the War Department. Conceivably the same is true of the surrender of Corregidor and possibly other islands of the Philippines. The Japanese Government has indicated its intention of conforming to the terms of the Geneva Convention with respect to the interchange of information regarding prisoners of war. At some future date, this Government will receive through Geneva a list of persons who have been taken prisoners of war. Until that time the War Department cannot give you positive information.
“The War Department will consider the persons serving in the Philippine Islands as “missing in action” from the date of surrender of Corregidor, May 7, 1942, until definite information to the contrary is received. It is to be hoped that the Japanese Government will communicate a list of prisoners of war at an early date. At that time you will be notified by this office in the event that his name is contained in the list of prisoners of war. In the case of persons known to have been present in the Philippines and who are not reported to be prisoners of war by the Japanese Government, the War Department will continue to carry them as “missing in action” in the absence of information to the contrary, until twelve months have expired. At the expiration of twelve months and in the absence of other information the War Department is authorized to make a final determination.
“Recent legislation makes provision to continue the pay and allowances of persons carried in a “missing” status for a period not to exceed twelve months; to continue, for the duration of the war, the pay and allowances of persons known to have been captured by the enemy; to continue allotments made by missing personnel for a period of twelve months and allotments or increase allotments made by persons by the enemy during the time they are so held; to make new allotments or increase allotments to certain dependents defined in Public Law 490, 77th Congress. The latter dependents generally include the legal wife, dependent children under twenty-one years of age and dependent mother, or such dependents as having been designated in official records. Eligible dependents who can establish a need for financial assistance and are eligible to receive this assistance the amount allotted will be deducted from pay which would otherwise accrue to the credit of the missing individual.
“Very Truly yours
J. A. Ulio (signed)
The Adjutant General”
While on this detail, William became ill with malaria. He was sent to Pampanga and put in a Filipino hospital. The patients in the hospital were mostly Filipino, Lawrence was one of a number of Americans in the hospital. The patients were treated well and got all the water they wanted and three meals a day. There was very little medicine to treat the patients.
Bill was sent to Cabanatuan which was a former Philippine Army Base and had been the home of the 91st Philippine Army Division’s home. The camp was actually three camps. Camp 1 was where the men who captured on Bataan and taken part in the death march where held. Camp 2 did not have an adequate water supply and was closed. It later reopened and housed Naval POWs. Camp 3 was where those men captured on Corregidor were held. In addition, men from Bataan who had been hospitalized when the surrender came were sent to the camp. Camp 3 was later consolidated into Camp 1.
Once in the camp, the POWs were allowed to run the camp. The Japanese only entered if they had an issue they wanted to deal with. To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a detail that patrolled the fence of the camp. The reason this was done was that those who did escape and were caught were tortured before being executed, while the other POWs were made to watch. It is believed that no POW successfully escaped from the camp.
The barracks in the camp were built to house 50 POWs, but most had between 60 to 120 POWs in them. The POWs slept on bamboo slats, without mattresses, bedding, or mosquito netting. Many quickly became ill. The POWs were assigned to barracks which meant that the members of their group lived together, went out on work details together, and would be executed together since they were Blood Brothers.
The POWs were sent out on work details to cut wood for the POW kitchens. While on these details they bought or were given medicine, food, and tobacco, which they somehow managed to get into the camp even though they were searched when they returned. Meals on a daily basis consisted of 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, and sweet potato or corn.
In July 1942, the family received a second letter. The following is an excerpt from it.
“The last report of casualties received by the War Department from the Philippines arrived early in the morning of May 6. Through this date, Private William V. McKeon had not been reported as a casualty. The War Department will consider the persons serving in the Philippine Islands as “missing in action” from the date of the surrender of Corregidor, May 7, until definite information to the contrary is received.
“Efforts to secure prisoner of war lists from the Philippines have not been successful to this date due to the lack of communication and the fact that the Japanese Government has not yet given permission for the Swiss representative and the International Red Cross delegates to make visits to prisoner of war camps in the islands. When the lists of prisoners are received, we will clear the name of your son and send you any additional information that we may have.”
He remained at Cabanatuan until he was selected to go on a work detail to the docks of Manila. This detail became known as the Port Area Detail. The POWs spent two years working the docks of Manila.
On October 14, 1943, his name appeared on a list – released by the War Department – of men known to be Japanese Prisoners of War in the Philippines.
REPORT JUST RECEIVED THROUGH THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS STATES THAT YOUR SON CORPORAL WILLIAM V MCKEON IS A PRISONER OF WAR OF THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS LETTER OF INFORMATION FOLLOWS FROM THE PROVOST
ULIO THE ADJUTANT GENERAL.
Within days of receiving the first message, his wife received the following letter:
“The Provost Marshal General directs me to inform you that you may communicate with your son, postage free, by following the inclosed instructions:
“It is suggested that you address him as follows:
“Cpl. William V. McKeon, U.S. Army
Interned in the Philippine Islands
C/O Japanese Red Cross, Tokyo, Japan
Via New York, New York
“Packages cannot be sent to the Orient at this time. When transportation facilities are available a package permit will be issued you.
“Further information will be forwarded you as soon as it is received.
“Howard F. Bresee
“Chief Information Bureau
On June 14, 1944, the work detail was ended and the POWs were taken to Manila where they were boarded onto the Nissyo Maru. 1600 POWs boarded the ship on July 17. The ship sailed the same day. Instead of making its way to the open sea, it dropped anchor at the harbor’s breakwater. It remained there until July 23 when it moved to an area off Corregidor. The next morning, July 24, it sailed as part of a convoy.
Bill stole extra food and hid it in his socks during the trip. Conditions in the holds were bad. At night, some POWs slashed other POWs’ throats and drank their blood. The POWs were fed rice and vegetables twice a day and received two canteen cups of water a day.
During the convoy’s trip to Formosa, it was attacked by an American submarine wolf pack. Four of the thirteen ships in the convoy were sunk. Through the ship’s hatches, the POWs saw the night sky light up when one of the ships exploded after being hit by a torpedo. According to POWs, they heard a thud against the ship’s haul. They presume it was a torpedo that did not explode. The convoy arrived at Takao on July 28 at 9:00 A.M. and sailed at 7:00 P.M., the same day. As they made their way toward Moji, Japan, they sailed through a storm. The ships arrived at Moji, Japan, on August 3, 1944, at midnight.
The next morning the POWs disembarked the ship at 9:00 A.M. and taken to a movie theater. After sitting in the dark, they were divided into detachments of 200 men and taken to the train station. From there they rode trains to the POW camps.
In Japan, Bill was taken to Osaka #3-B or Oeeyama Camp where the POWs worked in a nickel mine. With a pick and shovel, he and the other POWs had to extract ore from the mine. When they loaded a car, they next had to push it to the railroad track that ran past the mine. The prisoners had to work in all types of weather and in snow as deep as six feet deep. To protect the prisoners’ feet from the elements, the Japanese supplied them with rubber boots.
The prisoners unloaded food, coal, and coke from ships for a nickel refinery at the Miyazu docks. The food they unloaded was bound for the Japanese army, so the POWs would steal a couple of pocketful of beans every day. In addition, the POWs worked inside the Hachidate Branch Nickel Refinery doing common labor and also worked at the nickel mine almost six miles from the camp. It is also known one group of POWs did carpentry work.
The Japanese enforced collective discipline in the camp. Sometimes workgroups would be punished, other times larger groups of POWs were punished, and there were times all the POWs were punished. On one occasion a workgroup of twelve POWs was made to stand at attention for two hours before they were forced to swallow rope which caused them to throw up. This was done because the Japanese believed they had stolen rice. When none was found, the Japanese fed the POWs rice and sent them to their barracks.
On December 6, 1944, the entire camp was placed on half rations because one POW had violated a rule. The entire camp again was put on half rations on January 7. At various times a portion of the POWs was put on half rations. 80 to 90 POWs were put on half rations on March 7, 1944, while 60 POWs were put on half rations on April 7 and made to stand at attention in heavy rain.
Since a certain number of POWs had to report for work everyday, illness was not an excuse for getting out of work. The camp doctor’s recommendation that POWs not work, because they were too ill, was ignored and men suffering from dysentery or beriberi were sent to work.
Red Cross packages were withheld from the POWs and the Japanese raided them for canned meats, canned milk, cigarettes, and chocolate. The clothing and shoes sent for POW use were also appropriated by the Japanese.
Bill returned to the Philippines for medical treatment. He was boarded on the S.S. Simon Bolivar, and arrived at San Francisco on October 21, 1945, and taken to Letterman General Hospital for additional medical treatment.
Bill returned to Minnesota and was discharged, from the army, on May 24, 1946. On January 2, 1947, Bill was a member of the wedding party at the marriage of Philip Tripp. Bill married, Blanche Brabec, in 1948 and would later open up a home repair business in Fargo, North Dakota, with his brother. When he retired, he moved back to the Minneapolis area and lived in Hopkins, Minnesota.
William V. McKeon passed away on March 22, 1993, at the Veterans Administration Hospital at Ft. Snelling, Minnesota. He was buried in Section Y, Site 1590, at Ft. Snelling National Cemetery in South Minneapolis, Minnesota.