Pvt. Louie L. Webb was born on May 17, 1923, in North Carolina to Lee Roy Webb and Bennie Mae Cashion-Webb. With his three brothers and sister, he grew up in Gastonia, North Carolina. After completing two years of high school, he went to work. On November 8, 1940, he joined the U.S. Army and did his basic training at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. After completing basic training, he was assigned to the 753rd Tank Battalion at Ft. Benning, Georgia. In the late summer of 1941, the battalion was sent to Camp Polk, Louisiana, but did not take part in the maneuvers taking place there. It is known that in September 1941, he had a two-week furlough home to see his family.
The 192nd Tank Battalion was a federalized National Guard tank battalion that had been inducted into the regular army on November 25, 1940, for one year of federal service. The battalion was made up of tank companies from Wisconsin, Illinois, Ohio, and Kentucky. Congress on August 13, 1941, extended the time that federalized National Guard units by 18 months. The next day, the commanding officer of the 192nd, Major Bacon Moore, was informed the 192nd would be going overseas, but it is not known if he shared this information with his officers.
The 192nd was sent to Louisiana, in the late summer of 1941, to take part in maneuvers from September 1 through 30. After the maneuvers, the battalion was ordered to Camp Polk, Louisiana, instead of returning to Ft. Knox as had been expected. On the side of a hill, the battalion members learned they were being sent overseas. Men 29 years old or older, married, or whose National Guard enlistments were ending were released from federal service. Replacements for these men came from the 753rd. Louie either volunteered or had his name drawn from a hat to join the 192nd and was assigned to B Company.
There were at least two stories on why the battalion was being sent overseas. The decision to send the battalion overseas appeared to have been made well before the maneuvers. According to one story, the decision for this move – which had been made on August 13, 1941 – was the result of an event that took place in the summer of 1941. The story said that a squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd. He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance. He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of Taiwan which had a large radio transmitter. The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field. When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
The next day, when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat – with a tarp on its deck – which was seen making its way to shore. Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult, the boat escaped. It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
The second story was told by members of the different companies of the battalion. Many of the men believed that the reason they were selected to be sent overseas was that they had performed well on the maneuvers. The story was that they were personally selected by General George S. Patton – who had commanded their tanks as part of the Blue Army during the maneuvers – to go overseas. There is no evidence that this story was true.
The fact was that the battalion was part of the First Tank Group which was headquartered at Ft. Knox and operational by June 1941, and during the maneuvers, they even fought as part of the First Tank Group. Available information suggests that the tank group had been selected to be sent to the Philippines early in 1941. Besides the 192nd, the group was made up of the 70th and 191st Tank Battalions – the 191st had been a National Guard medium tank battalion while the 70th was a Regular Army medium tank battalion – at Ft. Meade, Maryland. The 193rd was at Ft. Benning, Georgia, and the 194th was at Ft. Lewis, Washington. The 192nd, 193rd, and 194th had been National Guard light tank battalions. It is known that the military presence in the Philippines was being built up at the time, so in all likelihood, the entire tank group had been scheduled to be sent to the Philippines. The buoys being spotted by the pilot may have sped up the transfer of the tank battalions to the Philippines with only the 192nd and 194th reaching the islands but it was not the reason the tank battalions were sent there. It is known that the 193rd was on its way to the Philippines when Pearl Harbor was attacked and the battalion was held in Hawaii after arriving there. The 70th and 191st never received orders for the Philippines because the war with Japan had started.
After the companies were brought up to strength with replacements, the battalion was equipped with new tanks and half-tracks with came from the 753rd Tank Battalion. The battalion traveled over different train routes to Ft. Mason in San Francisco, California, where they were taken by the ferry, the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe to Angel Island. At Ft. McDowell, on the island, they received physicals and inoculations. Men found with minor medical conditions were held back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date. Other men were simply replaced.
The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Gen. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27. During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP. The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2, and had a four-day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
On Thursday, November 6, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes. It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and, another transport, the U.S.A.T. President Calvin Coolidge. Sunday night, November 9, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11. During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Dateline.
On Saturday, November 15, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon. The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke. It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country, while two other intercepted ships were Japanese freighters hauling scrap metal to Japan. When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day. At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout. This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm’s way.
The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning. One thing that was different about their arrival was that instead of a band and a welcoming committee waiting at the pier to tell them to enjoy their stay in the Philippines and see as much of the island as they could, a party came aboard the ship – carrying guns – and told the soldiers, “Draw your firearms immediately; we’re under alert. We expect a war with Japan at any moment. Your destination is Fort Stotsenburg, Clark Field.” At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by a narrow-gauge train to Ft. Stotsenburg. A Marine was checking off their names as they left the ship. When an enlisted man said his name, the Marine responded with, “Hello sucker.” Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks with 17th Ordnance.
At the fort, they were greeted by Gen. Edward P. King Jr. who apologized that the men had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Field. He made sure that had what they needed and that they all received Thanksgiving dinner – stew thrown into their mess kits – before he went to have his own dinner. If they had been slower leaving the ship, they would have had a complete turkey dinner. Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
The members of the battalion pitched ragged World War I tents in an open field halfway between the Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg. The tents were set up in two rows and five men were assigned to each tent. There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at the end of the rows of tents. The area was near the end of a runway used by B-17s for takeoffs. The planes flew over the tents at about 100 feet blowing dirt everywhere and the noise from the engines as they flew over was unbelievable. At night, they heard the sounds of planes flying over the airfield which turned out to be Japanese reconnaissance planes. In addition, the khaki uniforms they had been issued were heavy material and uncomfortable to wear in the tropical heat.
The 192nd arrived in the Philippines with a great deal of radio equipment to set up a radio school to train radiomen for the Philippine Army. The battalion also had a large number of ham radio operators and shortly after arriving at Ft. Stotsenburg, they set up a communications tent that was in contact with the United States within hours. The communications monitoring station in Manila went crazy attempting to figure out where all these new radio messages were coming from. When they were informed it was the 192nd, they gave them frequencies to use. Men were able to send messages home to their families that they had arrived safely.
The day started at 5:15 with reveille and anyone who washed near a faucet with running water was considered lucky. At 6:00 A.M. they ate breakfast followed by work – on their tanks and other equipment – from 7:00 A.M. to 11:30 A.M. Lunch was from 11:30 A.M. to 1:30 P.M. when the soldiers returned to work until 2:30 P.M. The shorter afternoon work period was based on the belief that it was too hot to work in the climate. The term “recreation in the motor pool,” that they borrowed from the 194th Tank Battalion – meant they actually worked until 4:30 in the afternoon.
At Ft. Stotsenburg, the soldiers were expected to wear their dress uniforms. Since working on the tanks was a dirty job, the battalion members wore coveralls to do the work on the tanks. The 192nd followed the example of the 194th and wore coveralls in their barracks area to do work on their tanks, but if the soldiers left the battalion’s area, they wore dress uniforms everywhere; including going to the PX.
For recreation, the soldiers spent their free time bowling or going to the movies on the base. They also played horseshoes, softball, badminton, or threw footballs around during their free time. On Wednesday afternoons, they went swimming. Men were given the opportunity to be allowed to go to Manila in small groups.
Ten days before the attack on Pearl Harbor, the reconnaissance pilots reported that Japanese transports were milling around in a large circle in the South China Sea. On December 1, the tanks were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field to guard against Japanese paratroopers. The 194th was assigned the northern half of the airfield to guard and the 192nd was assigned the southern half of the airfield to guard. From this time on, two tank crew members remained with each tank, at all times, and were fed from food trucks.
It was the men manning the radios in the 192nd’s communications tent who were the first to learn of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on the morning of December 8. Major Ted Wickord, the battalion’s commanding officer, Gen. James Weaver, and Major Ernest Miller, the CO of the 194th Tank Battalion, read the messages of the attack. The officers of the 192nd were called to the tent and informed of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor while Maj. Miller went and told his officers of the attack. The 192nd’s officers went to their companies and informed the enlisted men that they were at war. Those men who were assigned to tanks joined the other members of their crews at the airfield. The battalion’s half-tracks were sent to the south end of the airfield and took positions next to the tanks.
All morning long on December 8, the sky was filled with American planes. At noon, the planes landed to be refueled and the pilots went to lunch. The planes were parked in a straight line outside the pilots’ mess hall to make refueling easier. The men were having lunch when at 12:45, two formations of planes, totaling 54 planes, approached the airfield from the north. Many of the tankers commented that the Navy planes looked beautiful. As they watched, what appeared to be raindrops – because they shimmered in the sun – appeared under the planes. When bombs began exploding on the runways, the tankers knew that the planes were Japanese. One bomb hit the mess hall where the pilots were eating. The members of HQ Company could do nothing but watch since they had no weapons to use against planes, so most took cover in a dried-up latrine near their tents.
During the attack, the tankers watched as American pilots attempted to get their planes off the ground. As they roared down the runway, Japanese fighters strafed the planes causing them to swerve, crash, and burn. Those that did get airborne were barely off the ground when they were hit. The planes exploded and crashed to the ground tumbling down the runways. When the Japanese were finished, there was not much left of the airfield. The soldiers watched as the dead, dying, and wounded were hauled to the hospital on bomb racks, trucks, and anything that could carry the wounded was in use. When the hospital filled, they watched the medics place the wounded under the building. Many of these men had their arms and legs missing. That night, most men slept under their tanks since it was safer than sleeping in their tents which had bullet holes in them. They had no idea that they had slept their last night in any type of bed.
They lived through two more attacks on December 10 and 13 and remained at Clark Field until December 14, when they then moved to a dry stream bed. The tank battalion received orders on December 20 that it was to proceed north to Lingayen Gulf to relieve the 26th Cavalry, Philippine Scouts. Because of logistics problems, the B and C Companies soon ran low on gas. When they reached Rosario, there was only enough gas for one tank platoon, from B Company, to proceed north to support the 26th Cavalry. Lt. Ben Morin’s platoon approached Agoo when it ran head-on into a Japanese motorized unit. The Japanese light tanks had no turrets and sloped armor. The shells of the Americans glanced off the tanks. Morin’s tank was knocked out and his crew was captured. During this engagement, a member of a tank crew, Pvt. Henry J. Deckert, was killed by enemy fire and was later buried in a churchyard.
On December 23 and 24, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta. The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of the river. As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening. They successfully crossed the river in the Bayambang Province. One tank platoon went through the town of Gapan. After they were through the town, they were informed it had been held by the Japanese. They could never figure out why the Japanese had not fired on them.
It was at this time that another platoon of B Company tanks found themselves on a road holding up the Japanese advance. Five tanks took a narrow road that led to the Japanese lines. The drivers of the tanks stayed close enough so that they could see the tank in front of their tank when a shell exploded behind one of the tanks. The tanks were trapped since there was no room for them to turn around. At Ft. Knox, they were taught that if you are lost, or trapped, to double your speed. The tanks hurdled down the road running through gun nests and running down Japanese soldiers. The tanks turned around, ran through the Japanese positions again, and escaped. The tankers were at Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27, and at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan on December 28 and 29.
On December 31, the tanks were stationed on both sides of the Calumpit Bridge when they received orders, from Gen. MacArthur’s chief of staff, about whose command they were under and to withdraw from the bridge. The defenders were attempting to stop the Japanese advance down Route 5 which would allow the Southern Luzon Forces to withdraw toward Bataan. General Wainwright was unaware of the situation. Because of the orders, there was confusion among the Filipinos and American forces defending the bridges over the Pampanga River, and about half the defenders withdrew. Due to the efforts of the Self Propelled Mounts, the 71st Field Artillery, and a frenzied attack by the 192nd Tank Battalion the Japanese were halted.
From January 2 to 4, the 192nd was again holding a road open from San Fernando to Dinalupihan so the southern forces could escape. At 2:30 A.M., the night of January 5/6, the Japanese attacked Remedios in force and used smoke as cover, but because the wind was blowing in the wrong direction they were easy targets. In addition, many of the Japanese were wearing white shirts that made them stand out in the moonlight. This attack was an attempt to destroy the tank battalions. At 5:00 A.M., the Japanese withdrew having suffered heavy casualties. The tanks withdrew into Bataan during the night of January 6 with the 192nd holding its position so that the 194th could leapfrog past it, cross the bridge, and then cover the 192nd’s withdrawal over the bridge. The 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan before the engineers blew up the bridge at 6:00 A.M.
The next day, the battalion was between Culo and Hermosa and assigned a road to enter Bataan which was worse than having no road. The half-tracks kept throwing their rubber tracks and members of 17th Ordnance assigned to each battalion had to re-track them in dangerous situations. After daylight, Japanese artillery fire was landing all around the tanks.
A composite tank company was formed under the command of Capt. Donald Hanes, B Co., 192nd. Its job was to protect the East Coast Road north of Hermosa open and to stop Japanese tanks from attempting to use it to overrun the next defensive line that was forming. While in this position, the tanks were under constant enemy artillery fire. The rest of the tanks were ordered to bivouac south of the Abucay-Hacienda Road. When word came that a bridge was going to be blown up, all the tanks were ordered out of the area, which included the composite company. This could have resulted in a catastrophe, but the Japanese did not take advantage of the situation.
It was around this time that drivers were needed for the Self Propelled Mounts operated by the Philippine Army. Tank drivers were assigned to the SPMs with a crew that consisted of an American driver, A Philippine Scout sergeant in command, and a gun crew that came from the Philippine Army. The tank drivers were replaced in the tanks by battalion members who were not assigned to a tank but had learned to drive them.
The tanks bivouacked south of the Pilar-Bagac Road and about two kilometers from the East Coast Road. It had almost been one month since the tank crews had a rest and the tanks had maintenance work done on them by 17th Ordnance. It was also on this day that the tank platoons were reduced to three tanks per tank platoon. The men rested and the tanks received the required maintenance. Most of the tank tracks had worn down to bare metal and the radial engines were long past their 400-hour overhauls.
It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver: “Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal. If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay.”
The battalions were sent to cover the junctions of the Back Road and East Road with the Abucay-Hacienda Road on January 25. While holding the position, the 45th Infantry, Philippine Scouts, fought its way to the position at 3:00 A.M. One platoon was sent to the front of the column of trucks that were loading the troops. The tanks provided heavy fire so that the infantry could withdraw and inflicted heavy losses on the Japanese. Later that day, both the 192nd and 194th held a defensive line on the Bakanga-Cardre-BaniBani Roads until the withdrawal was completed at midnight. They held the position until the night of January 26/27, when they dropped back to a new defensive line roughly along the Pilar-Bagac Roads. When ordered to withdraw to the new line, the 192nd found that the bridge at Balanga, that they were supposed to use had been destroyed by enemy fire. To withdraw, they had to use secondary roads to get around the barrio and tanks were still straggling in at noon.
The tank battalions, on January 28, were given the job of protecting the beaches. The 192nd was assigned the coastline from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan’s east coast, while the battalion’s half-tracks were used to patrol the roads. B Company was defending a beach, along the east coast of Bataan, where the Japanese could land troops. One night while on this duty, the company engaged the Japanese in a firefight as they attempted to land troops on the beach. When morning came, not one Japanese soldier had successfully landed on the beach. The Japanese later told the tankers that their presence on the beach stopped them from attempting landings.
While doing this job, the tankers noticed that each morning when the PT boats were off the coast they were attacked by Japanese Zeros. The tank crews made arrangements with the PT boats to be at a certain place at a certain time and waited for the Zeros to arrive and attack. This time they were met by fire not only from the boats but also from the machine guns of the tanks and half-tracks. When the Zeros broke off the attack, they had lost nine of twelve planes.
At this time, the battalion also took part in the Battle of the Points on the west coast of Bataan. The Japanese landed troops but ended up trapped. When they attempted to land reinforcements, they landed in the wrong place. One was the Lapay-Longoskawayan points from January 23 to 29, the Quinauan-Aglaloma points from January 22 to February 8, and the Sililam-Anyasan points from January 27 to February 13. The Japanese had been stopped, but the decision was made by Brigadier General Clinton A. Pierce that tanks were needed to support the 45th Infantry Philippine Scouts, so he requested tanks from the Provisional Tank Group.
After being up all night on the morning of February 3rd, the tankers attempted to get some sleep. Every morning “Recon Joe” flew over attempting to locate the tanks. The jungle canopy hid the tanks from the plane. Sgt. Walter Cigoi aggravated about being woken up, pulled his half-track onto the beach, took a “pot shot” at the plane, and missed. Twenty minutes later, Japanese planes appeared and bombed the position. Most of the soldiers took cover under the tanks. When the attack was over, the tankers found Pvt. Richard Graff and Pvt. Clemath Peppers dead. Pvt. Francis McGuire was wounded and Pvt. Charles Heuel was severely wounded with his leg partially blown off. The tankers attempted to put him in a jeep, but his leg kept flopping and got in the way. To get him into the jeep, his leg was cut off by T/4 Frank Goldstein but Heuel died from his wounds.
While this was going on, the battalion also took part in the Battle of the Points on the west coast of Bataan. The Japanese landed troops but ended up trapped. When they attempted to land reinforcements, they landed in the wrong place. One was the Lapay-Longoskawayan points from January 23 to 29, the Quinauan-Aglaloma points from January 22 to February 8, and the Sililam-Anyasan points from January 27 to February 13. The Japanese had been stopped, but the decision was made by Brigadier General Clinton A. Pierce that tanks were needed to support the 45th Infantry Philippine Scouts. He requested the tanks from the Provisional Tank Group.
On February 2, a platoon of C Company tanks was ordered to Quinauan Point where the Japanese had landed troops. The tanks arrived at about 5:15 P.M. He did a quick reconnaissance of the area, and after meeting with the commanding infantry officer, made the decision to drive tanks into the edge of the Japanese position and spray the area with machine-gun fire. The progress was slow but steady until a Japanese .37 milometer gun was spotted in front of the lead tank, and the tanks withdrew. It turned out that the gun had been disabled by mortar fire, but the tanks did not know this at the time.
The decision was made to resume the attack the next morning, so the 45th Infantry dug in for the night. The next day, the tank platoon did reconnaissance before pulling into the front line. They repeated the maneuver and sprayed the area with machine gunfire. As they moved forward, members of the 45th Infantry followed the tanks. The troops made progress all day long along the left side of the line. The major problem the tanks had to deal with was tree stumps which they had to avoid so they would not get hung up on them. The stumps also made it hard for the tanks to maneuver. Coordinating the attack with the infantry was difficult, so the decision was made to bring in a radio car so that the tanks and infantry could talk with each other.
Only 3 of 23 tanks were being used and without the support of infantry and the trick during the attack through the jungle was to avoid large trees and clear a way for the infantry to attack. This they did by thrusting into the jungle. They only became aware of enemy positions when they were fired on. The tanks were supposed to have support from mortars but the ammunition was believed to be defective. It was found that the mortars were manned by inexperienced air corpsmen converted to infantry who had no idea that the arming pins on the mortar shells had to be pulled before firing them so the shells landed and did not explode.
On February 4, at 8:30 A.M. five tanks and the radio car arrived. The tanks were assigned the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, so each tank commander knew which tank was receiving an order. Each tank also received a walkie-talkie, as well as the radio car and infantry commanders. This was done so that the crews could coordinate the attack with the infantry and so that the tanks could be ordered to where they were needed. The Japanese were pushed back almost to the cliffs when the attack was halted for the night. The attack resumed the next morning and the Japanese were pushed to the cliff line where they hid below the edge of the cliff out of view. It was at that time that the tanks were released to return to the 192nd.
Companies A and C were ordered to the west coast of Bataan while B Company – which was held in reserve – and 17th Ordnance held the southern shore of Bataan. During the night, they were kept busy with repeated threats both on and offshore. The tank battalions, on their own, took up the job of protecting the airfields at Cabcaban, Bataan, and Mariveles, since Japanese paratroopers were known to be available. The tanks and half-tracks were well hidden in the jungle around the airfields and different plans were in place to be used against Japanese forces.
The tank companies also took part in the Battle of the Pockets in February to wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind the main defensive line after a Japanese offensive was stopped and pushed back to the original line of defense. The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket. Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the pocket. Doing this was so stressful that each tank company was rotated out and replaced by one that was being held in reserve.
To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used. The first was to have three Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank. As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole. Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually exploded. The other method used to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over the foxhole. The driver gave the other track power resulting in the tank going around in a circle and grinding its way down into the foxhole. The tankers slept upwind of their tanks so they wouldn’t smell the rotting flesh in the tracks.
While the tanks were doing this job, the Japanese sent soldiers, with cans of gasoline, against the tanks. These Japanese attempted to jump onto the tanks, pour gasoline into the vents on the back of the tanks, and set the tanks on fire. If the tankers could not machine gun the Japanese before they got to a tank, the other tanks would shoot them as they stood on a tank. The tankers did not like to do this because of what it did to the crew inside the tank. When the bullets hit the tank, its rivets would pop and wound the men inside the tank.
What made this job of eliminating the Japanese so hard was that they had dug “spider holes” among the roots of the trees. Because of this situation, the Americans could not get a good shot at the Japanese. Since the stress on the crews was tremendous, the tanks rotated into the pocket one at a time. A tank entered the pocket and the next tank waited for the tank that had been relieved to exit the pocket before it would enter. This was repeated until all the tanks in the pocket were relieved.
In the pockets, C Company lost one tank that had gone beyond the area controlled by the defenders. The tank was disabled by a thermite mine. It appeared that some of the crew were killed by a hand grenade thrown into the tank as they attempted to evacuate it. When the tank was recovered, it was put on its side and it was found at least one member of the crew was still alive when the Japanese filled the tank with dirt from the foxhole they dug under it.
In another incident, a tank from B Company became wedged between two trees after its driver was blinded by a flame thrower. The crew was ordered out of the tank and told to run. As they ran, the Japanese machine-gunned them. The tank commander was killed instantly, while the other three men made it into a sugarcane field. Only one of the three men was found the next day and was sent to the hospital where he recovered from his wounds. Another man was taken prisoner, while the last man was never heard from again and died from his wounds or was killed. It appears that this tank was also recovered.
The tankers, from A, B, and C Companies, were able to clear the pockets by February 18. But before this was done, one C Company tank which had gone beyond the American perimeter was disabled and the tank just sat there. When the sun came up the next day, the tank was still sitting there. During the night, its crew was buried alive, inside the tank, by the Japanese. When the Japanese had been wiped out, the tank was turned upside down to remove the dirt and recover the bodies of the crew. The tank was put back into use. It was for their performance during this battle that the 192nd Tank Battalion would receive one of its Presidential Unit Citations
The 192nd unlike other units had arrived in the Philippines just before the start of the war, so they did not have the opportunity to stockpile food. The soldiers were hungry and began to eat everything they could get their hands on to eat. The Carabao were tough but if they were cooked long enough they could be eaten. They also began to eat horse meat provided by the 26th U.S. Cavalry. During this time the soldiers ate monkeys, snakes, lizards, horses, and mules. To make things worse, the soldiers’ rations were cut in half again on March 1, 1942. This meant that they only ate two meals a day. The Japanese also were dropping surrender leaflets with the picture of a scantily clad blond on them. They would have been more successful at getting the Americans to surrender if the picture had been a hamburger since the men were so hungry that they most likely would have surrendered for a good meal.
The amount of gasoline in March was reduced to 15 gallons a day for all vehicles except the tanks. This would later be dropped to ten gallons a day. It was during this time that Gen Wainwright wanted to turn the tanks into pillboxes. Gen Weaver pointed out to Wainwright that they did not have enough tanks to effectively do this, and if they did, they soon would have no tanks. Gen. Weaver suggested to Gen. Wainwright that a platoon of tanks be sent to Corregidor, but Wainwright declined.
On April 3, 1942, the Japanese launched an attack supported by artillery and aircraft. A large force of Japanese troops came over Mount Samat and descended down the south face of the volcano. The Japanese broke through the east side of the main defensive line on Bataan on April 7. The tanks were pulled out of their position along the west side of the line and ordered to reinforce the eastern portion of the line. Traveling south to Mariveles, the tankers started up the eastern road but were unable to reach their assigned area due to the roads being blocked by retreating Filipino and American forces.
It was the evening of April 8 that Gen. King decided that further resistance was futile, since approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight, and he estimated they would last one more day. In addition, he had over 6,000 troops who were sick or wounded and 40,000 civilians who he feared would be massacred. His troops were on one-quarter rations, and even at that ration, he had two days of food left. He also believed his troops could fight for one more day. Companies B and D, 192nd, and A Company, 194th, were preparing for a suicide attack on the Japanese in an attempt to stop the advance. At 6:00 P.M. the tank battalion commanders received this order: “You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word ‘CRASH’, all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished.”
It was at 10:00 P.M. that the decision was made to send a jeep – under a white flag – behind enemy lines to negotiate terms of surrender. The problem soon became that no white cloth could be found. Phil Parish, a truck driver for A Company realized that he had bedding buried in the back of his truck and searched for it. The bedding became the “white flags” that were flown on the jeeps. At 11:40 P.M., the ammunition dumps were destroyed. At midnight Companies B and D, and A Company, 194th, received an order from Gen. Weaver to stand down. At 2:oo A.M. April 9, Gen. King sent a jeep under a white flag carrying Colonel Everett C. Williams, Col. James V. Collier, and Major Marshall Hurt to meet with the Japanese commander about terms of surrender. (The driver was from the tank group.) Shortly after daylight Collier and Hunt returned with word of the appointment. It was at about 6:45 A.M. that tank battalion commanders received the order “crash.” Capt. Robert Sorenson, the company commander, ordered the crews to destroy their tanks. They cut the gas lines and threw torches into the tanks. Within minutes, the ammunition inside the tanks began exploding. After this was done, Sorenson and Major John Morley got into his jeep and made their way to Bayakaguin Point which was the command post for the tank group. Behind them in half-tracks were the tank crews of B Company.
As Gen. King left to negotiate the surrender, he went through the area held by B Company and spoke to the men. He said to them, “Boys. I’m going to get us the best deal I can. When you get home, don’t ever let anyone say to you, you surrendered. I was the one who surrendered.”
Gen. King with his two aides, Maj. Wade R. Cothran and Captain Achille C. Tisdelle Jr. got into a jeep carrying a large white flag. They were followed by another jeep – also flying another large white flag – with Col. Collier and Maj. Hurt in it. As the jeeps made their way north they were strafed and small bombs were dropped by a Japanese plane. The drivers of both jeeps and the jeeps were provided by the tank group and both men managed to avoid the bullets. The strafing ended when a Japanese reconnaissance plane ordered the fighter pilot to stop strafing.
About 10:00 A.M. the jeeps reached Lamao where they were received by a Japanese Major General who informed King that he reported his coming to negotiate a surrender and that an officer from Japanese command would arrive to do the negotiations. The Japanese officer also told him that his troops would not attack for thirty minutes while King decided what he would do. After a half-hour, no Japanese officer had arrived from their headquarters and the Japanese attack had resumed. King sent Col. Collier and Maj. Hunt back to his command with instructions that any unit in line with the Japanese advance should fly white flags.
After this was done a Japanese colonel and interpreter arrived, and King was told the officer was Homma’s Chief of Staff and he had come to discuss King’s surrender. King attempted to get assurances from the Japanese that his men would be treated as prisoners of war, but the Japanese officer – through his interpreter – accused him of declining to surrender unconditionally. At one point King stated he had enough trucks and gasoline to carry his troops out of Bataan. He was told that the Japanese would handle the movement of the prisoners. The two men talked back and forth until the colonel said through the interpreter, “The Imperial Japanese Army are not barbarians.” King found no choice but to accept him at his word.
Unknown to Gen. King, an order attributed to Gen. Masaharu Homma – but in all likelihood from one of his subordinates – had been given. It stated, “Every troop which fought against our army on Bataan should be wiped out thoroughly, whether he surrendered or not, and any American captive who is unable to continue marching all the way to the concentration camp should be put to death in the area of 200 meters off the road.”
Louie was one of the men who attempted to reach Corregidor. One group tankers found a boat that was getting ready to go to Corregidor, but they were told there was no room for them on the boat, Sgt. Zenon Bardowski, another member of B Company, re-positioned his Tommy gun to make it understood that they intended to make the trip. They were allowed on the boat. There was also a second group of 17 men who made their way to Mariveles after the surrender but decided to try to reach the island after they saw the confusion there. The situation was in such disarray that they were able to slip away, find a boat and take it to the island. It is not known which group he was in.
It was said that during the nights for the next four days after the surrender of Bataan, the men on Corregidor could still see flashes from battle as troops who refused to surrender continued to fight. During this time, the Japanese set up artillery on the beach that fired on Corregidor. Most of the Japanese artillery was knocked out by the guns on Corregidor, so the Japanese set up the rest in the jungle. Men stated that at night that they could count as many as 24 separate batteries firing on the island. Between the shelling and bombing by Japanese planes, they were slowly knocking out the guns and weakening the defenses. The soldiers knew that landing was going to take place.
On Corregidor, Louie may have been assigned to the 4th Marines. It is known that a number of tankers were assigned to defend Skipper Hill which faced Bataan so the position was shelled daily. The Japanese began shelling Monkey point on the night of May 5 in preparation for the landing. The men on the island watched as Japanese barges began concentrating at various points off Bataan. The barges began to make their way toward Corregidor, and the island’s remaining guns began shelling them. It was said that one of the island’s mortar batteries got so hot that the crew had to stop firing to let the mortar cool down. Another gun turned blue from the continuous firing and its breach warped and would not open. When the Japanese landed, the defenders pushed them from the beach at Monkey Point three times. Anti-aircraft guns from Ft. Hughes were firing on the Japanese as they landed. The shells exploded above the barges killing many.
The POWs remained on a beach on the island for two weeks. There was no shade and water was scarce. The POWs volunteered to bury the dead since it got them off the beach and gave them the opportunity to find food and water. The POWs remained on the beach until they were transported by barge close to the shore of Luzon. They were then ordered to jump overboard and swim to shore. Onshore, they filled in crater holes on a pier. Some of the POWs went to the WaWa Dam and worked on rebuilding it. After they were finished they formed ranks and were ordered to march. Having heard about the march from Bataan from men who had escaped it, they feared they were going to receive the same treatment. To their surprise, they were marched at a reasonable pace and given breaks. The POWs were marched up Dewey Boulevard in Manila to Bilibid Prison where they were held until transferred to Cabanatuan.
He remained at Bilibid until sometime between May 26 and May 28. At some point during this time, he and the other POWs were marched to the train station. From there, they rode the train to Calumpit, disembarked, and marched to Cabanatuan #3. The first 2,000-man detachment left on the 26 and the last left on the 28. The POWs were marched to the train station and put into steel boxcars that they rode to the barrio of Cabanatuan. There, they were organized into 100 men detachments and marched to Camp 3. The guards warned them that anyone who fell to the ground and did not get up would be shot.
During the march, the first time a POW fell to the ground and the guard aimed his gun at the man, the man was able to get up and rejoin the formation. This appeared to have happened several times. Finally, a POW fell, and even after the guard aimed his gun at the man he did not get up. Instead of shooting the man, the guard raised his arm and had a red flag on it. A truck pulled up to the man and he was put on the truck. Being that other POWs saw this, it wasn’t long until a good number of POWs fell to the ground and were unable to get up. Those still marching figured these men wanted to ride to the camp.
The camp was actually three camps. Camp 1 was where the men who were captured on Bataan and took part in the death march were held. Camp 2 did not have an adequate water supply and was closed. It later reopened and housed Naval POWs. Camp 3 was where those men captured when Corregidor and at Ft. Drum surrendered were taken and was consolidated into Camp #1 on October 30, 1942.
After all the POWs had arrived at Camp 3, there were approximately 6,000 POWs in the camp. The first group of POWs who arrived on May 26 was assigned barracks in the north sector of the camp. The group that arrived on May 27 was assigned barracks in the center sector of the camp, and the final group that arrived on May 28, was given barracks in the south sector of the camp.
When they arrived, the camp was not finished and there was no fence on the northside of the compound. Four POWs walked away from the camp on May 30, but the men realized that they had no place to go, so they attempted to surrender themselves to the Japanese. The Japanese tied them to posts and left them to hang in the sun. They also beat the POWs with boards and showed the men water but would not give them any to drink. The next day, while the POWs were eating dinner, the Japanese marched the men to where the prisoners were eating. They had the men dig their own graves and gave each man a cigarette and water. They also offered blindfolds to the men. All the men took a blindfold except one. That man spat at the Japanese before they shot him. After they were shot, the men fell backward into the graves. When one man who had survived the execution attempted to crawl out of the grave, a Japanese officer shot him with his pistol. He next shot each man to make sure they were dead.
The first meal the POWs received was an onion soup that had no onions on it or carrots in it. After the initial meal, the daily meal for the POWs was squash, mongo beans, and greens (which were the tops of native sweet potatoes) for soup, and rice. They also received Carabao meat about once a week. Other sources state a whistle weed soup with rice in it was the main meal. It is also known that the POW barracks for the first group of POWs that arrived in the camp were in the north sector of the camp. The second detachment of POWs to arrive was housed in the center section of the camp, and the last two detachments to arrive were housed in the south section of the camp.
The American officers convinced the Japanese, on June 8, to allow them to hand out punishments for minor offenses. The POWs organized themselves into administration groups on June 14. Since the Army had the largest number of POWs, it was divided into Groups I and II while Group III was Naval personnel. An Army major was the adjutant for both Groups I and II and there were officers that did various jobs under him. Each group had a number of officers who dealt with the enlisted men. Two of the American officers in charge of Group II were from his tank battalion.
On June 21 the Japanese initiated the “Blood Brother” rule. The POWs were placed in groups of ten men. The men worked together, lived in the same barracks, and slept together. If one man of the group escaped from the camp, the other nine would be executed. To prevent escapes, the day before this took effect, the POWs organized a patrol that walked the inside perimeter of the camp fence. The POWs went out on work details. On June 17, trucks left the camp on a lumber detail. The trucks were ambushed by Filipino guerrillas resulting in three POWs in one truck being wounded. The fourth POW from the truck was not found. One of the three wounded men later died. The first church services were held in the camp on June 28. To improve morale among the POWs, on June 29, the officers organized activities for the men. Softball teams, basketball teams, volleyball teams, and ping-pong teams were formed as well as singalong groups to provide entertainment. The POWs were joined by 151 civilians in the camp on July 6. The Japanese handed out a limited number of shoes, shirts, trousers, and blankets on July 17. It is not known how it was determined who would receive any of the clothing.
POWs during this time were sent out on details and returned to the camp. On July 14, 100 POWs were sent to Manila, and 26 sick POWs were transferred to Camp 1 on July 20. 360 POWs left the camp, on July 24, for a work detail in Manila. Another group of 150 men was sent there on July 30. Dysentery was a real problem in the camp and to slow the spread of dysentery, a program was started to catch flies on August 17. Any POW who turned in a full milk can of flies received two biscuits and a few cigarettes. They also dug deep latrines, which were 18 feet deep, to slow the spread of diseases. On September 1, 198 POWs were transferred to the Manila detail which was followed by another 120 men on September 8. Also on that date, 120 returned to the camp from Field Labor Detail. Another detachment of 198 men on September 1 was sent to Manila. 1oo POWs left the camp on an unnamed work detail on September 23, followed by another 100 POWs the next day. Another 32 men were sent to the detail at Manila on September 28 followed by 119 POWs the next day.
The transfers continued in October. On October 4, 374 POWs were sent to Manila and were joined by 526 POWs from Camp 1. The Japanese gave physicals to 344 POWs who they referred to as “producers” and were being sent to Japan. (The term producer meant the POWs had training in areas that the Japanese wanted to exploit.) Before they left the camp, Col. Mori, the Japanese Commanding Officer of the camp gave a speech to them and said, “You men will be taken to a better place, will have better food, and you will meet your friends from Wake and Guam Islands.” On October 5, 1942, another 676 POWs were transferred to Manila. They marched to Camp 1 and were joined by 123 men from that camp. From available information, it appears that a total of 1700 POWs were sent to Manila. The Japanese intended to give each man 2 bananas, 2 egg sandwiches, 5 biscuits, 2 rice balls, 1 roll. The only problem was they did not have enough to go around. The POWs were taken to Manila to be sent to Japan.
The POWs remaining in the camp reorganized the POWs still there and created Group I made up of Army personnel and Group II made up of Navy personnel. It was at this time that the Japanese began the transfer of sick POWs to Camp 1 with 20 men being sent to the hospital there on October 14 and another 10 men being transferred there the next day. On October 21, 322 POWs, from Group I, were sent to Camp 1 followed by another 15 sick POWs on October 23. Another 297 POWs were sent to Manila to the work detail there o October 26. The POWs still at Camp 3 on October 27 received word that they were all going to be sent to Camp 1. The 74 sick POWs in the camp were sent to the hospital at Camp 1on October 28. On October 29, 1,126 POWs boarded trucks and rode to Camp 1. The next day, the remaining 775 POWs were taken by truck to the camp. Camp 3 officially went out of existence on October 30, 1942.
Louie was selected to go out on a work detail to Las Pinas on December 12, 1942. The POWs built runways with picks and shovels. At six in the morning, the POWs had reveille and “bongo,” or count, at 6:15 in detachments of 100 men and then exercises. After this came breakfast, which was a fish soup with rice. After breakfast, there was a second count of all POWs, which included both healthy and sick, before the POWs marched a mile and a half to the airfield.
After arriving at the airfield, the POWs were counted again. They went to a tool shed and received their tools; once again they were counted. At the end of the workday, the POWs were counted again. When they arrived back at the school, they were counted again. Then, they would rush to the showers, since there were only six showers and toilets for over 500 POWs. They were fed dinner, another meal of fish and rice, and than counted one final time. Lights were turned out at 9:00 P.M.
The brutality shown to the POWs was severe. The first Japanese commander of the camp, a Lt. Moto, was called the “White Angel” because he wore a spotless naval uniform. He was the commander of the camp for slightly over thirteen months. One day a POW collapsed while working on the runway. Moto was told about the man and came out and ordered him to get up. When he couldn’t four other Americans were made to carry the man back to the Pasay School.
At the school, the Japanese guards gave the man a shower and straightened his clothes as much as possible. The other Americans were ordered to the school. As they stood there, the White Angel ordered an American captain to follow him behind the school. The POW was marched behind the school and the other Americans heard two shots. The American officer told the men that the POW had said, “Tell them I went down smiling.” There, the White Angel shot the POW as the man smiled at him. As the man lay on the ground, he shot him a second time. The American captain told the other Americans what had happened. The White Angel told them that this was going to happen to anyone who would not work for the Japanese Empire.
It was while on the detail that his parents learned he was a POW on January 20, 1943. The telegram read:
LEE R WEBB
“YOUR SON, PFC LOUIE L WEBB INFANTRY REPORTED A PRISONER OF WAR OF THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. LETTER FOLLOWS
THE ATTORNEY GENERAL”
A few days later, the family received a letter from the War Department.
Mr. L. Webb
“The Provost Marshal General directs me to inform you that you may communicate with your son, postage free, by following the inclosed instructions:
“It is suggested that you address him as follows:
“Pvt. Louie L. Webb, U.S. Army
Interned in the Philippine Islands
C/O Japanese Red Cross, Tokyo, Japan
Via New York, New York
“Packages cannot be sent to the Orient at this time. When transportation facilities are available a package permit will be issued you.
“Further information will be forwarded you as soon as it is received.
“Howard F. Bresee
“Chief Information Bureau”
Those men who became ill on the detail were sent to Bilibid. At some point, Louie was returned to Cabanatuan, where the medical records from the camp show that he was hospitalized in the camp’s hospital on April 1, 1943. Why he was hospitalized and when he was released were not recorded, but it is known that he had beriberi while a POW. It was also at this time that his parents received a POW card. On it, he told them to continue to make sure the “allotment” was taken care of which he had arranged with them before going overseas. Each month, his parents took $25.00 of his pay and used it to buy a war bond.
In early October 1944, Louie’s name appeared on a list of POWs being sent to Japan. The POWs rode the train to Manila and march to the Port Area of Manila. There, they went to Pier 7.
The POWs were taken to Pier 7 in Manila on October 1, 1944, and the detachment of POWs boarded the Hokusen Maru. The POWs were forced into the ship’s hold until there was no room. The POWs went three days without water and the temperature in the holds rose to over 100 degrees. The ship sailed but dropped anchor at the harbor’s breakwater where it remained for three days. Men began going crazy and began screaming. The Japanese threatened to cover the holds unless those screaming stopped. To stop these men from screaming, the POWs killed them by strangling them or beating them to death with canteens. The hold soon became a latrine and smelled like one so the Japanese covered the hatch which just made the temperature and the smell worse.
At first, the POWs were allowed on deck to relieve themselves. But this was changed and a half barrel was placed to serve as a toilet but many of the POWs had diarrhea or dysentery and never made it to the barrel. Buckets were tied to ropes that were used to haul the excrement from the hold. As they were pulled up, the buckets hit the hold’s walls spilling the waste onto the POWs. At 5:00 P.M., steamed rice was sent down in buckets, but most of the POWs were too sick to eat. Those who could eat ate as much as they could. Water was also sent down in pockets twice a day, and it appears that each POW received about a tablespoon of water. The temperatures in the hold rose to over 100 degrees causing some men to go crazy. The Japanese threatened to kill the POWs if they didn’t quiet the men. To do this, the sane POWs strangled those out of their minds or hit them with canteens. Those who passed out suffocated in the excrement covering the floor. Those who did not were pulled out of the hold by rope
The ship sailed from the Philippines on October 4, 1944, and stopped at Cabcaban, the same day, and San Fernando, La Union, on October 5. There it joined a convoy that sailed on October 6 and stayed close to the coastline to avoid American submarines. This tactic didn’t work since the ships came under attack by submarines. Two ships were sunk. The ships were informed, on October 9th, that American carriers were seen near Taiwan and that American planes were in the area. On October 7, the decision was made for the ships to attempt to reach Taiwan on their own. As the Hokusen Maru made its way to Taiwan, on October 9, there was a false air raid warning, so the captain made the decision to go to Hong Kong.
The Hokusen Maru arrived in Hong Kong on October 11 and the POWs were allowed on deck 50 at a time. Some of the POWs were allowed to wash with seawater. While it was in port on October 16, 27 B-29s bombed the harbor followed by 8 P-51s. The ship nearest to the Hokusen Maru took several hits and was a wreck. The Hokusen Maru left the dock on October 18 and moved around the harbor. A bomb from a sole plane hit close to the ship while it was maneuvering in the harbor. On October 21, the ship sailed for Takao, Formosa. Two days later, the POWs heard explosions as several ships were hit by torpedos from American submarines. It was said by Capt. Alvin Poweleit, that the ships were sinking before the debris from the explosions hit the water. The ships were close enough to Taiwan for the Japanese to send out planes that dropped depth charges in an attempt to sink the sub.
The ship arrived in Takao, Taiwan on October 24. According to some sources, only three of the ten ships in the convoy reached the island. Four survivors of the Arisan Maru were put on the ship on the 29th. One of the men was dying but the other three were in good health. When they were allowed to talk to the other POWs, they told them about the ship’s sinking and how the POWs were left to die. The Japanese made the decision to disembark the POWs, on November 8, and send them to a POW camp on the island. The POWs were brought up on deck for physicals by Japanese doctors. Some were so weak that they had to be pulled from the holds with ropes. It was at this time that it was estimated that 200 POWs had died during the trip. The POWs were marched down the gang blank and taken ashore that same day and washed down with saltwater. The POWs formed detachments of 100 men and marched through Takao. The Chinese threw stones at them. The POWs were sent to Inrin Temporary which was specifically opened for them. Those who were really weak only did light work. The healthier POWs were sent to a sugar mill where they were worked pretty hard.
On January 24, 1945, 563 POWs took a train to Shirakawa where they boarded the Enoshima Maru the next day. The ship sailed and took five days to reach Moji, Japan because the ship made several stops along the Chinese coast. The convoy was also attacked by a submarine, and one torpedo passed by the bow of the ship, and a second torpedo went past the stern and hit a tanker. After arriving at Moji, the POWs left the ship and were taken to a schoolhouse. Before they could enter they had to strip bare because they were infested with lice. The POWs were taken to the train station and boarded a train. When they got off the train, they got on a narrow-gauge train which they rode for eight hours into the mountains to the Ugiusisawa Train Station where they went to a smaller platform and took a narrow cage train to further into the mountains. When they left the train, they had to walk the last miles, in deep snow and arrived at the Sendai #3 on January 28.
The Japanese camp commander lectured the POWs telling them that they were his enemies. It was at this time they were issued one work uniform that they wore the entire time they were in the camp. They were never issued any shoes during the war. They also received four blankets and a straw mat to sleep on.
The ranking officer in the camp was an American doctor, so he commanded all the POWs in the camp regardless of nationality. After the POWs arrived from the Philippines, they were given a few days off to recover before being put to work. In the camp, Louie was reunited with CPO Mason Robinson Jr. who he had grown up with as a child. Having each other in the camp made the experience a little easier to deal with being a POW.
The camp was in the shape of an upside-down L with the POW barracks to the top right. The 250 American POWs – being the first POWs in the camp – occupied the three barracks in the camp that appeared to have been standard Japanese POW camp barracks with two tiers of platforms that ran along the length that served as beds for the POWs. Each man was issued a mattress to sleep on and had a space approximately three feet wide and six feet long that served as his bed. There was an iron stove in the center of the barracks and tables. It is not known if the stove actually was functional. Each barracks had electric lights. British POWs arrived a few weeks later and shared the barracks with the Americans. Behind the barracks were two latrines. There was also a building that served as the camp office and barracks for the Japanese. The POWs’ kitchen was located next to the Japanese kitchen, and on the south side of the POWs’ kitchen was a bathhouse for the POWs. There were also three buildings that served as warehouses in the camp and a building that served as the camp hospital.
Food was mainly rice and soybean and there was never enough. The hardest thing the POWs had to eat was dog meat. The POWs went through the Japanese town and noted that the Japanese women would receive their rations of food twice a week. It was noted that the longer they were in the camp that the Japanese food ration was cut to once a week, and the women were often seen arguing with each other. As time went on, the Japanese civilians were given a food ration once every three weeks.
Red Cross medical supplies were available, but the Japanese sergeant, who was also the medical officer, in charge of them refused to issue the medicine or supplies to the POW doctor. Refusing to issue the supplies resulted in one man having his foot amputated without anesthetics. The man later died from pneumonia since the sergeant refused to allow him to be sent to the nearby company hospital that had the medicine to treat him. The sergeant’s actions also resulted in the death of another POW and the suffering of many other POWs. The Japanese misappropriated the Red Cross packages and it was a common occurrence to see the guards smoking American cigarettes. Many of the POWs had no shoes even though the Red Cross had sent shoes to the camp and worked barefooted in the winter. The excuse that the Japanese used for not issuing the POWs shoes was that they did not want to upset the civilians by giving the POWs shoes. Plenty of food was available in the camp, and POWs carried Red Cross boxes of it into the camp. The Japanese simply refused to give the food to the POWs.
Of his time in the camp, he said, “Cold? It was bitter cold. We nearly froze to death.” When asked about heating facilities, he held out his two hands and said that was how much coal the POWs received once a day for two small stoves for 150 men. “Most of the time, however, we could smuggle coal in from the mines in our pockets and stored away in our clothing. Of course, we slept with all our clothes on.”
Beatings were common in the camp, and it was said that the commandant enjoyed watching the POWs beaten. The guards were allowed to beat the POWs whenever they wanted and with whatever they wanted to beat them with. The Japanese sergeant major in the camp never abused the POWs and was known to give them extra food if he could. One guard, Yasushi Takasago, who had never served in the Army repeatedly beat various POWs from March 1, 1945, until August 15, 1945. The same was true of Japanese Lance Corporal Zenkichi Koiwa, Sergeant Koichi Ota, and Lieutenant Katsuo Ishizawa who beat various POWs during this time.
The POWs worked in a lead and zinc mine from 6:00 A.M. until 4:00 or 5:00 P.M. As they walked to the mine, they were beaten. The POWs worked as “Drillers” and drilled the holes for dynamite. After a new section of the mine was blasted out, the POWs who were “Miners” had to load mine cars with the rock and ore that had been loosened. The POWs had a set number of mining cars they had to fill before they were allowed to go back to the camp. The “Car Men” pushed the mining cars to the assigned location so they could be emptied. The “Timberers” the support beams when a shaft was mined out. The Japanese attempted to get the POWs to work harder by giving rice balls to the POWs who were identified as good workers.
The POWs could tell the war was not going well for the Japanese by the way they acted and spoke to them. One day, the POWs in the camp were informed that they did not have to go to work and were allowed to leave the camp and walk in the hills. This was the first holiday they ever had. The POWs went back to work the next day, but when the POWs came out of the mine they heard a loudspeaker blaring. The Japanese were standing around crying. When the next group of POWs arrived at the mine, instead of going to work, they were told to sit down and wait. They were later told they should return to the camp. That night when they were fed, they noticed the amount of food given to them had increased. They also each received five cigarettes.
On August 15, 1945, they were again told they did not have to work. Many of the POWs concluded that the war was over. The next day the Japanese painted PW on the roof of a building and on August 20 three American fighters flew low over the camp repeatedly. Each time they flew over the pilots dipped their wings. A message was dropped to the POWs telling them the war was over and that B-29s would be dropping supplies the next day at a certain time. When the planes came over they were so low some of the parachutes on the 55-gallon drums did not open resulting in two British POWs and one American being killed. One of the immediate results was the POW doctor was able to treat the sick with medicine dropped in a drum. The next day the planes returned dropping clothing to the POWs and more food. The Japanese also brought the POWs two large Red Cross boxes that were 2½’ by 2½’ by 3′ that contained plasma, multiple vitamins, and various medicines. They also issued the POWs’ shoes which had been sitting in a warehouse.
An American major and three enlisted men arrived at the camp on September 12. The POWs were officially liberated. One of the things the Recovery Team did was to make movies and photos of the camp. One of the team members made the Japanese commandant carry around all the equipment for his movie camera. They were taken by the same narrow gauge train to the Uguisusawa Station. There, Australian nurses were waiting. The POWs rode the train to Morioka, where the former POWs were taken to the U.S.S. Rescue. On the ship, they were deloused, showered, and issued new clothing and shoes. From there they were taken to Yokohama, Japan, where he boarded a troop transport.
It appears Louie remained on the hospital ship. It sailed at 5:41 A.M. on September 19 and stopped at Guam on September 23 and sailed on the 24 for San Francisco, arriving there on October 10, 1945. After disembarking, he was taken to Letterman General Hospital for further medical treatment. Later, he was sent to a veterans hospital closer to his home.
When he was liberated his family received another message from the War Department.
“Mrs. B Webb: The secretary of war has asked me to inform you that your son, Pvt. Louie L. Webb was returned to military control Sept. 12 and is being returned to the United States within the near future. He will be given the opportunity to communicate with you upon his arrival if he has not already done so.
“E. F. Witsell
“Acting Adjutant General of the Army”
Of his return home, he said. “They gave us a glorious welcome at San Francisco, and you do not know what it meant setting foot on U.S. soil again. We had to wait a week or so at San Francisco until transportation was arranged. Lt. Woodside, of Charlotte, was on the same train as me, and we talked a long while together on our trip across the continent.”
After giving a newspaper interview at his parents’ home, he suffered an attack of kidney colic and was taken by military ambulance to Camp Croft, South Carolina, hospital. He was discharged on March 16, 1946, married Lillian Clanton in 1948, and became the father of a daughter. He worked as a printer to support his family.
Even after the war, his life was not easy. In 1959, he was involved in the identification of the body of his father who had been murdered and buried under the wrong name. Louie Webb passed away in Gastonia, North Carolina, on August 19, 1984. The photo at the top of this page was taken after the war.