Quinn, Sgt. Charles R.

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Sgt. Charles Robert Quinn
Born: 12 August 1919 – Mercer County, Kentucky
Home: Mercer County, Kentucky 
Parents: Robert Quinn and Carrie Steele-Quinn 
Siblings: 3 brothers, 1 sister 
Hometown: McAfee, Kentucky
Education: 3 years of high school 
Enlisted: 
– Kentucky National Guard 
Inducted: 
– U. S. Army 
– 25 November 1940 – Harrodsburg, Kentucky 
– 28 November 1940 – the company rode ten trucks to Fort Knox, Kentucky
– the company’s tanks sent by train to the fort
Training:
– Fort Knox, Kentucky
– Basic Training
– the training was done with 69th Tank Regiment, First Armored Division
– soldiers rushed through basic training
– Week 1: infantry drilling
– Week 2: manual arms and marching to music
– Week 3: machine gun
– Week 4: pistol
– Week 5: M1 rifle
– Week 6: field week – training with gas masks, gas attacks, pitching tents, and hikes
– Weeks 7, 8, 9, 10: Time was spent learning the weapons, firing each one, learning the parts of the weapons and their functions, field stripping, and caring
   for weapons, and the cleaning of weapons
– December 1940 – moved into barracks
– shared their mess hall with A Company until its mess hall was finished
– men selected to be transferred to the newly created Hq Company
– a typical day
– 6:15 with reveille
– most of the soldiers were up before this since they wanted to wash and dress.
– 7:00 to 8:00 – Breakfast
– 8:00 to 8:30 – calisthenics
– Afterward, the tankers went to various schools within the company.
– training in using and maintaining 30 and 50 caliber machine guns and pistols
– training in map reading, care of personal equipment, military courtesy, and training in tactics.
– 11:30 the soldiers stopped what they were doing and cleaned up for mess – – Noon to 1:00 P.M. – lunch
– Afterward, they attended the various schools which they had been assigned to on January 13, such as mechanics, tank driving, radio operating.
– 4:30 – the soldiers called it a day and returned to their barracks and put on dress uniforms
– 5:00 – retreat
– 5:30 – dinner
– After dinner, they were off duty
– 9:00 P.M. – lights were out
– soldiers but did not have to turn in
– 10:00 P.M. – Taps was played.
– January 1941- attended a specific tank school for training
– tank commander
Tactical Maneuvers
– February
– four composite tank detachments made of men from all the companies of the battalion left Ft. Knox
– left on different dates on problematic moves at 9:00 A.M.
– detachments:
– 3 motorcycles
– 2 scout cars
– 16 tanks
– 1 ambulance and supply, fuel, and kitchen trucks
– the route was difficult
– it was chosen so that the men became acquainted with their equipment
– they also had to watch out for simulated enemy planes
– bridges were avoided whenever it was possible to ford the water
– they received their rations from a food truck
Housing:
– in late March 1941, the entire battalion was moved to new larger barracks
– located at Wilson Road and Seventh Avenue at Ft. Knox
– the barracks had bathing and washing facilities in them and a day room.
– the new kitchens had larger gas ranges, automatic gas heaters, large pantries, and mess halls
– men form selective service permanently joined the battalion
– needed larger barracks 
Tactical Maneuvers:
– June 14 and 16
– the battalion was divided into four detachments composed of men from different companies
– C and D Companies, part of HQ Company, and part of the Medical Detachment left on June 14
– A and B Companies, and the other halves of HQ Company and the Medical Detachment left the fort on June 16
– These were tactical maneuvers – under the command of the commanders of each of the letter companies
– The three-day tactical road marches were to Harrodsburg, Kentucky, and back
–  the maneuvers gave the men practice at loading, unloading, and setting up administrative camps
– prepared them for the Louisiana maneuvers.
– Each tank company traveled with 20 tanks
– 20 motorcycles
– 7 armored scout cars
– 5 jeeps, 12 peeps (later called jeeps)
– 20 large 2½ ton trucks (these carried the battalion’s garages for vehicle repair)
– 5, 1½ ton trucks (which included the companies’ kitchens)
– 1 ambulance.
– The detachments traveled through Bardstown and Springfield 
– arrived at Harrodsburg at 2:30 P.M. where they set up their bivouac at the fairgrounds.
– The next morning, they moved to Herrington Lake east of Danville
– there the men swam, boated, and fished.
– returned to Ft. Knox through Lebanon, New Haven, and Hodgenville, Kentucky
– at Hodgenville, the men were allowed to visit the birthplace of Abraham Lincoln
Louisiana Maneuvers:
– The entire battalion was loaded onto trucks and sent in a convoy to Louisiana while the tanks and wheeled vehicles were sent by train.
– during the maneuvers that tanks held defensive positions
– they were usually were held in reserve by the higher headquarters 
– for the first time, the tanks were used to counter-attack and in support of infantry – – many of the men felt that the tanks were finally being used like they
   should be used and not as “mobile pillboxes.” 
– the medical detachment treated injuries, snakebites, and other ailments. 
– one of the major problems was snake bites
– every other man was bitten at some point by a snake
– the platoon commanders and medics carried a snakebit kit
– used to create a vacuum to suck the poison out of the bite
– the bites were the result of the nights cooling down and snakes crawling under the soldiers’ bedrolls for warmth while the soldiers were sleeping on.
– a multicolored snake – about eight inches long was deadly
– the good thing was that these snakes would not just strike at the man
– only struck if the man forced himself on it
– when the soldiers woke up in the morning they would carefully pick up their bedrolls
– looked to see if there were any snakes under them. 
– to avoid being bitten, men slept on the two and a half-ton trucks or on or in the tanks.
– another trick the soldiers learned was to dig a small trench around their tents
– they laid rope in the trench.
– the burs on the rope kept the snakes from entering the tents
– the snakes were not a problem if the night was warm.
– during the maneuvers that tanks held defensive positions
– usually were held in reserve by the higher headquarters.
– for the first time, the tanks were used to counter-attack
– used in support of infantry
– some men felt that the tanks were finally being used as they should
   be used and not as “mobile pillboxes.” 
– other men described the maneuvers as being awakened at 4:30 A.M. and sent to an area to engage an imaginary enemy.
– after engaging the enemy, the tanks withdrew to another area.
– the crews had no idea what they were doing most of the time
– crews stated they were never told anything by the higher-ups
– men felt that they just rode around in their tanks a lot 
– the sandy soil was a problem for the tanks
– tanks were parked and the crews walked away from them
– when they returned, the tanks had sunk into the sandy soil up to their hauls
– To get them out, other tanks were brought in and attempted to pull them out.
– If that didn’t work, a tank wrecker came from Camp Polk to pull the tank out.
– one good thing that came out of the maneuvers was that the tank crews learned how to move at night.
– this was never done at Ft. Knox
– the night movements were preparing them for what they would do in the Philippines
– The drivers learned how to drive at night and to take instructions from their tank commanders who had a better view from the turret.
– a number of motorcycle riders from other tank units were killed
– rode their motorcycles without headlights at night 
– this meant they could not see obstacles in front of their bikes
– When they hit something they fell to the ground
– the tanks following them went over them
– This happened several times before the motorcycle riders were ordered to turn on their headlights.
– the medics traveled with the companies in the half-tracks.
– at Ft. Knox, the tankers were taught that they should never attack an anti-tank gun head-on
– one day during the maneuvers, their commanding general threw away the entire battalion doing just that
– after sitting out a period of time, the battalion resumed the maneuvers
– at some point, the battalion also went from fighting for the Red Army to fighting for the Blue Army.
– wild hogs were a problem
– in the middle of the night while the men were sleeping they would suddenly hear hogs squealing.
– the hogs would run into the tents pushing on them until they took them down
– they then dragged them away.
– Meals: 
– food was also not very good
– it was always damp from the humidity which made it hard to get a fire started
– Many of their meals were C ration meals of beans or chili
– they choked the meals down
– Wash:
– washing clothes was done when the men had a chance
– found a creek and looked for alligators
– if there were none, took a bar of soap and scrubbed whatever they were washing
– clothes were usually washed once a week or once every two weeks
Overseas:
– after these maneuvers that the 192nd Tank Battalion was ordered to Camp Polk, Louisiana, instead of returning to Ft. Knox
– at Camp Polk, Louisiana, they learned they were going overseas
– many of the soldiers received furloughs home and get their affairs in order
– men 29 years old or older were allowed to resign from federal service
– replacements for these men came from 753rd Tank Battalion
– the 192nd also got the tanks of the 753rd and some came from the Third Armored Division
– this move was caused by an event that took place in the summer of 1941
– a squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf 
– one of the pilots noticed something odd
– he took his plane down and identified a buoy, with a flag, in the water
– he came upon more flagged buoys that lined up – in a straight line – for 30 miles to the northwest
– the buoys lined up with a Japanese occupied island hundreds of miles away
– the island had a large radio transmitter
– the squadron continued its flight plane and flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field
– the planes landed, but it was too late to do anything that day
– The next day – planes were sent to the area
– the buoys had been picked up
– a fishing boat was seen making – with a tarp covering something on its deck – was seen making its way toward shore.
– communication between the planes and the Navy was poor, nothing was done to intercept the boat
– the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines
Deployment:
– the battalion’s new tanks and half-tracks were loaded on flatcars
– D Company took the southern route to San Francisco, California
– went along the Gulf Coast, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
– came north along the west coast
– the soldiers rode one train followed by a second train
– the second train carried the company’s tanks
– at the end of the second train were a boxcar and passenger car with soldiers in it
– soldiers arrived by train in San Francisco, California
– ferried to Angel Island on the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
– on Angel Island they received physicals
– some men held back for minor medical conditions
– scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date
– other men simply were replaced
Overseas Duty:
– U.S.A.T. Hugh L. Scott
– Sailed: San Francisco – Monday – 27 October 1941
– Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii – Sunday – 2 November 1941
– remained in Hawaii until other ships in convoy arrived
– Sailed: Wednesday – 5 November 1941
– took southern route away from main shipping lanes
– joined by the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and the transport,
   U.S.A.T. President Calvin Coolidge
– smoke was seen on the horizon
– Louisville revved its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it intercepted the ship
– the ship was from a neutral country
– two other intercepted ships were Japanese freighters carrying scrap metal to Japan
– Sunday – 9 November 1941 – crossed International Dateline
– soldiers woke up on Tuesday – 11 November 1941
– Arrived: Guam – Sunday 16 November 1941
– the ship loaded with water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables
– Sailed: next day
– passed Japanese held island in total blackout
– Arrived: Thursday – 20 November 1941 – Manila Bay – 7:00 A.M.
– there was no band or welcoming committee waiting at the pier to tell them to enjoy their stay in the Philippines and see as much of the island as they
   could
– a party came aboard the ship – carrying guns 
– the soldiers were told, “Draw your firearms immediately; we’re under alert. We expect a war with Japan at any moment. Your destination is Fort Stotsenburg, Clark Field.” 
– soldiers disembarked the ship three hours after arrival
– a Marine checked off the names of the enlisted men
– greeted them with “Hello suckers”
– boarded buses for Ft. Stotsenburg
– maintenance section remained behind to unload tanks from the ship
Stationed:
– Ft. Stotsenburg
– General Edward King greeted them and apologize about their living quarters
– made sure that the soldiers had dinner – a stew thrown into their mess kits before they he had his own
– D Company moved into barracks that were almost finished
– the company was scheduled to be transferred to the 194th Tank Battalion
– the 194th had arrived in the Philippines in September
– In addition, the khaki uniforms they had been issued also turned out to be a heavy material which made them uncomfortable to wear in the tropical heat.
– D Company was attached to 194th Tank Battalion
– the transfer to the 194th was suspended indefinitely when the war started
– the company remained part of the 192nd Tank Battalion
– the company was listed on Presidential Unit Citations for the 192nd
Work Day:
– 5:15 A. M. – reveille
– washing – the lucky man washed by a faucet with running water
– 6:00 A.M. – breakfast
– 7:00 to 11:30 A.M. 
– Noon – lunch
– 1:30 to 2:30 P.M. – worked
– the shorter afternoon work period was based on the belief that the climate made it too hot to work
– the tankers worked until 4:30 P.M.
– the term “recreation in the motor pool” was used for this work time
– during this time, the tank crews learned about the M3A1 tanks
– tank commanders read manuals on tanks and taught crews about the tanks
– studied the 30-caliber and 50 caliber machineguns
– spent three hours of each day taking the guns apart and putting them back together
– did it until they could disassemble and assemble the guns blindfolded
– could not fire guns since they were not given ammunition
– the base commander was waiting for General MacArthur to release the ammunition
– 5:10 – dinner
– after dinner, the soldiers were free to do what they wanted to do
Recreation:
– the soldiers spent their free time bowling, going to the movies,
– they also played horseshoes, softball, badminton, or threw a football around
– on Wednesday afternoons, they went swimming
– men were allowed to go to Manila in small numbers
Alert:
– 1 December 1941
– tanks ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field
– 194th guarded the north end of the airfield and the 192nd guarded the south end
– two crew members of each tank crew remained with the tanks at all times
– meals served by food trucks
– those not assigned to a tank or half-track remained at the command post
Engagements:
– Battle of Luzon – 8 December 1941 – 6 January 1942
– 8 December 1941
– 192nd Tank Battalion had a radio communications tent
– Maj. Ernest Miller, commanding officer of the 194th read news of the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor
– Maj. Ted Wickord, CO of the 192nd, and Gen. James R. N. Weaver, CO of Tank Group were with him reading dispatches
– Miller ordered his battalion be brought up to full strength at the airfield
– the half-tracks took positions next to the tanks
– lived Japanese attack on Clark Field
– planes did not go after tanks
– after the attack, 194th sent to a bivouac three kilometers north of Clark Field
– from there they were sent to Barrio of San Joaquin on the Malolos Road
– 12 December 1941
– moved to new bivouac south to San Fernando near Calumpit Bridge
– arrived at 6:00 A.M.
– 15 December 1941
– received 15 Bren gun carriers
– turned some over to 26th Cavalry, Philippine Scouts
– 22 December 1941
– sent to Rosario
– west and north of the barrio
– ordered out of the 71st Division Commander
– said they would hinder the cavalry’s operation
– 22/23 December 1941
– operating north of Agno River
– main bridge at Carmen bombed
– 24/25 December 1941
– tank battalions made an end run to get south of Agno River
– ran into Japanese resistance but successfully crossed the river
– 25/26 December 1941
– held the south bank of Agno River from west of Carmen to Carmen-Akcaka-Bautista Road
– 192nd held from Carmen to (Route 3) to Tayug (northeast of San Quintin)
– 26/27 December 1941
– ordered to withdraw
– 1 platoon forced its way through Carmen
– lost two tanks
– one tank belonged to company commander – Captain Edward Burke
– believed dead, but was actually captured
– one tank crew rescued
– new line Santa Ignacia-Gerona-Santo Tomas-San Jose
– rest of the battalion made a dash out
– lost one tank at Bayambang
– another tank went across front receiving fire and firing on Japanese
– Lt. Weeden Petree’s platoon fought its way out and across Agno River
– D Company, 192nd, lost all its tanks except one
– the tank commander found a crossing
– Japanese would use tanks later on Bataan
– 29/30 December 1941
– new line at Bamban River established
– tank battalions held the line until ordered to withdraw
– 30/31 December 1941
– tank battalions held Calumpit Bridge
– covering withdraw of Philippine Divisions south on Rt. 3, San Fernando
– 2 January 1942
– both tank battalions ordered to withdrawal to Lyac Junction
– 194th withdrew there on Highway 7
– 5 January 1942
– C Company and A Company, 192nd Tank Battalion, withdrew from Guagua-Porac Line and moved into position between Sexmoan and Lubao
– 1:50 A.M. – Japanese attempted to infiltrate
– bright moonlight made them easy to see
– tanks opened fire
– Japanese lay down smoke which blew back into them
– 3:00 A.M. – Japanese broke off the engagement
– suffered 50% casualties
– Remedios – established a new line along a dried creek bed
– 6/7 January 1942
– 194th, covered by 192nd, crosses Culis Creek into Bataan
– both battalions bivouacked south of Aubucay-Hacienda Road
– rations cut in half
– Battle of Bataan – 7 January 1942 – 9 April 1942
– January 1942
– tank companies reduced to three tanks per platoon
It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver: “Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal. If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay.”
– 8 January 1942
– composite tank company made up of tanks from the 192nd and 194th sent to protect East Coast Road north of Hermosa
– their job was to keep the East Road open north of Hermosa and prevent the Japanese from driving into Bataan before the main battle line had been
  formed
– the remainder of tanks ordered to bivouac for the night south of Aubucay-Hacienda Road
– tankers had been fighting for a month without a rest
– tanks also needed overdue maintenance
– 17th Ordnance
– all tank companies reduced to ten tanks
– three per tank platoon
– sent to reopen Moron Road so General Segunda’s forces could withdraw
– tanks knock out an anti-tank gun
– two tanks disabled by landmines but recovered
– mission abandoned
– Gen. Segunda’s troops escaped using the beach but lost their heavy equipment
– 12 January 1942
– C Company, with D Company, 192nd, sent to Cadre Road
– a forward position with little alert time
– 13 January 1942
– mines planted by ordnance prevented them from reaching Cadre Road
– returned to the battalion
– 16 January 1942
– C Company sent to Bagac to reopen Moron Highway
– the highway had been cut by Japanese
– Moron Highway, and Junction of Trail 162
– tank platoon fired on by antitank gun
– tanks knock out the gun
– cleared roadblock with support of infantry
– 20 January 1942
– Banibani Road -tanks sent in to save 31st Infantry command post
– 24 January 1942
– tanks order to Hacienda Road in support of troops
– landmines planted by ordnance prevented them from reaching the road
– 26 January 1942
– the battalion held a position a kilometer north of the Pilar-Bagac Road
– four self-propelled mounts with the battalion
– 9:45 A.M. – warned by Filipino a large Japanese force was coming
– when the enemy appeared they opened up with all the battalion had
– 10:30 A.M. – Japanese withdrew after losing 500 of 1200 men
– prevented new defensive line being formed from being breached
– 28 January 1942
– 194th tanks given beach duty protecting southern beaches
– guarded coast from Limay to Cabcaben
– half-tracks patrolled roads
– maintained radio contact with on-shore and off-shore patrols
– March 1942
– two tanks were bogged down in mud
– the tankers were working to get them out
– Japanese Regiment entered the area
– Lt. Col. Ernest Miller ordered tanks and artillery to fire at point-blank range
– Miller ran from tank to tank directing fire
– wiped out Japanese regiment
– 3 April 1942
– Japanese launched a new offensive
– tanks sent into various sectors to stop the Japanese advance
– 6 April 1942
– four tanks sent to support 45th Philippine Infantry and 75th Infantry, Philippine Scouts
– one tank knocked out by anti-tank fire at the junction of Trails 8 & 6
– other tanks covered withdraw
– 3rd Platoon sent up the west coast road
– near Mt. Samat ran into heavy Japanese force
– the tanks withdrew to Marivales
– 8 April 1942
– Gen. Edward P. King decided that further resistance was futile since approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight
– he estimated they would last one more day
– In addition, he had over 6,000 troops who sick or wounded and 40,000 civilians who he feared would be massacred
– His troops were on one-quarter rations, and even at that ration, he had two days of food left.
– 6:30 P.M. – order goes out to be prepared to destroy all equipment of use to the Japanese
– Company B, 192nd, D Company, and A Company, 194th, were preparing for a suicide attack
– 10:30 P.M. – the decision made to send a white flag across the battle line
– 11:40 P.M. – ammunition dumps were blown up
– midnight – B Company, D Company, and A Company, 194th, received an order from Gen. Weaver to stand down.
– At 2:oo A.M. April 9, Gen. King sent a jeep under a white flag carrying Colonel Everett C. Williams, Col. James V. Collier, and Major Marshall Hurt to meet
   with the Japanese commander about terms of surrender.
 – The white flag was bedding from A Company, 192nd Tank Battalion
– Shortly after daylight Collier and Hunt returned with word of the appointment
– the tankers received this message over their radios at 6:45 A.M.
– 9 April 1942
– 6:45 A.M. – “crash”
– circled tanks and fired an armor-piercing shell into each tank’s engine
– opened gasoline cocks and dropped grenades into the crew compartment
– Gen King went through the area held by B Company, 192nd, and spoke to the men
– he said to them, “Boys. I’m going to get us the best deal I can.”
– he also said, “When you get home, don’t ever let anyone say to you, you surrendered. I was the one who surrendered.”
– Gen. King with his two aides, Maj. Cothran and Captain Achille C. Tisdelle Jr. got into a jeep carrying a large white flag
– They were followed by another jeep – also flying another large white flag – with Col. Collier and Maj. Hurt in it
– As the jeeps made their way north, they were strafed and small bombs were dropped by a Japanese plane
– the drivers of both jeeps managed to avoid the bullets and bombs
– The strafing ended when a Japanese reconnaissance plane ordered the fighter pilot to stop strafing
– About 10:00 A.M. the jeeps reached Lamao where they were received by a Japanese Major General who informed King that he reported his coming to
   negotiate a surrender and that an officer from the Japanese command would arrive to do the negotiations
– The Japanese officer also told him that his troops would no attack for thirty minutes while King decided what he would do
– After a half-hour, no Japanese officer had arrived from their headquarters and the Japanese attack had resumed. King sent Col. Collier and Maj. Hunt back
   to his command with instructions that any unit inline with the Japanese advance should fly white flags
– shortly after this was done a Japanese colonel and interpreter arrived
– King was told the officer was Homma’s Chief of Staff and he had come to discuss
   King’s surrender
– King attempted to get insurances from the Japanese that his men would be treated as prisoners of war, but the Japanese officer – through his interpreter
– he was accused of declining to surrender unconditionally
– At one point King stated he had enough trucks and gasoline to carry his troops out of Bataan
– He was told that the Japanese would handle the movement of the prisoners
– The two men talked back and forth until the colonel said through the interpreter, “The Imperial Japanese Army are not barbarians.”
– Gen. King had no choice but to take him at his word
– 9 April 1942
– Charlie and others made the decision to try to escape to Australia
– they repaired the motor of a boat
– an officer and two enlisted men arrived
– the officer at gunpoint ordered them to Corregidor
– Japanese planes dropped bombs and artillery fired at them
– safely reached the island
– once there, they could not leave
– it was explained that Japanese ships blocked the entrance to the bay
– Battle of Corregidor
– 9 April 1942 – 6 May 1942
– assigned to 4th Marines with Marcus Lawson
– sent to sent to Skipper Hill which faced Bataan
– manned a machine gun
– chow wagon was sent down to the soldiers
– the chow wagon crossed an open field
– the Japanese spotted it from observation balloons
– shelled the area when they saw it
Prisoner of War:
– 6 May 1942
– Japanese landed on the island
– Gen. Wainwright surrendered
– enlisted men were held on the beach – designated Camp #9h
– the POWs went days without water
– remained there for weeks
– boarded onto small boats and taken to a larger one
– taken to a point offshore
– POWs had to jump into the water and swim to shore
– onshore they were organized into detachments
– the POWs had heard about the march out of Bataan
– they were marched at a reasonable pace and given breaks
– arrived at Bilibid Prison
– During May 1942, his family received its first message from the War Department

“Dear Mrs. C. Quinn:

        “According to War Department records, you have been designated as the emergency addressee if Sergeant Charles R. Quinn, 20,523,489, who, according to the latest information available, was serving in the  Philippine Islands at the time of the final surrender. 

        “I deeply regret that it is impossible for me to give you more information than is contained in this letter.  In the last days before the surrender of Bataan, there were casualties which were not reported to the War Department.  Conceivably the same is true of the surrender of Corregidor and possibly other islands of the Philippines.  The Japanese Government has indicated its intention of conforming to the terms of the Geneva Convention with respect to the interchange of information regarding prisoners of war.  At some future date, this Government will receive through Geneva a list of persons who have been taken prisoners of war.  Until that time the War Department cannot give you positive information. 

        “The War Department will consider the persons serving in the Philippine Islands as “missing in action” from the date of surrender of Corregidor, May 7, 1942, until definite information to the contrary is received.  It is to be hoped that the Japanese Government will communicate a list of prisoners of war at an early date.  At that time you will be notified by this office in the event that his name is contained in the list of prisoners of war.   In the case of persons known to have been present in the Philippines and who are not reported to be prisoners of war by the Japanese Government, the War Department will continue to carry them as “missing in action” in the absence of information to the contrary, until twelve months have expired.  At the expiration of twelve months and in the absence of other information the War Department is authorized to make a final determination.

        “Recent legislation makes provision to continue the pay and allowances of persons carried in a “missing” status for a period not to exceed twelve months;  to continue, for the duration of the war, the pay and allowances of persons known to have been captured by the enemy; to continue allotments made by missing personnel for a period of twelve months and allotments or increase allotments made by persons by the enemy during the time they are so held;  to make new allotments or increase allotments to certain dependents defined in Public Law 490, 77th Congress.  The latter dependents generally include the legal wife, dependent children under twenty-one years of age and dependent mother, or such dependents as having been designated in official records.  Eligible dependents who can establish a need for financial assistance and are eligible to receive this assistance the amount allotted will be deducted from pay which would otherwise accrue to the credit of the missing individual.

                                                                                                                                                                    “Very Truly yours

                                                                                                                                                                            J. A. Ulio (signed) 
                                                                                                                                                                       Major General
                                                                                                                                                                   The Adjutant General”
           

POW Camps:
– Cabanatuan 
– actually three camps
– marched past Cabanatuan #1
– POWs captured on Bataan were sent there
– marched past Cabanatuan #2
– the camp was closed because of a lack of water
– Cabanatuan #3
– 26 May 1942 to 28 May 1942 – POWs marched to train station
– each day, 2,000 POWs sent by train to the barrio of Cabanatuan
– disembarked the train and formed detachments
– told by the guards they would shoot them if they fell to the ground
– first POW who fell threatened by guard and managed to rejoin march
– a POW fell who could not get up
– a guard yelled at him and aimed gun at him
– the man still did not get up
– the guard raised his hand holding a red flag
– a truck pulled up and the POW was put on it
– having seen this, more POWs suddenly could not continue marching
– held there to keep them separate from POWs from Bataan
– they were in much better shape
– 29 May 1942 – 6,000 POWs in camp
– the first meal in the camp was an onion soup
– it had no onions or rice in it
– meals usually consisted of squash, mongo beans, rice, and the tops of a native sweet potato were used to make soup
– once a week they received carabao meat
– some sources state the meals were rice and whistle weed soup
–  the camp was unfinished
– there was no fence on the north side of the camp
– 4 POWs walked away from camp
– when they realized they had no place to go they returned to camp
– they were tied to posts and left to hang in the sun
– the Japnese beat them with boards
– the Japanese showed the men water but did not give them any
– at dinner time the next day, the Japanese marched the men to where the prisoners were eating
– the men dug their own graves
– each was given a cigarette and a drink of water
– the men were offered blindfolds
– all but one man took the blindfolds
– that man spat at the Japanese before they shot him
– they fell backward into the graves after being shot
– one survived and attempted to crawl out of the grave
– a Japanese officer shot him with his pistol
– he then shot all four men to make sure they were dead
– 21 June 1942 – Blood Brother rule introduced
– POWs were put into groups of ten men
– if one man escaped the other nine would be killed
– POWs sent out on work details and the camp population slowly shrinks
– some work details left the camp in the morning and returned in the evening
– 28 June 1942 – the first church services were held in the camp
– 29 June 1942 – POW activities organized
– it was believed they would help with morale
– teams formed for softball, basketball, volleyball, ping-pong
– also formed sing-a-long groups for entertainment
– 17 July 1942 – organized an effort to stop the spread of dysentery
– POWs caught flies
– milk can full of flies got a man two biscuits and some cigarettes
– October 1942 – camp population numbered 1,801 POWs
– Japanese decided to close the camp
– 25 September 1942 – 100 officers and men sent out on a work detail
– 29 September 1942 – 119 officers and men sent Manila work detail
– joined by 326 POWs from Camp 1
– 4 October 1942 – 374 men transferred to Manila work detail
– 5 October 1942 – 676 POWs sent to Manila work detail
– 1700 POWs from two details sent to Manila to await further transportation
– 21 October 1942 – 322 officers and men were transferred to Camp 1
– October 28, 29 and 30 
– transfer of POWs to Bilibid started
– 29 October 1942 – 1,126 POWs sent to Camp 1 by truck
– 30 October 1942 – the remaining 775 POWs sent to Camp 1 by truck
– camp officially closed
– Camp 1 Administration:
– the Japanese left POWs to run the camp on their own
– Japanese entered camp when they had a reason
– POWs patrolled fence to prevent escapes
– Blood Brother Rule in effect
– Barracks:
– each barracks held 50 men
– often held between 60 and 120 men
– slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, and mosquito netting
– diseases spread easily
– no showers
– Morning Roll Call:
– stood at attention
– frequently beaten over their heads for no reason
– when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in their shins with their
  hobnailed boots because they didn’t like the way the POWs lined up
Work Details:
– Airfield Detail:
– Cabanatuan Airfield
– opened before the war for the Philippine Army Air Corps
– real name was Maniquis Airfield
– POWs built a runway and revetments
– POWs cut grass, removed dirt, and leveled ground
– at first moved dirt in wheelbarrows
– later pushed mining cars
Guards:
– Air Raid
– in charge
– usually fair but unpredictable
– had to watch him
– Donald Duck
– always talking
– sounded like the cartoon character
– unpredictable – beat POWs
– POWs told him that Donald Duck was a big American movie star
– at some point, he saw a Donald Duck cartoon
– POWs stayed away from him when he came back to camp
– Work Day: 7:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
– worked 6 days a week
– had Sunday off
– Other Details:
– work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens and plant rice
– they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
– POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on
– the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
– if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn’t doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
– many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
– Burial Detail
– POWs worked in teams of four
– carried 4 to 6 dead to the cemetery at a time in litters
– a grave contained from 15 to 20 bodies
– daily POW meal
– 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn
– rice was the main staple, few vegetables or fruits
– Camp Hospital:
– 30 Wards
– each ward could hold 40 men
– frequently had 100 men in each
– two tiers of bunks
– sickest POWs on the bottom tier
– each POW had a 2 foot by 6-foot area to lie in
– Zero Ward
– given the name, because it had been missed when counting wards
– became ward where those who were going to die were sent
– fenced off from other wards
– Japanese guards would not go near it
– POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving
– medical staff had little to no medicine to treat sick
– many deaths from disease caused by malnutrition
– 4 November 1942 – 1300 POWs selected to be sent to Japan
– Japanese issued each man 1 pair of shoes, 1 undershirt, and 1 blue denim uniform
– told to put on their best clothing
– marched to a ball field
– told to remove clothing and issued Japanese clothing
– 11 November 1942 – deep latrines dug in camp
– at least 18 feet deep
– 12 November 1942 – Fr. Bruttenbruck – a German Catholic priest brought packages for POWs and medicine
– 15 November 1942 – 100 POWs worked in the hospital area of the camp
– cut grass, dug drainage ditches, dug latrines, dug sump holes
– 20 November 1942 – Pvt. Donald K. Russell – left camp at 9:30 P.M.
– got past guards
– at 12:30 A.M. – caught trying to reenter the camp
– had a large bag of canned goods
– 21 November 1942 -12:30 P.M. – he was shot
– 23 November 1942 – Farm Detail
– Japanese wanted 750 healthy POWs for farm work detail
– wanted to get the farm started
– there were only 603 healthy officers and enlisted men in the camp
– POWs cleared land and grew camotes, cassava, taro, sesame, and various greens
– Japanese took what was grown
– Guards:
– Big Speedo – spoke little English
– in charge of the detail
– fair in the treatment of POWs
– spoke little English
– to get POWs to work faster said, “speedo”
– Little Speedo
– also used “speedo” when he wanted POWs to work faster
– punished the POWs by making them kneel on stones
– Smiley
– Korean guard
– always smiling
– could not be trusted
– meanest of guards
– Airfield Detail:
– Japanese built an airfield for fighters
– POWs cut grass, removed dirt, and leveled ground
– at first moved dirt in wheelbarrows
– later pushed mining cars
– Guards:
– Air Raid
– in charge
– usually fair but unpredictable
– had to watch him
– Donald Duck
– always talking
– sounded like the cartoon character
– unpredictable – beat POWs
– POWs told him that Donald Duck was a big American movie star
– at some point, he saw a Donald Duck cartoon
– POWs stayed away from him when he came back to camp
– Work Day: 7:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
– worked 6 days a week
– had Sunday off
– Other Details:
– work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens and plant rice
– they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
– POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on
– the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
– if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn’t doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
– many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
– from this time on, they wanted 1000 men daily for the details
– 26 November 1942 – Thanksgiving Day
– POWs did not work because the guards had been out all night chasing guerrillas
– meal – double meat ration and mongo beans
– 28 November 1942 – it was noted the POWs were receiving carabao meat every day
– 850 blankets were also issued, but a large number of men still did not have blankets
– 1 December 1942 – meals:
– breakfast – wet rice and rice coffee for breakfast
– lunch – pichi green soup and rice
– dinner – mongo bean soup with carabao meat and rice
– 12 December 1942 – Fr. Bruttenbruck – brought a truckload of medicine to camp
– turned away because he did not have the correct paperwork
– 16 November 1942 – Cpl. Peter Lanianuskas shot while attempting to escape
– POWs believed he was really executed
– 12 December 1942 to 19 December 1942 – only 20 POWs died in the camp that week
– 19 December 1942 – Red Cross packages arrived in the camp
– POWs were told it was for two months
– 21 December 1942 – 1000 POWs put to work on farm detail and other details
– 200 worked on farm
– 24 December 1942 – Fr. Bruttenbruck arrived with two trucks of presents for the POWs individual men
– each POW received a gift bag
– Christmas
– each POW received the POWs received 2½ Red Cross boxes
– each box milk in some form, corn beef, fish, stew beef, sugar, meat and vegetable, tea, and chocolate
– the POWs also received bulk corn beef, sugar, meat and vegetables, stew, raisins, dried fruit, and cocoa which they believed would last them three months
– POWs received packages from Fr. Bruttenbruck
– contained: fish, soap, cigarettes, cigars, and tobacco
Work Detail:
– Corregidor
– injured while working 
– he was sent to Bilibid Prison
– Bilibid Prison
– sent to the hospital ward
– Admitted: 13 April 1943
– sore back
– Discharged: 21 April 1943
– sent to Cabanatuan
– Cabanatuan
– 6 April 1943- two POWs escaped
– had an hour headstart on guards
– other POWs punished by having movies night taken away that night
– the two men were recaptured
– both men were shot outside the POWs’ barracks
– 11 April 1943
– work schedule changed
– 5:30 A.M. – revelle
– 6:00 A.M. – 7:00 A.M. – breakfast
– 10:30 A.M. – returned to camp
– Noon – lunch
– 1:00 P.M. – 6:00 P.M. – work
– 6:30 P.M. – dinner
– 7:00 P.M. – roll call
– 9:00 P.M. – lol call again – lights out
– 14 April 1943 – another POW attempted to escape
– he was on the guard detail to prevent escapes
– caught by Japanese 
– 15 April 1943
– 9:00 A.M. – he was taken to a schoolyard north of camp and executed
– selected for work detail
– 11 July 1943 – a POW named Conley escaped
– 11:00 PM, POWs heard a lot of noise
– the next morning the POWs saw his body in the camp morgue
– Conley’s jaw had been crushed as was the top of his skull, his teeth had all been knocked out
– his left leg had been crushed
– he had been bayoneted in the eyes and scrotum
– August 1943 – his family learned he was a Prisoner of War when they received a POW postcard from him
– it is not known when they officially were informed he was a POW
– Pasay School
– 15 August 1943
– POWs leveled mountain with picks and shovels to extend runways at Nichols Field
– housed at Pasay School
– POWs received brutal treatment by the Japanese
– POWs fed leftovers from the Japanese kitchen
– the dying were sent to Bilibid
– Bilibid Prison
– part of POW detachment selected for transport to Japan
– sent to the hospital ward
– Admitted: 14 July 1944
– pellagra
– on the roster of POWs being sent to Japan
– Discharged:
– sent to Cabanatuan
– 21 September 1944
– POWs were at the end of the workday
– they heard airplanes
– the sound of the planes was different from Japanese planes
– watched a formation of 80 planes flew over at a high altitude
– planes were too high to see insignias on them
– by the Japanese reaction the POWs concluded they must be American
– POWs arrived at camp
– after they were in the camp, they watched a dog fight take place above the camp
– some of the planes flew low over the camp
– POWs saw U.S. Navy Insiginas on the planes
– several thousand POWs broke into a cheer 
– a Japanese plane was shot down and crashed into the ground in flames
– the POWs cheered even louder
– they listened to explosions as Clark Field was bombed
– many men believed that the Japanese could no longer send detachments of men to Japan
– many men openly sobbed
– October 7 and 8 – Names poster of men being sent to Japan
– October 9, 1944 – trucks arrived at the camp and POWs rode them to Pier 7 at Manila
– Americans planes flew over at night
– 2 November 1944 – Japanese admitted American troops were on Leyte and Mindoro
– 5 November 1944 – American bombers flew over the camp all-day
– POWs looked for land-based planes
– 6 November 1944 – POWs watch two planes circle the camp
– the POWs watched and saw the planes strafe and bomb Cabanatuan Airfield
– the airfield was bombed and stated three times that day
– 9 November 1944 – POWs learned from the Japanese that there are only about 1000 American POWs left in the Philippines
– approximately 500 at Cabanatuan
– 13 November 1944 – POWs no longer excited by American planes
– want to know where the troops and tanks are
– 24 November 1944 – a large convoy of Japanese trucks passed the camp at night heading north
– POWs also received mail that was postmarked May and June 1944
– during this time the meals got worse
– POWs received less rice and instead of fish, fish powder
– breakfast was plain lugao
– POWs ate dog soup
– November/December
– during this time food was the main focus of the POWs
– 14 December  1944 – American planes reappeared
– bombings took place to the north and west of the camp
– POWs believed the planes were land-based since they were too large to fly off carriers
– they also noted the planes flew around in small groups looking for trouble
– the POWs liked to see the planes do this
– 15 December 1944 – before dawn American planes flew over on their way to Clark Field
– the POws heard and saw anti-aircraft fire 
– that day the planes returned during the day
– Cabanatuan Airfield bombed twice
– 16 December 1944
– 12:30 A.M. – An American plane dropped six bombs on a Japanese convoy on the road that ran past the camp
– awakened the POWs
– the POWs thought the camp was being bombed and took cover
– a few days later the POWs heard that 38 Japanese were killed and 20 wounded
– 8:00 P.M. – the Japanese moved some tanks, armored trucks, and small artillery pieces into the camp
– stored in old barracks and mess halls
– 18 December 1944 – the Japanese camouflaged the camp with nets, ropes, wires, and tree branches
– 19 December 1944 – POWs heard the news that Americans had landed on Mindoro Island south of Luzon
– two truckloads of Japanese troops and equipment entered the camp
– several truckloads of lumber and supplies were brought into the camp
– approximately 100 Japanese troops with full combat gear entered the camp after dark
– POWs noted their food was radish tops and some meat
– the dried fish issued to them was mostly scales and bones since worms had eaten the meat 
– 22 December 1944 – POWs watched heavy American bombers attacked by a Japanese plane
– one plane crashed
– the POWs hoped it was the Japanese plane
– 24 December 1944
– 21 American bombers fly over camp on their way to bomb Clark Field
– heard and saw ack-ack fire
– on the way back the POWs counted the planes
– all 21 planes flew back over the camp
– 25 December 1944 – American fighter and bombers attack Clark Field
– 26 December 1944 – POWs heard a rumor that all POWs at Bilibid had been sent to Japan
– 28 December 1944 – that night the POWs awakened by Japanese Tanks and trucks passing camp
– Japanese troops disguised as Filipinos also passed the camp 
– 7 January 1945 – Japanese abandoned camp
– POWs told that if they stayed in the camp they would be safe
– if they went beyond the camp’s fence they would be shot
– they raided the Japanese supply room
– they also sent a small group out of the camp that brought back two carabaos
– slaughtered the animals
– the POWs wondered if the Japanese would return to kill them
– 9 January 1945 – POWs heard the sound of artillery fire in the distance
– wondered when the Americans would reach them
– 10 January 1945 – Japanese returned to camp and posted guards
– most were troops injured in combat
– the POWs were returned to the hospital area
Liberated:
– 28 January 1945
– 2:00 P.M. – Rangers crossed into Japanese territory
– 31 January 1945
– 5:45 P.M. – Rangers surround the camp
– 7:40 P.M. – Rangers fired on guardhouses
– 8:15 P.M. – camp secured
– rescued POWs without casualties
– two later died because of health issues
– 8:40 P.M. – forces who held the bridge and prevented the Japanese from reinforcing Cabanatuan
– The Rangers signaled all POWs had been rescued.
– 10:00 P.M. – Rangers and former POWs reached Plateros
– 11:00 P.M. – radio message sent that all POWs had been rescued
– 11:30 P.M. – left Plateros for American lines
– American planes protected group
– 1 February 1945 – reached American lines
– within a week, his parents were notified he had been freed
Transport:
U.S.S. General A. E. Anderson
– Sailed: 11 February 1945 – Tacloban, Leyte, Philippine Islands
-Arrived: 18 February 1945 – Hollandia, New Guinea
– two-day layover
– Sailed 20 February 1945 
– Arrived: 8 March 1945 – San Francisco, California
Note: After the war, Charlie was asked to tour with John Wayne and Anthony Quinn on a promotional tour for the movie Back to Bataan. He remained in the Army until 1962 when he retired. Afterward, he remained in California where he worked for the Bank of America. He became an officer of the bank in Salinas, California, which was the hometown of C Company, 194th Tank Battalion.
Died: 8 November 1998 – Crescent City, California

Default Gravesite 1

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