Cpl. Daniel Harden Nugent was born on July 14, 1920, in Meade County, Kentucky, to Daniel Nugent & Annie Jane Gray-Nugent. With his three sisters and brother, he lived at 122 Main Cross Street in Hawesville, Kentucky. He worked as a riverboat pilot on a ferry that traveled between Hawesville and Cannelton, Indiana.
Daniel was inducted into the U.S. Army on March 8, 1941, at Camp Atterbury in Columbus, Indiana. He was sent to Fort Knox, Kentucky, for basic training and assigned to Headquarters Company, 192nd Tank Battalion. It is not known what training he received or what his duties were in the company.
The 192nd was sent to Louisiana, in the late summer of 1941, to take part in maneuvers. During the maneuvers, HQ Company serviced the tanks of the battalion, but they did not actively participate. After the maneuvers, the battalion was ordered to report to Camp Polk, Louisiana, instead of returning to Ft. Knox.
On the side of a hill, the battalion learned they were being sent overseas. Men 29 years old or older, or who were married, were given the chance to be released from federal service. Replacements for these men came from the 753rd Tank Battalion.
The 192nd Tank Battalion received orders for duty, in the Philippines, because of an event that happened during the summer of 1941. A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd. He took his plane down and identified a buoy, with a flag, in the water. He came upon more flagged buoys that lined up – in a straight line – for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of a Japanese occupied island hundreds of miles to the northwest, with a large radio transmitter. The squadron continued its flight plane and flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field. When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
The next day – when planes were sent to the area – the buoys had been picked up and a fishing boat was seen making its way toward shore. Since communication between the planes and the Navy was poor, nothing was done to intercept the boat. It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
Many of the members of the battalion were given leaves home so they could say goodbye to family and friends. They returned to Camp Polk and traveled by train to San Francisco, California, where they were ferried to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island. On the island, they were given physicals and inoculated for tropical diseases. Some men were held back for health issues but scheduled to join the battalion at a later date. Other men were simply replaced.
Traveling west over different train routes, the battalion arrived in San Francisco, California, where they were ferried, on the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe, to Angel Island and given physicals and inoculations. The members of the medical detachment administered the physicals to the soldiers of the tank companies. Men with minor medical conditions were held on the island and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date. Other men were simply replaced.
The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27. During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP. The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2 and had a two-day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
On Wednesday, November 5, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes. It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and, another transport, the S.S. President Calvin Coolidge. Sunday night, November 9, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11. During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Dateline.
On Saturday, November 15, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon. The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke. It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day. At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout. This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm’s way. The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning. At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg. Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
At the fort, they were greeted by Colonel Edward P. King, who apologized they had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Field. He made sure that they had what they needed and received Thanksgiving Dinner – which was a stew thrown into their mess kits – before he went to have his own dinner. Ironically, November 20 was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
The members of the battalion pitched the tents in an open field halfway between the Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg. The tents were set up in two rows and five men were assigned to each tent. There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at the end of the rows of tents.
For the next seventeen days, the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their weapons which had been greased to protect them from rust while at sea. They also loaded ammunition belts and did tank maintenance and prepared for maneuvers with the 194th Tank Battalion. It was at this time Daniel was transferred to Headquarters of the Provisional Tank Group. It is not known what specific duties Daniel performed with the tank group.
On April 9, 1942, Daniel became a Prisoner of War. Being that he was with the Provisional Tank Group, he did not start the march at Mariveles. The members of the group were marched out to the main road on the morning of April 10. There, the enlisted men were separated from the officers. When they reached the road, they spent the rest of the day sitting and guessing what was going to happen.
After dark, they were ordered to move. They made their way north while Japanese troops attempted to go south. Marching on the stony road was hard. At midnight, they were allowed to rest for an hour. They marched again until dawn when they were given another break.
When they reached the Lamao River, they could smell the corpses of those who had died two days earlier in the Japanese final push. In front of the members of the Provisional Tank Group were a group of Army Air Corps members. They broke from the ranks and drank from the river and filled their canteens with water. This would later be the reason so many POWs died at Camp O’Donnell.
The POWs made their way north through Limay, on April 11, against the flow of Japanese troops who were moving south. They made their way to Balanga and arrived in Orani on April 12, where they were reunited with the officers of the tank group in a bullpen. At 6:30 that evening, the POWs resumed the march and were marched at a faster pace. The guards also seemed to be nervous about something. This time they made the POWs make their way to Hermosa. There, the road went from gravel to concrete. This change of surface made the march easier. When the POWs were allowed to sit down, those who attempted to lay down were jabbed with bayonets.
The POWs continued north through Layac before daylight, Lubao in the morning, and Guagua at midday. Many POWs fell out at this point. The guards beat the men, but if they didn’t get up, they allowed them to lay on the ground until they could continue or were taken by truck to San Fernando.
At San Fernando, the men were forced into another bullpen. This one was already filled with Filipino soldiers. The POWs were put into groups of 200 men to be fed. A couple of the POWs would get the food which was distributed to each member of the group. Water was given out in a similar fashion. That night, not all the POWs could lie down to sleep.
The POWs were awoken at 4:00 A.M., ordered to form 100 men detachments, and taken to the train station at San Fernando. They were put into small wooden boxcars and taken to Capas. The cars could hold forty men or eight horses, but the Japanese packed 100 men into each car and closed the doors. Those who died remained standing until the living climbed out of the cars. From Capas, they walked the last ten miles to Camp O’ Donnell.
Once in the camp, the POWs were taken into a large field where they were counted and searched. Blankets, knives, and matches were taken from them. Finally, the camp commandant came out, stood on a box and told them that they were enemies of Japan and would always be Japan’s enemies. The prisoners were then allowed to go to their barracks.
Camp O’Donnell was an unfinished Filipino training base that the Japanese pressed into service as a Prisoner of War camp on April 1, 1942. There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two to eight hours waiting for a drink. The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and the next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again. This situation improved when a second faucet was added.
There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing when it had been soiled. In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the camp and mess kits could not be washed. The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon overflowing since most of the POWs had dysentery. The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp including the POW kitchens and in the food.
The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant. When the ranking American doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies, he was told never to write another letter. When the Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the camp, Tsuneyoshi refused to allow the truck into the camp. When the Philippine Red Cross sent medical supplies to the camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them. When a representative of the Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150-bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a Japanese lieutenant.
Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to the hospital and placed underneath it. The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried in the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria. To clean the ground under the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it. The bodies of the dead were placed in the area, and the area they had lain was scraped and lime was spread over it.
Work details were sent out on a daily basis. Each day, the American doctors gave a list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work. If the quota of POWs needed to work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick but could walk, to work. The death rate among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day. The Japanese finally acknowledge that they had to do something, so the opened a new POW camp at Cabanatuan.
On June 1, 1942, the POWs formed detachments of 100 men each and were marched to Capas. There, the were put in steel boxcars with two Japanese guards. At Calumpit, the train was switched onto another line which took it to Cabanatuan. The POWs disembarked and were taken to a schoolyard where they were fed cooked rice and onion soup. From there, they were marched to Cabanatuan which had been the headquarters of the 91st Philippine Army Division and was known as Camp Pangatian.
The camp was actually three camps. Camp 1 was where the men who captured on Bataan and taken part in the death march where held. Camp 2 did not have an adequate water supply and was closed. It later reopened and housed Naval POWs. Camp 3 was where those men captured when Corregidor surrendered were taken. In addition, men from Bataan who had been hospitalized when the surrender came were sent to the camp. Camp 3 was later consolidated into Camp 1.
Once in the camp, the POWs were allowed to run the camp. The Japanese only entered if they had an issue they wanted to deal with. To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a detail that patrolled the fence of the camp. The reason this was done was that those who did escape and were caught were tortured before being executed, while the other POWs were made to watch. It is believed that no POW successfully escaped from the camp.
The barracks in the camp were built to house 50 POWs, but most had between 60 to 120 POWs in them. The POWs slept on bamboo slats, without mattresses, bedding, or mosquito netting. Many quickly became ill. The POWs were assigned to barracks which meant that the members of their group lived together, went out on work details together, and would be executed together since they were Blood Brothers.
Those who did escape and were caught and tortured before being executed. It is known that no POW successfully escaped from the camp.
The POWs were sent out on work details one was to cut wood for the POW kitchens. The two major details were the farm detail and the airfield detail which lasted for years. A typical day on any detail lasted from 7:00 A.M. until 5:00 P.M. The POWs on the farm detail would have to go to a shed each morning to get tools. As they left the shed, the Japanese guards thought it was great fun to hit them over their heads.
The detail was under the command of “Big Speedo” who spoke very little English. When he wanted the POWs to work faster, he told the POWs “speedo.” Although he was known to have a temper, the POWs thought he was fair. Another guard was “Little Speedo” who was smaller and also used the word when he wanted the POWs to work faster. The POWs also felt he was pretty fair in his treatment of them.
“Smiley” was another guard who always had a smile on his face but could not be trusted. He was the meanest of the guards and beat men up for no reason. He liked to hit the POWs with the club. Any prisoner who he believed was not working hard enough got knocked over with it. Any prisoner who he believed was not working hard enough got knocked over with it. Each morning, after arriving at the farm, the POWs went into a tool shed to get their tools. As they left the shed, the guards hit them on their heads.
Other POWs worked in rice paddies. While working in the fields, the favorite punishment given to the men in the rice paddies was to have their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on by a guard to drive their faces deeper into the mud. Returning from a detail the POWs bought or were given, medicine, food, and tobacco, which they somehow managed to get into the camp even though they were searched when they returned.
Rice was the main food given to the POWs fed to them as “lugow” which meant “wet rice.” During their time in the camp, they received few vegetables and almost no fruit. Once in awhile, they received bread.
The camp hospital was known as “Zero Ward” because it was missed by the Japanese when they counted barracks. The sickest POWs were sent there to die. The Japanese put a fence up around the building to protect themselves, and they would not go into the building.
There were two rolls of wooden platforms around the perimeter of the building. The sickest POWs were put on the lower platform which had holes cut into it so they could relieve themselves. Most of those who entered the ward died.
This was a result of the unsanitary conditions in the camp. The records do not show when he was released from the hospital. The POWs had the job of burying the dead. To do this, they worked in teams of four men. Each team carried a litter of four to six dead men to the cemetery where they were buried in graves containing 15 to 20 bodies. The death rate at the camp was still 9 POWs a day into November 1942, which dropped in December when the Japanese issued Red Cross Packages for Christmas. In addition, other changes were made that lowered the number of deaths.
In early August, Daniel’s name appeared on a roster of POWs being transferred to another part of the Japanese Empire. The POWs were taken by truck to Bilibid Prison. On August 11, they were taken to the Port Area of Manila and boarded onto the Nagara Maru. The ship sailed on August 12 and arrived at Takao, Formosa, on August 14. The POWs were disembarked and boarded onto a second ship, the Suzuya Maru, which sailed on August 16 and arrived at Keelung, Formosa, on August 17. The POWs were disembarked and taken Karenko POW Camp, where they worked on a farm. He remained in the camp until October 1944.
While he was a POW on Formosa, Daniel became the orderly for General James N. Weaver who had previously been the commander of the Provisional Tank Group. Daniel took care of the general and made sure that he remained in decent health. For his dedication to General Weaver, Brigadier General William E. Brougher wrote a poem about Daniel.
The POWs were moved to Shirakawa Camp where the POWs once again worked on a farm until the POWs were sent to Keelung and boarded a third ship, the Oryoku Maru. The ship left Keelung on October 24 and arrived at Fusan, Korea, on October 27, 1944, and disembarked. The healthier POWs took a two-day train trip to Mukden, Manchuria. At Mukden, the POWs were held at Hoten Camp. When they got there, they lived in dugouts and were later moved to a two-story brick barracks with electricity and cold running water. Each enlisted POW received two thin blankets to cover themselves with at night. The officers got one blanket and a mattress.
The barracks were divided into 10 sections with five on the ground floor and five on the second floor. Each section was divided into four double-decked sleeping bays which held 8 men. In all, 48 men slept in each section which was infested with lice, fleas, and bedbugs. There was a shelf two feet higher for the men’s clothing. The heat was provided by stoves known as”patchkas” which apparently provided adequate heat. Temperatures during the winter average 40 degrees below zero and over 200 POWs died in the camp the first winter.
Meals were the same every day. For breakfast, they had cornmeal mush and a bun. Lunch was maize and beans, and dinner was beans and a bun. The food was good, but the POWs did not receive enough, and during the first winter 205 POWs died from malnutrition and not having the proper clothing.
Since they were underfed, the POWs trapped wild dogs to supplement their meals of soy beans which usually came in the form of soup. They continued to trap dogs until, while marching to work, they saw one eating a dead Chinese. Stealing from the Japanese was a way of life, and the POWs stole the raw materials for what they needed on a daily basis. From the raw materials, they manufactured what they needed.
Punishments were given out for no reason or for violating a rule. The POWs were beaten, hit with bamboo poles, kicked, hit with shoe heals, hit with clubs, punched with fists as they stood at attention. The Japanese, on one occasion, made the POWs come out of their barracks and line up at attention as they searched the barracks. They had all the POWs strip bare because they believed some POWs had bought cigarettes from the Chinese. All the POWs stood barefooted in the snow, for 45 minutes, as the Japanese searched 700 POWs. Another time, when three POWs escaped and were recaptured, the other POWs watched as they were hit on their heads, shoulders, and backs with sticks for hours.
At other times, the POW’s food ration was cut in half because the Japanese believed POWs were not working as hard as he should have been, or someone had been caught smoking in an unauthorized area. They would also withhold Red Cross packages.
One guard, Eiichi Nada, who was born, raised, and educated, in Berkley, California, was considered to be the worse abuser of the POWs. It was common while the POWs were lined up at morning assembly for him to hit men for no reason. He continued to hit them until they fell to the ground and said, “Get up, you yellow, white, son of a bitch.” Another guard walked through the barracks and hit the POWs, with a 3-foot club, for no real reason. On one occasion, a Lt Murado ordered the prisoners to remove their shoes. After they had, he hit each man in the face with his shoes.
Red Cross boxes were sent to the camp but were raided by the Japanese. According to POWs, the Chinese who they worked with, told them that there was a warehouse full of Red Cross food. When the Red Cross visited the camp, the rations were larger and the sick were told to lounge around. None of the POWs were allowed to talk to the Red Cross representative.
The American doctors at the camp hospital could do little since he and they had few medical supplies. Many of the POWs who died in the camp died from treatable illnesses. The Japanese Army doctor, Jiechi Kumashima, denied the POWs Red Cross medicines that had been sent to the camp. The Chinese workers at the machine shop told the POWs there was a warehouse full of Red Cross supplies. Another Japanese doctor, Juro Oki, who was a civilian, smuggled medicine into the camp for the POWs. If he had been caught, he would have been shot. After the war, Kumashima was hung for being guilty of war crimes.
The POWs worked either at a machine shop or a sawmill from 7:30 A.M. until 5:30 or 6:00 P.M. each day. The machine shop never produced anything that was useful to the Japanese. Each morning, the POWs were marched three miles to the shop where they worked manufacturing weapons for the Japanese. To prevent the production of weapons, they committed acts of sabotage like pouring sand into the machine oiling holes. The Japanese usually blamed these acts of sabotage on the Chinese in the plant because they believed the Americans were not smart enough to commit the sabotage.
In the spring of 1943, four Americans escaped and made their way to the Russian border. Chinese villagers turned them over to the Japanese. The men were returned to the camp and placed in cells for several months before they were taken to a cemetery and shot.
As the war went on American planes began to appear over Mukden. On one occasion, in December 1944, a bomb, from one B-29, hit the camp killing 20 POWs. The air raids became more frequent until the end of the war.
On August 20, 1945, American OSS officers parachuted into the camp and demanded to meet with the camp commandant. On August 29, Russian soldiers liberated the camp. The POWs were taken by train to Dalian, China. From there they were returned to the Philippines. Daniel was liberated at Mukden and promoted to staff sergeant. He returned home and married Maude Koonce and became the father of a daughter. He remained in the Army and after the war, he became the driver for Gen. Mark Clark. On January 31, 1961, Daniel retired from the military. After he retired, he worked as a carpenter.
Daniel Nugent later resided in Panama City, Florida. He died on May 13, 1999, and was buried in Evergreen Memorial Gardens, Panama City.