Pvt. Donald Clifford Norris
Born: 5 December 1911 – New London, Minnesota
Parents: Nathan G. Norris and Eva Libby-Norris
Siblings: 6 sisters, 5 brothers
Hometown: Roseville, Minnesota
Home: 1506 Hague Street – St. Paul, Minnesota
– living on own at 19 years old
– 1940 – living in Wausau, Wisconsin
Selective Service Registration: 16 October 1940
– Next of Kin: Eva Norris – mother
– U. S. Army
– 7 April 1941 – Milwaukee, Wisconsin
– Fort Knox, Kentucky
– Basic Training
– the training was done with First Armored Division
– soldiers rushed through basic training
– his basic training was three weeks long so he could start medical training
– 6:15 with reveille
– most of the soldiers were up before this since they wanted to wash and dress.
– 7:00 to 8:00 – breakfast
– 8:00 to 8:30 – calisthenics
– Afterward, the tankers went to various schools within the company.
– training in using and maintaining 30 and 50 caliber machine guns and pistols
– training in map reading, care of personal equipment, military courtesy, and training in tactics.
– 11:30 the soldiers stopped what they were doing and cleaned up for mess – – Noon to 1:00 P.M. – lunch
– Afterward, they attended the various schools which they had been assigned to schools, such as mechanics, tank driving, radio operating
– medics received training from the battalion’s doctors since the Army believed in hands-on training
– some classes were available to medics
– a limited number of classes were available to the medics
– 4:30 – the soldiers called it a day and returned to their barracks and put on dress uniforms
– 5:00 – retreat
– 5:30 – dinner
– After dinner, they were off duty
– 9:00 P.M. – lights were out
– soldiers but did not have to turn in
– 10:00 P.M. – Taps was played.
In late March 1941, the entire battalion was moved to new barracks at Wilson Road and Seventh Avenue at Ft. Knox. The barracks had bathing and washing facilities in them and a day room. The new kitchens had larger gas ranges, automatic gas heaters, large pantries, and mess halls. One reason for this move was the men from selective service were permanently joining the battalion.
On June 14th and 16th, the battalion was divided into four detachments composed of men from different companies. Available information shows that C and D Companies, part of Hq Company and part of the Medical Detachment left on June 14th, while A and B Companies, and the other halves of Hq Company and the Medical Detachment left the fort on June 16th. These were tactical maneuvers – under the command of the commanders of each of the letter companies. The three-day tactical road marches were to Harrodsburg, Kentucky, and back. The purpose of the maneuvers was to give the men practice at loading, unloading, and setting up administrative camps to prepare them for the Louisiana maneuvers.
Each tank company traveled with 20 tanks, 20 motorcycles, 7 armored scout cars, 5 jeeps, 12 peeps (later called jeeps), 20 large 2½ ton trucks (these carried the battalion’s garages for vehicle repair), 5, 1½ ton trucks (which included the companies’ kitchens), and 1 ambulance. The detachments traveled through Bardstown and Springfield before arriving at Harrodsburg at 2:30 P.M. where they set up their bivouac at the fairgrounds. The next morning, they moved to Herrington Lake east of Danville, where the men swam, boated and fished. The battalion returned to Ft. Knox through Lebanon, New Haven and Hodgenville, Kentucky. At Hodgenville, the men were allowed to visit the birthplace of Abraham Lincoln.
– 1 September 1941 to 30 September 1941
– believe Albert was assigned to A Company as a medic
– battalion boarded trucks and rode to Louisiana
– tanks and other vehicles sent by train
– maneuvers from September 1 through 30.
– the medical detachment treated injuries, snakebites, and other ailments.
– One of the major problems was snake bites
– every other man was bitten at some point by a snake
– The platoon commanders and medics carried a snakebit kit
– used to create a vacuum to suck the poison out of the bite
– The bites were the result of the nights cooling down and snakes crawling under the soldiers’ bedrolls for warmth while the soldiers were sleeping on.
– a multicolored snake – about eight inches long was deadly
– The good thing was that these snakes would not just strike at the man
– only struck if the man forced himself on it
– When the soldiers woke up in the morning they would carefully pick up their bedrolls to see if there were any snakes under them.
– To avoid being bitten, men slept on the two and a half-ton trucks or on or in the tanks.
– Another trick the soldiers learned was to dig a small trench around their tents and lay rope in the trench.
– The burs on the rope kept the snakes from entering the tents. The snakes were not a problem if the night was warm.
– During the maneuvers that tanks held defensive positions and usually were held in reserve by the higher headquarters.
– For the first time, the tanks were used to counter-attack and in support of infantry. – Some men felt that the tanks were finally being used as they should
be used and not as “mobile pillboxes.”
– other men described the maneuvers as being awakened at 4:30 A.M. and sent to an area to engage an imaginary enemy.
– After engaging the enemy, the tanks withdrew to another area.
– The crews had no idea what they were doing most of the time
– crews stated they were never told anything by the higher-ups
– men felt that they just rode around in their tanks a lot
– The medics traveled with the companies in the half-tracks.
– at Ft. Knox, the tankers were taught that they should never attack an anti-tank gun head-on
– One day during the maneuvers, their commanding general threw away the entire battalion doing just that.
– After sitting out a period of time, the battalion resumed the maneuvers
– At some point, the battalion also went from fighting for the Red Army to fighting for the Blue Army.
– wild hogs were a problem
– In the middle of the night while the men were sleeping in their tents they would suddenly hear hogs squealing.
– The hogs would run into the tents pushing on them until they took them down and dragged them away.
– food was also not very good
– it was always damp from the humidity which made it hard to get a fire started
– Many of their meals were C ration meals of beans or chili
– they choked the meals down.
– washing clothes was done when the men had a chance
– found a creek and looked for alligators
– if there were none, took a bar of soap and scrubbed whatever they were washing
– clothes were usually washed once a week or once every two weeks
– the sandy soil was a problem for the tanks
– tanks were parked and the crews walked away from them
– when they returned, the tanks had sunk into the sandy soil up to their hauls
– To get them out, other tanks were brought in and attempted to pull them out.
– If that didn’t work, a tank wrecker came from Camp Polk to pull the tank out.
– one good thing that came out of the maneuvers was that the tank crews learned how to move at night.
– this was never done at Ft. Knox
Without knowing it, the night movements were preparing them for what they would do in the Philippines
– The drivers learned how to drive at night and to take instructions from their tank commanders who had a better view from the turret.
– a number of motorcycle riders from other tank units were killed
– rode their motorcycles without headlights at night
– this meant they could not see obstacles in front of their bikes
– When they hit something they fell to the ground
– the tanks following them went over them
– This happened several times before the motorcycle riders were ordered to turn on their headlights.
– the battalion was ordered to Camp Polk
– Camp Polk, Louisiana
– the battalion learned it was being sent overseas
– Men who were married and those men 29 years old or older were allowed to resign from federal service.
– told they were being sent overseas
– A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd
– He took his plane down and identified a buoy, with a flag, in the water.
– He came upon more flagged buoys that lined up – in a straight line – for 30 miles
to the northwest, in the direction of a Japanese occupied island, with a large radio transmitter, hundreds of miles away.
– The squadron continued its flight plane and flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field.
– When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
– The next day – when planes were sent to the area – the buoys had been picked up and a fishing boat was seen making its way toward shore.
– the buoys were on the boat’s deck covered by a tarp
– communication between the planes and the Navy was poor
– nothing was done to intercept the boat
– the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines
– ferried to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island on U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
– received physicals from medical detachment – 25 October 1941 – 26 October 1941
– men with minor health issues held back and scheduled to rejoin battalion at later date
– other men simply replaced
– U.S.A.T. Hugh L. Scott
– Boarded: San Francisco – Monday – 27 October 1941
– Sailed: same day
– Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii – Sunday – 2 November 1941
– soldiers were given shore leave to see the sights
– Sailed: Tuesday – Wednesday – 5 November 1941
– joined by U.S.S. Louisville and S.S. President Calvin Coolidge
– smoke was seen on the horizon
– Louisville revved its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it intercepted the ship which was from a neutral country, but two other intercepted ships
were Japanese freighters carrying scrap metal to Japan.
– Sunday – 9 November 1941 – crossed International Dateline
– soldiers woke up on Tuesday – 11 November 1941
– Arrived: Guam – Sunday 16 November 1941
– the ship loaded with water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables
– Sailed: next day
– passed Japanese held island in total blackout
– Arrived: Thursday – 20 November 1941 – Manila Bay – 7:00 A.M.
– soldiers disembarked ship three hours after arrival
– boarded buses for Ft. Stotsenburg
– maintenance section remained behind to unload tanks from ship
– Ft. Stotsenburg
– General Edward P. King met the soldiers when they arrived
– apologized to soldiers about living conditions
– lived in tents along the main road between fort and Clark Airfield
– made sure they all had Thanksgiving Dinner before he had his dinner
– the dinner was a stew thrown into their mess kits
– The members of the battalion pitched the ragged World War I tents in an open field halfway between the Clark Field Administration Building and Fort
– The tents were set up in two rows and five men were assigned to each tent.
– There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at the end of the rows of tents.
– The area was near the end of a runway used by B-17s for takeoffs.
– The planes flew over the tents at about 100 feet blowing dirt everywhere and the noise was unbelievable.
– At night, they heard the sounds of planes flying over the airfield which turned out to be Japanese reconnaissance planes.
– In addition, the khaki uniforms they had been issued also turned out to be a heavy material which made them uncomfortable to wear in the tropical heat.
– Battle of Luzon – 8 December 1941 – 6 January 1942
– 8 December 1941
– lived through attack on Clark Field
– took cover since the medical detachment had no weapons to fight planes
– 14 December 1941
– medical detachment left Clark Field
– set up aid station in a dried river bed
– 21 December 1941
– medical detachment moved north toward Lingayen Gulf with rest of battalion
– 23 December 1941
– detachment at Sison being shelled
– withdrew with battalion down Route 3
– the detachment bivouac-ed
– heard tanks
– the tanks were Japanese
– packed up and went south through Urdaneta
– crossed over Agno River bridge and passed through Carmen
– 25 December 1941
– set up aid station south of Rosales
– medics checked letter companies
– bivouac bombed and strafed
– 27 December 1941
– located at Santo Tomas
– detachment slept in churchyard
– 28 December 1941
– General MacArthur ordered medics not to carry guns
– kept their guns
– 28/29 December 1941
– located near San Isidro
– area shelled for three hours
– one tank crew injured when a shell caused it to turn over
– medics noted that tank crews were in poor condition from lack of sleep and food
– 30 December 1941
– detachment did not receive order to pull out
– ordered out by Capt. John Morley
– drover trucks through Gapan
– the barrio was occupied by Japanese
– went through so fast Japanese could not stop them
– 1 January 1942
– detachment bivouac-ed north of Luog
– 2 January 1942
– treated S/Sgt. Joseph Wierzchon, C Company, who had been wounded by mortar fire
– also attempted to treat PFC Frank Byars
– shot by Filipino who mistook him as a German
– died from his wounds
– 4 January 1942
– medical detachment at Culis
– treated wounded of the 194th Tank Battalion
– 2nd Lt Weeden Petree shot in abdomen
– tank shot down Zero which was strafing
– 6 January 1942
– shelling destroyed 194th Medical Detachment truck
– shared what they had with 194th
– Battle of Bataan – 7 January 1942 – 9 April 1942
– 7 January 1942
– Gen. Douglas MacArthur and Gen. James Weaver visit tankers
– MacArthur asked why the men were not in the hospital
– Dr. Alvin Poweleit replied, “Who would man the tanks?”
– later in day Japanese bombed and strafed area
– 10 January 1942
– A and B Companies, and companies of 194th assigned beach duty
– from Abucay to Lamao
– 18 January 1942
– moved back to Pilar and Balanga which were burning when they went through
– tanks inflicted heavy damage to Japanese infantry
– 19 January 1942
– dropped back to Orion
– caught wild pig, roasted it
– food truck arrived and medics ate first American food in two days
– 20 January 1942
– bivouac at 147 kilometer marker (from Manila)
– Japanese attempted landing
– 29 January 1942
– ordered to West Coast of Bataan
– start of Battle of the Points
– 31 January 1942
– Quinauan Point cleared
– a Japanese diary said the Japanese were more afraid of being hit by a grenade than of it exploding
It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver: “Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal. If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay.”
– February 1942
– tank battalions on their own guarded airfields
– battalions also guarded beaches to prevent Japanese from landing troops
– 3/8 February 1942
– Battle of the Pockets
– several tanks disabled
– attempted to recover them
– several members of battalion wounded or killed
– 9 February 1942
– medical detachment at 218 Kilometer on West Road
– medics report tank crews in bad shape
– 11 February 1942
– moved to kilometer 205, West Road
– bombed and shelled
– March 1942
– treated tank crews for various sicknesses
– 3 April 1942
– Japanese launch new offensive with troops brought in from Singapore
– tank sent in to attempt to stop the advance
– 8 April 1942
– Gen. Edward P. King decided that further resistance was futile since approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight
– he estimated they would last one more day
– In addition, he had over 6,000 troops who sick or wounded and 40,000 civilians who he feared would be massacred
– His troops were on one-quarter rations, and even at that ration, he had two days of food left.
– 6:30 P.M. – order goes out to be prepared to destroy all equipment of use to the Japanese
– 10:30 P.M. – decision made to send white flag across the battle line
– 11:40 P.M. – ammunition dumps were blown up
– Midnight – A Company and B and D Companies, 192nd, received orders to stand down
– the companies had been ordered to make a suicide attack the morning of April 9 in an attempt to stop the Japanese advance
– At 2:oo A.M. April 9, Gen. King sent a jeep under a white flag carrying Colonel Everett C. Williams, Col. James V. Collier and Major Marshall Hurt to meet
with the Japanese commander about terms of surrender.
– The white flag was bedding from A Company, 192nd Tank Battalion
– Shortly after daylight Collier and Hunt returned with word of the appointment
– the tankers received this message over their radios at 6:45 A.M. “You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word ‘CRASH’, all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished.”
– Gen. King with his two aides, Maj. Cothran and Captain Achille C. Tisdelle Jr. got into a jeep carrying a large white flag
– They were followed by another jeep – also flying another large white flag – with Col. Collier and Maj. Hurt in it
– As the jeeps made their way north they were strafed and small bombs were dropped by a Japanese plane
– The drivers of both jeeps and the jeeps were provided by the tank group and both men managed to avoid the bullets
– The strafing ended when a Japanese reconnaissance plane ordered the fighter pilot to stop strafing
– About 10:00 A.M. the jeeps reached Lamao where they were received by a Japanese Major General who informed King that he reported his coming to
negotiate a surrender and that an officer from the Japanese command would arrive to do the negotiations
– The Japanese officer also told him that his troops would no attack for thirty minutes while King decided what he would do
– After a half-hour, no Japanese officer had arrived from their headquarters and the Japanese attack had resumed. King sent Col. Collier and Maj. Hunt back
to his command with instructions that any unit inline with the Japanese advance should fly white flags
– Shortly after this was done a Japanese colonel and interpreter arrived. King was told the officer was Homma’s Chief of Staff and he had come to discuss
– King attempted to get insurances from the Japanese that his men would be treated as prisoners of war, but the Japanese officer – through his interpreter
– he was accused of declining to surrender unconditionally
– At one point King stated he had enough trucks and gasoline to carry his troops out of Bataan
– He was told that the Japanese would handle the movement of the prisoners
– The two men talked back and forth until the colonel said through the interpreter, “The Imperial Japanese Army are not barbarians.”
– 6:45 A.M. – the order “CRASH” was sent for equipment to be destroyed
– King found no choice but to accept him at his word
Prisoner of War:
– 9 April 1942
– Death March
– Mariveles – POWs start the march at the southern tip of Bataan
– POWs ran past Japanese artillery firing at Corregidor
– Americans on Corregidor returned fire
– San Fernando – POWs put into small wooden boxcars
– each boxcar could hold eight horses or forty men
– 100 POWs packed into each car
– POWs who died remained standing since they could not fall to the floors
– Capas – dead fell to the floors as living left boxcars
– POWs walked last ten miles to Camp O’Donnell
– Philippine Islands:
– Camp O’Donnell
– 1 April 1942 – unfinished Filipino training base Japanese put into use as a POW camp
– Japanese believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs
– POWs searched upon arrival at camp
– those found with Japanese money were accused of looting
– sent to guardhouse
– over several days, gunshots heard southeast of the camp
– POWs who had money on them had been executed
– Japanese took away any extra clothing from POWs as they entered the camp and refused to return it
– since no water was available for wash clothing, the POWs threw soiled clothing away
– clothing was taken from dead
– few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing
– POWs were not allowed to bathe
– only one water spigot for the entire camp
– POWs waited 2½ hours to 8 hours to get a drink
– water frequently turned off by Japanese guards and the next man in line waited as long as 4 hours for the water to be turned on again
– mess kits could not be cleaned
– POWs had to carry water 3 miles from a river to cook their meals
– second water spigot installed a week after POWs arrived
– slit trenches overflowed since many of the POWs had dysentery
– flies were everywhere including in camp kitchens and food
– the camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant
– the senior POW doctor wrote a list of medicines he wanted to treat the sick and was told by the camp commandant, Capt. Yoshio Tsuneyoshi, never
to write another letter
– Tsuneyoshi said that all he wanted to know about the American POWs were their names and numbers when they died
– refused to allow a truckload of medicine sent by the Archbishop of Manila into the camp
– 95% of the medicine sent by Philippine Red Cross was taken by the Japanese for their own use
– POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow
– operations on POWs were performed with mess kit knives
– only one medic out of six medics – assigned to care for 50 sick POWs – was well enough to work
– as many as 50 POWs died each day
– each morning dead were found everywhere in the camp and stacked up under the|
– the ground under hospital was scraped and covered with lime to clean it
– the dead were moved to the cleaned area and the area where they had lain was scraped and covered with lime
– usually not buried for two or three days
– work details: if a POW could walk, he was sent out on a work detail
– POWs on burial detail often had dysentery and malaria
– Japanese opened a new POW camp to lower death rate
– Work Detail: San Fernando
– POWs collected scrap metal
– became ill
– It was during this time that his family received a letter from the War Department.
Mrs. E. Norris:
“According to War Department records, you have been designated as the emergency addressee of Private Donald C. Norris, 36,206,243, who, according to the latest information available, was serving in the Philippine Islands at the time of the final surrender.
“I deeply regret that it is impossible for me to give you more information than is contained in this letter. In the last days before the surrender of Bataan, there were casualties which were not reported to the War Department. Conceivably the same is true of the surrender of Corregidor and possibly other islands of the Philippines. The Japanese Government has indicated its intention of conforming to the terms of the Geneva Convention with respect to the interchange of information regarding prisoners of war. At some future date, this Government will receive through Geneva a list of persons who have been taken prisoners of war. Until that time the War Department cannot give you positive information.
“The War Department will consider the persons serving in the Philippine Islands as “missing in action” from the date of surrender of Corregidor, May 7, 1942, until definite information to the contrary is received. It is to be hoped that the Japanese Government will communicate a list of prisoners of war at an early date. At that time you will be notified by this office in the event that his name is contained in the list of prisoners of war. In the case of persons known to have been present in the Philippines and who are not reported to be prisoners of war by the Japanese Government, the War Department will continue to carry them as “missing in action” in the absence of information to the contrary, until twelve months have expired. At the expiration of twelve months and in the absence of other information the War Department is authorized to make a final determination.
“Recent legislation makes provision to continue the pay and allowances of persons carried in a “missing” status for a period not to exceed twelve months; to continue, for the duration of the war, the pay and allowances of persons known to have been captured by the enemy; to continue allotments made by missing personnel for a period of twelve months and allotments or increase allotments made by persons by the enemy during the time they are so held; to make new allotments or increase allotments to certain dependents defined in Public Law 490, 77th Congress. The latter dependents generally include the legal wife, dependent children under twenty-one years of age and dependent mother, or such dependents as having been designated in official records. Eligible dependents who can establish a need for financial assistance and are eligible to receive this assistance the amount allotted will be deducted from pay which would otherwise accrue to the credit of the missing individual.
“Very Truly yours
J. A. Ulio (signed)
The Adjutant General ”
– In July 1942, his parents received a second message from the War Department.
– The following is an excerpt from it.
“The last report of casualties received by the War Department from the Philippines arrived early in the morning of May 6. Through this date, Private Donald C. Norris had not been reported as a casualty. The War Department will consider the persons serving in the Philippine Islands as “missing in action” from the date of the surrender of Corregidor, May 7, until definite information to the contrary is received.
“Efforts to secure prisoner of war lists from the Philippines have not been successful to this date due to the lack of communication and the fact that the Japanese Government has not yet given permission for the Swiss representative and the International Red Cross delegates to make visits to prisoner of war camps in the islands. When the lists of prisoners are received, we will clear the name of your son and send you any additional information that we may have.”
– Bilibid Prison
– admitted – 10 October 1942
– Discharged: not known
– sent to Camp O’Donnell
– Camp O’Donnell
– sent there to work as a medic
– Donald cared for Filipinos
– most of the Filipinos were released after taking an oath of allegiance
– Bilibid Prison
– 28 January 1943 – arrived from Camp O’Donnell
– assigned to the medical detachment
– 18 February 1943 – transferred to Cabanatuan Camp #3
– worked as a medic
– Camp 3 merged into Camp 1
– 9 July 1943 – his name appeared on a list -released by the War Department – of men known to be Japanese Prisoners of War
– his family learned he was a POW weeks earlier
“REPORT JUST RECEIVED THROUGH INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS STATES THAT YOUR SON PRIVATE DONALD C NORRIS IS A PRISONER OF WAR OF THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT IN PHILIPPINE ISLANDS LETTER OF INFORMATION FOLLOWS FROM THE PROVOST MARSHALL GENERAL=
“ULIO THE ADJUTANT GENERAL=”
Within days of receiving the first message, they received a second message:
“The Provost Marshal General directs me to inform you that you may communicate with your brother, postage free, by following the inclosed instructions:
“It is suggested that you address him as follows:
“Pvt. Donald C. Norris, U.S. Army
Interned in the Philippine Islands
C/O Japanese Red Cross, Tokyo, Japan
Via New York, New York
“Packages cannot be sent to the Orient at this time. When transportation facilities are available a package permit will be issued you.
“Further information will be forwarded you as soon as it is received.
Howard F. Bresee
Chief Information Bureau”
– Kenwa Maru
– POWs left Cabanatuan in early March 1944
– Boarded: 6 March 1944
– Sailed: Same day
– Arrived: Takao, Formosa – 13 March 1944
– Sailed: 15 March 1944
– Arrived: Moji, Japan – 22 March 1944
– Sendai #5-B
– POWs worked in a mine owned by Mitsubishi
– Red Cross medical supplies and medicines were withheld from POWs
– POWs were beaten for the slightest reasons
– Omori Camp
– POWs worked on docks
– food and water rations randomly withheld from POWs
– no proper washroom facilities
– POWs kicked and beaten
– Red Cross medical supplies and medicines withheld from POWs
– Sendai #10-B
– 20 May 1945 – camp opened
– Work: steel mill
– POWs worked without proper safety devices and were exposed to excessive heat and gaseous fumes
– many POPs became sick or were injured
– civilian supervisors beat POWs if they believed they were not working hard enough
– Japanese withheld clothing, medical supplies, medicines, and food from Red Cross packages
– appropriated these things for themselves
– inadequate low-quality rice
– POWs smuggled food into the camp
– beaten if they were caught doing this
– Medical Treatment:
– POWs who reported for sick call beaten
– sick who could walk were required to work
– when they returned to camp they had to clean up the campground
– Corporal Punishment:
– POWs kicked, slapped, punched, hit with clubs and pipes
– if one POW broke a rule, the all the POWs were made to stand at attention, in the cold, for hours
Liberated: September 1945
Discharged: 10 May 1946
Married: 1 July 1946 – Marion Ryder – Atwell, Minnesota
Children: 1 son
Occupation: dairy and food inspector – Atwell, Minnesota
Died: 8 May 1995 – Sun City, Arizona