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Kinard, PFC John N.

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PFC John Norrel Kinard
Born: 13 October 1920 – Alabama
Parents: John W. Kinard & Jettie Kelley-Kinard
Siblings: 1 sister
Home: 960 Washington Ferry Road – Prattville, Alabama
Education: 4 years of high school
Occupation: farm hand
– U.S. Army
– 9 August 1940 – Jackson, Mississippi
Trained:
– Fort Knox, Kentucky
Units:
– 19th Ordnance Battalion
– trained alongside the 192nd Tank Battalion
– first six weeks was the primary training
– Week 1: infantry drilling
– Week 2: manual arms and marching to music
– Week 3: machine gun
– Week 4: pistol
– Week 5: M1 rifle
– Week 6: field week – training with gas masks, gas attacks, pitching tents, and hikes
– Weeks 7,8,9: Time was spent learning the weapons, firing each one, learning the parts of the weapons and their functions, field stripping and caring for
   weapons,  and the cleaning of weapons
Classroom: courses lasted 3 months
– Weapons: soldiers assigned to ordnance issued a pistol, and possibly a machine gun or submachine gun
– Vehicle Training: soldiers attended different schools
– tank maintenance, truck maintenance, scout car maintenance, motorcycle maintenance, and carpentry
– Company’s machine shop, welding shop, and kitchen were all on trucks
– Arkansas Maneuvers
– August 1941
– 17th Ordnance Company
– 17 August 1941 – A Company of 19th Ordnance designated 17th Ordnance Company
– received orders same day for overseas duty
Note: In the late summer of 1941, the 194th received orders for duty in the Philippines because of an event that happened during the summer. A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots, whose plane was lower than the rest, noticed something odd. He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another one in the distance. He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of a Japanese occupied island, hundreds of miles to the northwest, which had a large radio transmitter. The squadron continued its flight plane and flew south to Mariveles before returning to Clark Field. By the time the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
The next day, another squadron of planes were sent to the area, but the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat which was seen making its way toward shore. Since radio communication between the Army Air Corps and Navy was poor, by the time a Navy ship was sent to the area, the fishing boat was gone. It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
Movement:
– rode a train to Ft. Mason north of San Francisco
– ferried on the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island
Overseas Duty:
– Ship: S.S. President Calvin Coolidge
– Boarded: Monday – 8 September 1941 – 3:00 P.M.
– Sailed: 9:00 P.M. – same day
– Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii – Saturday – 13 September 1941 – 7:00 A.M.
– Sailed: 5:00 P.M. – same day
– escorted by heavy cruiser, U.S.S. Astoria, and an unknown destroyer
– heavy cruiser intercepted several ships after smoke was seen on the horizon
– ships belonged to friendly countries
– Arrived: Manila – Friday – 26 September 1941
– disembark ship – 3:00 P.M.
– 17th Ordnance unloaded tanks and reattached turrets
Stationed:
– Ft. Stotsenburg, Philippine Islands
– lived in tents until barracks completed – 15 November 1941
Engagements:
– Battle of Luzon – 8 December 1942 – 6 January 1942
– converted shells into anti-personnel shells
– Battle of Bataan – 7 January 1942 – 9 April 1942
– serviced tanks of the 192nd & 194th Tank Battalions
– headquartered in abandoned ordnance depot building
– 3 April 1942
– Japanese launched major offensive
– tanks sent into various sectors to stop Japanese advance
– 8 April 1942
– Gen. Edward P. King
– determined only 25% of his troops were healthy enough to fight
– troops would last one more day
– feared that the 6,000 troops who were hospitalized and 40,000 Filipino civilians would be slaughtered
– 10:30 P.M. – sent staff officers to meet with Japanese and negotiate surrender terms
Note: Tank battalion commanders received this order: “You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word ‘CRASH’, all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished.”
– 11:40 P.M. – ammunition dumps blown up –
Prisoner of War
– 9 April 1942
– Death March
– POWs started march at Mariveles on the southern tip of Bataan
– Bataan Airfield
– POWs put in front of Japanese artillery firing on Corregidor
– American artillery returned fire
– San Fernando – POWs packed into small wooden boxcars
– each boxcar could hold eight horses or forty men
– Japanese packed 100 POWs into each boxcar
– POWs who died remained standing
– Capas – POWs leave boxcars – dead fall-out of cars
– POWs walked last ten miles to Camp O’Donnell
POW Camps:
– Philippines:
– Camp O’Donnell
– 1 April 1942 – unfinished Filipino training base Japanese put into use as a POW camp
– Japanese believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs
– POWs searched upon arrival at camp
– those found with Japanese money were accused of looting
– sent to guardhouse
– over several days, gunshots heard southeast of the camp
– POWs who had money on them had been executed
– Japanese took away any extra clothing from POWs as they entered the camp and refused to return it
– since no water was available for wash clothing, the POWs threw soiled clothing away
– clothing was taken from dead
– few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing
– POWs were not allowed to bathe
– only one water spigot for entire camp
– POWs waited 2½ hours to 8 hours to get a drink
– water frequently turned off by Japanese guards and the next man in line waited as long as 4 hours for the water to be turned on again
– mess kits could not be cleaned
– POWs had to carry water 3 miles from a river to cook their meals
– second water spigot installed a week after POWs arrived
– slit trenches overflowed since many of the POWs had dysentery
– flies were everywhere including in camp kitchens and food
– camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant
– the senior POW doctor wrote a list of medicines he wanted to treat the sick and was told by the camp commandant, Capt. Yoshio Tsuneyoshi, never to
  write another letter
– Tsuneyoshi said that all he wanted to know about the American POWs were their names and numbers when they died
– refused to allow a truckload of medicine sent by the Archbishop of Manila into the camp
– 95% of the medicine sent by Philippine Red Cross was taken by the Japanese for their own use
– POWs in camp hospital lay on floor elbow to elbow
– operations on POWs were performed with mess kit knives
– only one medic out of six assigned to care for 50 sick POWs, in the hospital, was well enough to work
– as many as 50 POWs died each day
– each morning dead were found everywhere in the camp and stacked up under the hospital
– ground under hospital was scraped and covered with lime to clean it
– the dead were moved to this area and the section where they had lain was scraped and covered with lime
– usually not buried for two or three days
– work details: if a POW could walk, he was sent out on a work detail
– POWs on burial detail often had dysentery and malaria
– Japanese opened new POW camp to lower death rate
– 1 June 1942 – POWs formed detachments of 100 men
– POWs marched out gate and marched toward Capas
– Filipino people gave POWs small bundles of food
– the guards did not stop them
– At Capas, the POWs were put into steel boxcars and rode them to Manila
– train stopped at Calumpit and switched onto the line to Cabanatuan
– POWs disembark train at 6:00 P.M. and put into a schoolyard
– fed rice and onion soup
– Cabanatuan #1
– Philippine Army Base built for 91st Philippine Army Division
– “Blood Brother” rule implemented
– if one POW in the group of 10 escaped, the other nine would be killed
– work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens, plant rice, and farm
– if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn’t doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
– many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
– men who attempted to escape and caught were executed
– daily POW meal – 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn
– hospitalized – Thursday – 18 June 1942 – malaria
– discharged – Wednesday – 29 July 1942
– Port Area Detail
– POWs worked as stevedores on docks of Manila
– lived in a warehouse
– Bilibid Prison
– hospital ward
– edema and pellagra
– Admitted: 18 November 1942
– Discharged: not known
– Cabanatuan
– original name – Camp Pangatian
– Philippine Army Base built for 91st Philippine Army Division
– put into use by Japanese as a POW camp
– actually three camps
– Camp 1: POWs from Camp O’Donnell sent there in attempt to lower death rate
– Camp 2: two miles away
– all POWs moved from there because of a lack of water
– later used for Naval POWs
– Camp 3: six miles from Camp 2
– POWs from Corregidor and from hospitals sent there
– camp created to keep Corregidor POWs separated from Bataan POWs
– Corregidor POWs were in better shape
– January 1943 – POWs from Camp 3 consolidated into Camp 1
– Camp Administration:
– the Japanese left POWs to run the camp on their own
– Japanese entered camp when they had a reason
– POWs patrolled fence to prevent escapes
– Note: men who attempted to escape were recaptured
– Japanese beat them for days
– executed them
– Blood Brother Rule
– POWs put into groups of ten
– if one escaped the others would be executed
– housed in same barracks
– worked on details together
– Barracks:
– each barracks held 50 men
– often held between 60 and 120 men
– slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, and mosquito netting
– diseases spread easily
– no showers
– Morning Roll Call:
– stood at attention
– frequently beaten over their heads for no reason
– when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in their shins with their
  hobnailed boots because they didn’t like the way the POWs looked
– Work Details:
– Two main details
– the farm and airfield
– farm detail
– POWs cleared land and grew camotes, cassava, taro, sesame, and various greens
– Japanese took what was grown
– Guards:
– Big Speedo – spoke little English
– in charge of detail
– fair in treatment of POWs
– spoke little English
– to get POWs to work faster said, “speedo”
– Little Speedo
– fair in treatment of POWs
– Smiley
– always smiling
– could not be trusted
– meanest of guards
– Airfield Detail:
– Japanese built an airfield for fighters
– POWs cut grass, removed dirt, and leveled ground
– at first moved dirt in wheelbarrows
– later pushed mining cars
– Guards:
– Air Raid
– in charge
– usually fair but unpredictable
– had to watch him
– Donald Duck
– always talking
– sounded like the cartoon character
– unpredictable – beat POWs
– POWs told him that Donald Duck was a big American movie star
– at some point, he saw a Donald Duck cartoon
– POWs stayed away from him when he came back to camp
– Work Day: 7:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
– worked 6 days a week
– had Sunday off
– Other Details:
– work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens and plant rice
– they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
– POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on to drive them deeper into the mud
– the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
– if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn’t doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
– many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
– Burial Detail
– POWs worked in teams of four
– carried 4 to 6 dead to cemetery at a time in litter
– a grave contained from 15 to 20 bodies
– daily POW meal
– 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn
– rice was main staple, few vegetables or fruits
– Camp Hospital:
– 30 Wards
– each ward could hold 40 men
– frequently had 100 men in each
– two tiers of bunks
– sickest POWs on bottom tier
– each POW had a 2 foot by 6 foot area to lie in
– Zero Ward
– given name because it had been missed when counting wards
– became ward where those who were going to die were sent
– fenced off from other wards
– Japanese guards would not go near it
– POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving
– medical staff had little to no medicine to treat sick
– many deaths from disease caused by malnutrition
Hell Ship:
Hokusen Maru
– Boarded: 21 September 1944
– 600 POWs put in the forward hold and 600 POWs put in the rea hold
– moved to buoy and dropped anchor
– POWs could sit with their knees under their chins
– POWs start going insane from heat in holds
– 100 POWs moved to forward hold from rear hold because they passed out from the heat from the engine room
– POWs received one canteen of water a day but went many days without water
– POWs fought for water
– Japanese threaten to shoot POWs unless they are silenced
– those POWs making too much noise were hauled on deck and made to kneel on a steel cable that dug into their knees
– POWs kill 8 insane in fights
– 30 others died from various causes
– only the sickest POWs were allowed on deck for air
– Formosan guards constantly beat POWs
– Sailed: Manila – 4 October 1944
– stopped at Cabcaban, Philippine Islands
– stopped 5 October 1944 – San Fernando, La Union, Philippine Islands
– joined convoy
– 6 October 1944 – convoy attacked by submarines
– two ships sunk
– 9 October 1944 – airplane scare – convoy broke up
– sailed for Hong Kong
– ran into wolf pack – ship sunk
– Arrived: Hong Kong – 11 October 1944
– attacked by American planes while in port
– Sailed: 21 October 1944
– Arrived: Takao, Formosa – 24 October 1944
– Disembarked: 8 November 1944
– POWs in such bad shape that Japanese decided to leave them on Formosa POW Camp:
– Formosa:
Inrin Temporary
– POWs worked on a farm
Hell Ship:
Enoshima Maru
– Sailed: Takao, Formosa – 25 January 1945
– put in hold carrying hemp
– discovered sacks of sugar and pellets of canned tomatoes under hemp
– POWs feasted on the canned tomatoes
– Arrived: Moji, Japan – 30 January 1945
– approximately 564 POWs were on the ship
– POWs marched to schoolhouse
– stripped off their clothes before entering – lice infested
– deloused
POW Camps:
– Japan
– Osaka Area
– POWs made carbide rods
Nagoya #9
– Camp had a ten foot fence around it
– Work:
– POWs worked as stevedores on docks loading and unloading ships
– the workday went from 7:00 A.M.to 6:30 P.M.
– most of the POWs walked three-quarters of a mile and worked on the docks loading and unloading coal, rice, and beans
– 1 hour for lunch and two half-hour breaks
– when docks were busy, 100 POWs returned at 8:00 P.M. and worked to midnight or sometimes 4:00 A.M.
– 100 POWs worked in the camp garden
– Barracks:
– 100 feet long by 24 feet wide
– two tiers of platforms around the perimeter for sleeping
– POWs slept on straw mats
– eight foot wide aisle down the middle of barracks
– floors were dirt
– Meals:
– six POWs assigned to kitchen
– primarily rice, wheat, and soybeans
– sometimes vegetables like onions or daikons a Japanese beet
– fish that was fried or in a soup
– Clothing:
– provided by Japanese Army
– many POWs wore Japanese Army uniforms and the traditional Japanese shoe, the “geta”
– those who still had GI shoes were given leather to repair them
– Work Clothes: straw shoes, hats, raincoats that were used at work
– Punishment:
– collective punishment practiced toward the POWs
– usually involved stealing rice or beans at docks
– on occasion, the POWs were denied coal, during the winter, for 7 days because one POW broke a rule
– on another occasion, 15 POWs were accused of stealing rice from sacks they were unloading from a ship
– when they returned to camp, they were forced to kneel for 1½ to five hours to get them to confess
– six of the fifteen men confessed and the remainder were fed and sent to the barracks
– when the camp commandant left at 8:00 P.M. the men sent to their barracks were called outside
– they were ordered to stand at attention and were beaten with pickax handles, rope, that was about 3 inches round and 5 feet long, clubs, and farrison
  belts across their buttocks, faces, and legs
– one POW said he was hit 150 times on his face and 20 times on his buttocks
– POWs often were kicked with hobnailed boots
– POWs who passed out were thrown into a large tub of water – with their hands and feet bound – or they had water poured on them to revive them
– when they were revived, they were beaten again
– Red Cross Boxes:
– the Japanese misappropriated the canned meats, canned fruits, cigarettes, medicine and medical supplies
– also used Red Cross clothing and shoes
– Hospital:
– 42 foot long by 24 wide area at the end of barracks was walled off to create one
– had beds for 20 patients
– on average 100 POWs were sick each day
– American doctor, four American medics, and a Japanese medical technician
– The American doctor was a dentist
– pneumonia killed many POWs
– men suffering from dysentery and diarrhea not considered ill and had to work
– beaten with shovels to get them to work
– meal rations cut
– 16 August 1945 – all medical records destroyed
– Burials:
– bodies put in a 4 foot square by two-foot tall wooden box with handles
– carried to crematorium behind a Buddhist priest, wearing white and gold robes, from the local village
– ashes returned to camp in 4-inch square by 12-inch high wooden box
– man’s name and serial number on the box
– given to camp commandant who kept it in his office
Liberated: 5 September 1945
– returned to the Philippine Islands
Transport:
U.S.S. Joseph T. Dyckman
– Sailed: Manila – not known
– Arrived: 16 October 1945 – San Francisco
– sent to Letterman General Hospital
Married: Martha Wright – 5 December 1947 – Montgomery, Alabama
Children: 3 sons
Died: 26 March 2002 – Tallahassee, Alabama
Buried: Memorial Cemetery

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