Knox_f

 



Sgt. Forrest Kinder Knox


    Sgt. Forrest K. Knox was born on November 29, 1917, in Monroe, Wisconsin, to Ross V. & Nina Knox.  Along with his brothers, Henry and Ross, he was raised at 1408 Third Street, Janesville, and later he lived in Beloit, Wisconsin, at 2229 Riverside Drive.   He owned his own contracting company and did carpentry work.

    Forrest was always fascinated with planes and had built a model of one that he wanted to fly.  Since the winter weather in Janesville was not conducive to flying the plane, Forrest used the auditorium in the Janesville Armory to fly it.  

    One day after flying the plane, he went into the basement of the armory and saw a guardsman working on a tank.  At that moment, he decided that he wanted to learn how to drive a tank.  This decision would lead him to joining the 32nd Tank Company of the Wisconsin National Guard in January 1938. 

    Forrest believed that the National Guard was like a social club.  The members got together for dances and other social activities.  If a soldier wanted a promotion, all he had to do is attend a non-commissioned officer class one evening a week.  The soldier then would be promoted to corporal and possibly sergeant.  In addition, the soldier would earn sixty dollars a month.

    In the fall of 1940, the 32nd Tank Company was called to federal duty as A Company of the 192nd Tank Battalion.  While at Fort Knox, the guardsmen were housed away from the regular army troops in newly built barracks.  In Forrest's opinion, this was partially due to the fact that the soldiers of the regular army did not like the guardsmen because they drilled too hard and went on maneuvers two or three times a week.  The regular army soldiers, in Forrest's opinion, viewed being in the army as a job.  The one thing that Forrest believed the training at Fort Knox taught the members of the tank battalion was to never attack anti-tank guns straight ahead.  

    After training at Fort Knox, the 192nd was sent on maneuvers in Louisiana from September 1st through 30th.  From there, the 192nd was sent to Camp Polk, Louisiana, where Forrest and the other members of the battalion were informed that they were being sent overseas.
    The decision to send the 192nd overseas -  which had been made in August 1941 - was the result of an event that took place in the summer of 1941.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island which was hundred of miles away.  The island had a large radio transmitter.  The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
    When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.  The next day, when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its deck - which was seen making its way to shore.   Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult, the boat escaped.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.

    The move to the Philippines was suppose to be "top secret," but it was posted all over the camp in the barracks' day rooms on bulletin boards.  The notices stated that the 192nd was accepting volunteers for duty in the Philippine Islands.  The reason for the notices was that those members of the battalion who had been considered "too old" had been released from federal service.

    It was at this time that each letter company of the 192nd received 16, M-3 Stewart tanks.  The tanks were "new" to the 192nd but came from the 753rd Tank Battalion.  The tanks were loaded onto flat cars and the battalion arrived in San Francisco, California, where they were ferried, on the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe,  to Ft. MacDowell on Angel Island.  There, they received their shots, from the battalion's medical detachment, and were kept in quarantine on the island.  It was Forrest's opinion that this "quarantine" was done to prevent the soldiers from going AWOL.  Those members of the battalion who were found to have treatable medical conditions remained behind on the island and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date, while other men were simply replaced.

    The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S. A. T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27th.  During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP.   They arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2nd and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
    On Wednesday, November 5th, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes.  It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and the S. S. Calvin Coolidge.  Sunday night, November 9th, the soldiers went to bed; when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11th.  During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Date Line.  On Saturday, November 15th, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon.  The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke.  It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country. 
    When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16th, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day.  At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20th, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning.  At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.  Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks. 
    At the fort, they were greeted by Colonel Edward P. King, who apologized that they had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Field.  He made sure that they had what they needed and received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own dinner.  Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
    Ten days before the attack on Pearl Harbor, the reconnaissance pilots reported that Japanese transports were milling around in a large circle in the China Sea.  On December 1st, the tankers were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field to guard against Japanese paratroopers.  From this time on, two tank crew members remained with each tank at all times.

    Forrest and his tank crew spent over two weeks preparing their tank for use in the training that had been promised.  He recalled that on the morning of the Japanese attack on Clark Field, he had cleaned ten tank cannons of cosmoline. 
    The morning of December 8th, the pilots, flying reconnaissance out of Clark Field, told Forrest and the other tankers that the war was on.  At 8:30, the American planes took off and filled the sky.  They landed at noon, to be refueled, and lined up near the mess hall while the pilots went to lunch. 

    The tankers were eating lunch when a formation of 54 planes was spotted approaching the airfield from the north.  The tankers believed the planes were American.  As they watched, raindrops fell from the planes.  When bombs exploded on the runways, they knew the planes were Japanese.  Forrest stood on his tank and counted the planes three times to make sure he had the number correct.
    When the Japanese were finished, there was not much left of the airfield.  Since the battalion's bivouac was near the main road between the fort and airfield, the soldiers watched as the dead, dying, and wounded were hauled to the hospital on bomb racks and trucks.  Anything that could carry the wounded was in use.  When the hospital filled, they watched the medics place the wounded under the building.  Many of these men had their arms and legs missing.
     Four days  after the attack, on December 12th, the company was sent to the Barrio of Dau to protect a highway and railroad from sabotage.  When A Company's tanks were ordered to move north to engage the Japanese, Forrest's tank ended up in irrigation ditch because his driver did not see the sharp curve in the road.  It turned out his tank driver suffered from night blindness. 
    That night the soldiers had slept their last night in a bed.  For protection, they slept under their tanks or in them.
    On December 23rd and 24th, the company was in the area of Urdaneta, where the tankers lost the company commander, Capt. Walter Write.  After he was buried, the tankers made an end run to get south of Agno River.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening but successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.     
    From there, it was sent to rejoin the other companies of the 192nd just south of the Agno River. On December 25th, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road.  The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27th.
    The 192nd and part of the 194th fell back to form a new defensive line the night of December 27th and 28th.  From there they fell back to the south bank of the BamBan River which they were suppose to hold for as long as possible.  The tanks were at Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 28th and 29th serving as a rear guard against the Japanese.
    A Company was sent, in support of the 194th, to an area east of Pampanga.  It was there that they lost a tank platoon commander, Lt. William Read.  That night, on a road east of Zaragoza, on December 30th, the company was bivouacked for the night and posted sentries.  The sentries heard a noise on the road and woke the other tankers who grabbed Tommy-guns and manned the tanks' machine guns.  As they watched, a Japanese bicycle battalion rode into their bivouac.  When the last bicycle passed the tanks, the tankers opened up on them.  When they stopped firing, they had completely wiped out the bicycle battalion.  To leave the area, the tankers drove their tanks over the bodies.
   As the Filipino and American forces fell back toward Bataan, A Company took up a position near the south bank of the Gumain River the night of December 31st and January 1st.  Believing that the Filipino Army was in front of them allowed the tankers to get some sleep.  It was that night that the Japanese lunched an attack to cross the river.
    As the Japanese attempted to advance they were cut down by the tankers.  The tankers created gaping holes in their ranks.  To lower their losses, the Japanese tried to cover their advance with a smoke screen.  Since the wind was blowing against them, the smoke blew into the Japanese line.  When the Japanese broke off the attack, they had lost about half their men.
    From January 2nd to 4th, the 192nd held the road open from San Fernando to Dinalupihan so the southern forces could escape.  It was also in January 1942, that the food ration was cut in half.  It was not too long after this was done that malaria, dysentery, and dengue fever began hitting the soldiers. January that the food rations were cut in half.  Not long after this, malaria, dysentery, and dengue fever soon spread among the soldiers.
    A Company, was sent in support of the 194th, to an area east of Pampanga.  At Guagua,  A Company with the 11th Infantry Division, Philippine Army, attempted to make a counterattack against the Japanese.  Somehow, the Filipinos mistook the tanks as Japanese and accurately used mortars on them knocking out three tanks.  A Company rejoined the 194th east of Guagua.tanks were often the last units to disengage from the enemy and form a new defensive line as American and Filipino units withdrew toward Bataan. 
    The night of January 7th, A Company was awaiting orders to cross the last bridge into Bataan over the Culis Creek.  The engineers were ready to blow up the bridge, but the battalion's commanding officer, Lt. Col. Ted Wickord, ordered the engineers to wait until he had looked to see if they were anywhere in sight.  He found the company, asleep in their tanks, because they had not received the order to withdraw across the bridge.  After they had crossed, the bridge was destroyed.   
    While American and Filipino forces were withdrawing from Pilar-Bigac Line, the battalion prevented the Japanese from overrunning the position and cutting off the withdrawing troops.  The morning of January 27th, a new battle line had been formed and all units were suppose to be beyond it.  That morning, the tanks were still holding their position six hours after they were suppose to have withdrawn.  While holding the position, the tanks, with self-propelled mounts, ambushed, at point blank range, three Japanese units causing 50 percent casualties.
    On January 28th, the tank battalions were given the job of protecting the beaches.  The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast.  The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.  They also took part in the Battle of the Pockets and the Battle of the Points.       
    At the end of January into February, the tanks took part in the Battle of the Pockets which was an extremely dangerous operation.  When tanks were sent into a pocket, they entered one tank at a time.  The next tank would not enter until the tank, that had been relieved, exited the pocket. 
    To wipe out the Japanese, two methods were employed.  One method had three Filipino soldiers sitting on the back of each tank.  When the tank passed over a foxhole the soldiers each dropped a hand grenade into the foxhole.  Being that the ordnance was from WWI, one of the three hand grenades usually exploded.
    The second method was to park the tank with one tank track over foxhole.  The crew would give power to the other track causing the tank to spin and dig its way into the ground.  After doing this, the tankers slept upwind of their tanks.

    Forrest recalled that the members of the 192nd went into combat with no prior experience of firing their tanks' cannons.  They also did not know how to adjust the gun sights.  It was his belief that when they were issued the "new" tanks that no one expected that they would actually have to fire the guns.

    Forrest took part in several engagements with the Japanese.  Forrest recalled that one of the biggest problems with the tanks was the fact that they were riveted not welded.  When the tanks took a hit from enemy fire, the rivets would "pop" and injure the crew.  The hinges on the driver's door would also blow off and the door would end up in the driver's lap.  After the Philippine and American defenders withdrew from their first line of defense, Forrest and other soldiers knew that the battle they were fighting would be lost.

    During an engagement with the Japanese, Forrest witnessed how poorly the American tanks were built.  A direct hit to the driver's door of a tank resulted in the door being blown off.  While the crew was abandoning the tank, 1st. Lt. William Reed was killed by enemy fire.

    While at a roadblock at Urdaneta, Forrest's tank crew watched as Filipino troops pulled up in buses.  The officer in command was having trouble getting the men to leave he buses. A shot rang out and within moments the buses were empty.

    Another problem Forrest witnessed was that supplies were often left behind by those assigned to move them.  The truck drivers often drove their trucks into Bataan empty.  The tankers had enough ammunition, almost enough gas, but they did not have enough food or quinine.  He believed that the Japanese could have just sat at the north end of the Bataan Peninsula and watched the Filipinos and Americans starve to death.  By doing this, the Japanese would have saved themselves casualties.  For the Bataan defenders, the worst thing they had to deal with was the constant harassment by the Japanese.  The defenders simply could not get away from it.

    To prevent the Japanese from landing troops behind American lines, A Company and the other tank companies were put on coast watching duty.  At night, he would ride up and down the coastline, in Abel Ortega's half-track, looking for Japanese troops attempting to land.
    It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver: "Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal.  If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay."

    Bataan, in Forrest's opinion, was no place for people to live because of the diseases found there.  American soldiers would not take the quinine they were given because it tasted bad.  They ended up with malaria and died from it.

   The company's last bivouac area was about twelve kilometers north of Marivales and looking out on the China Sea.  By this point, the tankers knew that there was no help on the way.  Many had listened to Secretary of War Harry L. Stimson on short wave.  When asked about the Philippines, he said, "There are times when men must die."  The soldiers cursed in response because they knew that the Philippines had already been lost.
    On April 4, 1942, the Japanese launched a attack supported by artillery and aircraft.  A large force of Japanese troops came over Mount Samat and descended down the south face of the volcano.  This attack wiped out two divisions of defenders and left a large area of the defensive line open to the Japanese. 
    Gen. Edward King facing the reality that only about 25% of his troops were healthy enough to fight and most likely would last one more day.  It was at this time that he decided to send his staff officers to negotiate terms of surrender since he wanted to avoid the slaughter of 6000 wounded and sick troops and 40000 civilians.  At 10:30, these orders were given, "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished."
    When General King saw that the situation was hopeless, he initiated surrender talks with the Japanese by sending his staff officers to meet with them that night.  At 11:40, the ammunition dumps were blown up.
    On April 9, 1942, Forrest became a Prisoner Of War when the Filipino and American forces on Bataan were surrendered.  At kilometer post 201, the tankers circled their tanks and shot an anti-tank round into each tank.  They flooded the tanks with gas and set them on fire.  After this was done they waited for orders to move.

    Forrest and the other members of A Company started the death march at Miraveles.   Fearing retribution because their tanks had been used to wipe out pockets of Japanese soldiers during the Battle of Bataan, Forrest and the other tankers would not identify themselves as tank battalion members.  On several occasions, Forrest said that he was a cook.

    Forrest would always try to march near the front of the column.  His reason for doing this was that as he grew weaker the longer he marched, the column would gradually start to pass him.  By the time he had fallen to the end of the column, he had regained his strength and was able to continue marching.  He believed that doing this saved his life on the death march.

    The column that Forrest was in marched ten days before they received their first food.  The rice being fed to the prisoners was being given out from a large pot as the Americans marched passed.  Right before Forrest reached the pot the Japanese ran out of rice.  They went to the side of the road to refill the pot, but by the time they returned to their position, Forrest was ten men beyond their position.

    Forrest also believed that the Japanese intentionally caused many of the POWs to get ill from drinking water from the ditches alongside the road.  The Japanese would kill anyone who attempted to get water from the artesian wells along the march.  But, they never stopped or attempted to kill a prisoner who took water from a ditch.

    At San Fernando, Forrest and the other POWs were crammed into boxcars.  They were packed in so tightly that when a man died, he would continue standing even though he was dead.

    Forrest was first held as a prisoner at Camp O'Donnell.  It seemed that one of the guards had it out for Forrest.  The guard would single him out and hit him across the knees.  Why the guard did this was somewhat of a mystery to Forest until he realized that the guard could speak English.  The beatings were in response to his cursing at the guard.

    Forrest went out a work detail to retrieve destroyed American equipment as scrap metal.  The POWs tied the vehicles together and drove them to San Fernando. From there the vehicles were shipped to Manila.

    When this detail ended, Forrest was sent on a detail to Manila.  On this detail, he drove a truck carrying building supplies to POWs who were rebuilding the bridges, airfields and roads.  With him on the detail were Lloyd Richter, Owen Sandmire and Alva Chapman.  The POWs were treated fairly well on the detail and lived in a shoe factory.

    When this detail ended Forrest was sent to Cabanatuan Camp #1 when the detail ended sometime in 1943.  After returning to the camp, according to medical records, he was hospitalized on April 5, 1943, but no date of discharge was given.    

    In September 1943, Forrest was sent on a detail digging trenches and building an airfield at Nichols Field.  His POW detachment brought the number of POWs on the detail up to 800 men.  He recalled that men on this detail often paid other prisoners a pack of cigarettes to break their arms or to injure them in some way.  In his opinion, this was the worse camp he was held in. "It was run by the same bunch who had charge of Nichols Field and Camp O'Donnell.  After awhile the Japs stopped being completely unmerciful.  They discovered that if you put a man in the hospital , he can't work any more."

    The detail was under the control of the Japanese Navy and welfare of the POWs was of no concern to them.  They only concern they had was getting the runway built.  If the number of POWs identified as being sick was too large, the Japanese would simply walk among the POWs, at the school, and select men who did not display any physical signs of illness or injury.  Men suffering from dysentery or pellagra could not get out of work.

    The POWs were divided into two detachments.  The first detachment drained rice paddies and laid the ground work for the runway, while the second detachment built the runway.  When most of the work was done in July 1944, most of the POWs were returned to Cabanatuan.  Forrest was one of 300 men that remained at the airfield.

    On September 21, 1944, while the POWs were working, they saw American diver bombers.  This was the first time they had seen American planes since the surrender of Bataan.  Watching the planes attack the Japanese caused the POWs to cheer.  The next day the detail was ended.  Forrest and the other prisoners were sent to Bilibid Prison to prepare for transport to Japan. In his own words, "The Yank planes followed us all the way from the Philippines. Shortly after we left Los Banos in September 1944, the yanks moved in; we got to Formosa and the big fellows came over, and finally they were over Tokyo itself."

    On October 1, 1944,  Forrest was sent to the Port Area of Manila as part of Company II.  The ship they were scheduled to sail on, the Arisan Maru, wasn't ready to sail.  Another ship, the Hokusen Maru was ready to sail but not all the POWs scheduled to sail on it had arrived at the pier.  So that the ship could sail, the Japanese flipped POW detachments.  The original ship, the Arisan Maru, that Forrest was scheduled to sail on was sunk in the Bashi Channel of the South China Sea on October 24, 1944.  Only nine POWs on the ship, out almost 1800, survived.
    After the POWs boarded, the ship sailed but dropped anchor at the harbor's breakwater, where it remained for three days.  The temperatures in the hold rose to over 100 degrees causing some men to go crazy causing the Japanese to threaten to kill the POWs if they didn't quiet the men.  To do this, the sane POWs strangled those out of their minds or hit them with canteens.
    As part of a ten ship convoy it sailed again on October 4th and stopped at Cabcaban.  The next day, it was at San Fernando, La Union, where the ships were joined by four more ships and five escorts.  The ships stayed close to the shoreline to prevent submarine attacks but this failed since, on October 6th, two of the ships were sunk by an American submarine.

    The ships were informed, on October 9th, that American carriers were seen near Formosa so they sailed for Hong Kong.  On the trip there, they received word that American planes were in the area.  During this part of the trip, the ships ran into American submarines which sank two more ships.  The Hokusen Maru arrived at Hong Kong on October 11th.  While it was in port, American planes bombed the harbor on October 16th.  On October 21st, the ship sailed for Takao, Formosa, arriving on October 24th.   Forrest recalled of the trip, "Of 18 transports which began the trip six got to Formosa, and we were on-board one of the lucky ones."

    On November 8th, the POWs were taken off the ship and sent to Toroku POW Camp on Formosa.  At the camp, Forrest and the other POWs worked in rice fields.  In the water, were microscopic freshwater snails.  If the snails got into a man's bloodstream, they would lodge in the brain.  The POWs who were infected with the snails would scream in agony.  The other POWs would fight to hold them down until the man passed out.  Any soldier who had these symptoms died within 24 hours.

    Forrest was held on Formosa for three months.  During this time, he also worked in a sugar mill and on a farm.  In his opinion, this was the easiest work he did as a prisoner.  He recalled that the guards on this detail were reasonable and treated the POWs decently.  "I wasn't able to find out, in my nine weeks there, what they were doing with the sugar, they just kept shifting it back and forth."  

    On January 25, 1945, he was boarded onto the Enoshima Maru.  During the trip, the POWs were in a hold with a cargo of hemp.  Some of the POWs discovered that beneath the hemp were bags of sugar and cans of tomatoes.  The men helped themselves to the tomatoes.

    The worst part of the trip was the stench in the hold of the ship which was terrible and many prisoners died or went crazy.  Those who died suffocated because they were too weak and could not stand up.  Forrest believed what saved his life was that he cooled himself down by using his army hat as a fan.  Over the years, he would never forget this experience; He simply learned to tolerate it.

    Forrest arrived in Japan at the City of Moji on January 30th and the POWs were taken to a schoolhouse.  Outside the school, the POWs stripped off their clothes because they were infested with lice.  The Japanese deloused them. 
    The POWs later were taken to the train station where they rode a train to various camps along the line. In Forrest's case, he was held in a camp in the Osaka area where he worked making electric carbons which was extremely dirty.  On May 29, 1945, the area surrounding the camp was bombed by American planes.  Due to the amount of damage, the POWs were moved to Tokaing on the west coast of Japan, where he worked on the docks in a new camp which was named
Nagoya #9.

    Forrest remained a prisoner in Japan until he was liberated by American troops occupying Japan at the end of the war.  According to Forrest, "We were working when the big news came.  You could see by the looks on the Japs' faces that it was true and that they were glad enough to quit." He was sent back to the Philippines were he was reunited with his brother, Henry.  This was the first time the two brothers had seen each other in three and one half years. 
    Forrest returned to the United States, on the Simon Bolivar, arriving on October 21, 1945, at San Francisco.  He was sent to Letterman General Hospital, in San Francisco, for further treatment.

     Forrest spent much of 1946 at Percy Jones General Hospital in Battle Creek, Michigan, because the army had a difficult time of curing him of his hookworm.  He was discharged from the army on November 11, 1946.  For the rest of his life, he carried anger toward the military for what he saw as betrayal which led him to be a POW.

    Forrest returned to Wisconsin and married and worked as a mechanic to support his family of six children.  The "ghosts" from his POWs days remained with him his entire life.  He divorced, remarried, and lived in Janesville the rest of his life.  He passed away on September 5, 1985, in the Veteran's Administration Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin.  He was buried at Oak Hill Cemetery in Janesville.


 

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