KennadyM

2nd Lt. Marshall Howard Kennady Jr.


    2nd Lt. Marshall Howard Kennady Jr. was born on February 22, 1919, in Bexar County, Texas, and grew up with his sister and brother in Fort Worth, Texas.  He was the son of Marshall H. Kennady Sr. & Helen Lehnen-Kennady.  His father was a colonel in the Texas State Guard.  Marshall graduated from Texas A&M College in 1940 and commissioned a second lieutenant in the U. S. Army.
    In the the early fall of 1941, the 192nd Tank Battalion received orders for duty, in the Philippines, because of an event that happened during the summer.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a buoy in the water.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island.  When the squadron landed he reported what he had seen.  By the time a Navy ship was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines. 
    It is not known if he was a member of the 753rd Tank Battalion or assigned directly to the 192nd Tank Battalion at Camp Polk, Louisiana, or if he joined the battalion on Angel Island, in San Francisco Bay, as the battalion prepared for duty in the Philippine Islands.
    The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27th.  During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP.   The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2nd and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
    On Wednesday, November 5th, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes.  It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and, another transport, the S.S. Calvin Coolidge.  Sunday night, November 9th, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11th.  During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Date Line.  On Saturday, November 15th, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon.  The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke.  It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
    When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16th, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day.  At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20th, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning.  At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.  Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
   At the fort, they were greeted by Colonel Edward P. King, who apologized they had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Airfield.  He made sure that they had what they needed and received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own dinner.  Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
    The members of the battalion pitched the tents in an open field halfway between the Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg.  The tents were set up in two rows and five men were assigned to each tent.  There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at the end of the rows of tents.
    For the next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their weapons which had been greased to protect them from rust while at sea.  They also loaded ammunition belts and did tank maintenance., and prepared for maneuvers with the 194th Tank Battalion.
    On December 1st, the tankers were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Airfield to guard against Japanese paratroopers.  Two members of each tank crew had to remain with the tank at all times and received their meals from food trucks.

    The morning of December 8th, the officers were called to a meeting and informed of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor just hours earlier.  After hearing the news, they returned to their companies and informed the enlisted men of the attack.

    When the members of HQ Company were told of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor they laughed.  Having been in the Philippines for eighteen days, they believed that this was the start of the extended maneuvers.  The company commander, Capt Fred Bruni, told them to listen up because what he was saying was the truth.  He again told them that Pearl Harbor had been bombed, and they were given guns and told to clean them.  As they did this, they still believed that they had started maneuvers.  It was around noon that this belief was blown away.   
    That morning the sky was filled with American planes flying in every direction.  At noon, the planes landed, the pilots lined up their planes in a straight line to be refueled,  went to lunch.  It was 12:45 in the afternoon, and the tank crews had sent two members of each crew to the food truck to get their lunches.  The tankers stated that as they looked north, they saw planes approaching the airfield and had enough time to count 54 planes information.  Many believed the planes were Americans coming to reinforce the Army Air Corps.  It was only when they saw what they described as "rain drops" falling out of the planes, and red dots on the wings, that they knew the planes were Japanese.
    During the bombing, the tank crews remained in their tanks.  For some unknown reason, most of the Japanese Zeros did not go after the tanks.  When they did, the bombs landed between the tanks.  The tank crews had orders not to fire at the planes but many of them did anyway. 
When the Japanese were finished, there was not much left of the airfield.  The tankers watched as the dead, dying, and wounded were hauled to the hospital on bomb racks, trucks, or anything else that could carry the wounded.  When the hospital filled, they watched the medics place the wounded under the building.  Many of these men had their arms and legs missing.

    That night, there was one air raid after another.  Since they did not have any foxholes, the men used an old latrine pit for cover.  Being that it was safer in the trench than in their tents, the men slept in the pit.  The entire night they were bitten by mosquitoes.  The next morning the decision was made to move the company into an tree cover area.  Without knowing it, Marshall had slept his last night on a cot or bed.  From this point on, he slept in a blanket on the ground.

    The battalion remained at Clark Field for two weeks when they were ordered north toward Lingayen Gulf because the Japanese were landing troops there.  On December 23rd and 24th, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta.   The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of river.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening.  They successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25th, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road.  The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27th, when they
fell back toward Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan.  The tanks were at San Isidro, south of Cabanatuan, on December 28th and 29th.  While there, the bridge they were suppose to cross over the Pampanga River was destroyed, but they were able find a crossing over the river.   

    Marshall was the tank platoon commander of the three tanks assigned to HQ Company.  His tanks were with C Company as the company withdrew to Baluiag, where the tanks encountered Japanese troops.  It was at Baluiag that Lt. William Gentry's platoon of tanks won the first tank victory of World War II against enemy tanks.  

    On December 31, 1941, Gentry sent out reconnaissance patrols north of the town of Baluiag.  The patrols ran into Japanese patrols, which told the Americans that the Japanese were on their way.  Knowing that the railroad bridge was the only way into the town, Lt. Gentry set up his defenses in view of the bridge and the rice patty it crossed.    

    Early on the morning of the 31st, the Japanese began moving troops and across the bridge.  The engineers came next and put down planking for tanks.  A little before noon Japanese tanks began crossing the bridge.  

    Later that day, the Japanese had assembled a large number of troops in the rice field on the northern edge of the town.  One platoon of tanks under the command of 2nd Lt. Marshall Kennady were to the southeast of the bridge.  Gentry's tanks were to the south of the bridge, hidden in huts, while third platoon commanded by Capt. Harold Collins was to the south on the road leading out of Baluiag2nd Lt. Everett Preston, and his tank platoon, had been sent south to find a bridge to cross to attack the Japanese from behind.  

    Major Morley came riding in his jeep into Baluiag and stopped in front of a hut where he was spotted by the Japanese who had lookouts in the town's church's steeple.  The Japanese lookout became very excited.  Morley, not wanting to give away the tanks positions, got into his jeep and drove off.  Gentry had told him that his tanks would hold their fire until he was safely out of the village.

     When Gentry felt the Morley was out of danger, he ordered his tanks to open up on the Japanese tanks at the end of the bridge.  Gentry's tanks then came smashing through the huts' walls and drove the Japanese in the direction of Lt. Marshall Kennady's tanks who had been radioed and were waiting.

    Kennady held his fire until the Japanese were in view of his platoon and than joined in the hunt.  The Americans chased the tanks up and down the streets of the barrio through buildings and under them.  By the time Bill's unit was ordered to disengage from the enemy, they had knocked out at least eight enemy tanks.   This was the first American tank battle victory of World War II.

    Gentry and the other tankers withdrew to Calumpit Bridge which they discovered it had been blown up when they reached it.  Finding a crossing the tankers made it to the south side of the river.  Knowing that the Japanese were close behind, the Americans took their positions in a harvested rice field and aimed their guns to fire a tracer shell through the harvested rice.  This would cause the rice to ignite which would light the enemy troops.

    Gentry spaced his tanks about 100 yards apart.  The Japanese crossing the river knew that the Americans were there because the tankers shouted at each other to make the Japanese believe troops were in front of them.  The Japanese were within a few yards of the tanks when the tanks opened fire.

    Lighting the rice stacks, the Americans opened up with small fire than used their .37 mm guns.  The fighting was such a rout that the the tankers were using a .37 mm shell to kill one Japanese soldier.

    The tanks were next sent to the barrio of Porac to aid the Filipino army which was having trouble with Japanese artillery fire.  From a Filipino lieutenant, the takers learned where the guns were and attacked.  Before the Japanese withdrew, the tankers had knocked out three of the guns.

    After this, the tanks withdrew to the Hermosa Bridge and held it on the north side until all the troops were across.  The tanks then crossed to the south and destroyed the bridge which held the Japanese up for a few days.

     In addition to serving as a rear guard, the tankers burnt everything that was being left behind.  The tankers burnt warehouses, banks, and businesses that would help the Japanese. 

    The evening of April 8, 1942, Capt. Fred Bruni gave his men the news of the surrender.  While informing the members of the company of the surrender, he waved his arm toward the tanks and told the men that they would no longer need them.  As he spoke, his voice choked.  He turned away from the men for a moment, and when he turned back he continued.  He next told the sergeants what they should do to disable the tanks.  During the announcement, Bruni emphasized that they all were to surrender together.   He told the soldiers to destroy their weapons and any supplies that could be used by the Japanese.  The only thing they were told not to destroy were the company's trucks.  He also told them that from this point on, it was each man for himself.  The men waited in their bivouac until ordered to move.  Somehow, Bruni had found enough bread and pineapple juice for what he called, "Their last supper."   Bruni told his men that from this point on it was each man for himself.  Most of the company remained in their bivouac for two days while others attempted to escape to Corregidor.   
    The soldiers proceeded to pile up their guns and ammunition and set the pile on fire.  They stayed in their bivouac and waited for orders.  At the same time that they were sad, they were also kind of excited and wondered what was going to happen to them.

    After remaining in their bivouac for two days, the members of HQ Company were ordered out to the road that ran by their encampment.  Once on the road, the POWs were ordered to kneel along the sides of the road with their possessions in front of them.  As they knelt, the passing Japanese soldiers took what they wanted from the Americans.  Afterwards, the soldiers boarded trucks and drove to Mariveles at the southern tip of Bataan.

    At Mariveles, the POWs were searched and personal possessions were confiscated by the Japanese.  It was also from there that Marshall started what became known as the death march.  During the march he received almost no food and little water.  The POWs made their way north to San Fernando where they were placed in a bull pen.  In one corner was slit trench that the POWs used as a latrine.  The surface of the trench was alive with insects. 
    After being held in the pen, the POWs were ordered to form 100 men detachment.  From there, they were marched to the train station in San Fernando.  The
POWs were boarded into small wooden boxcars used to haul sugarcane.  Each car could hold forty men or eight horses, but the Japanese packed 100 men into the cars.  In the cars, men died from the heat and lack of air but remained standing since there was no room for them to fall to the floor.  At Capas, those POWs still alive disembarked and the bodies of the dead fell from the cars as they climbed out.  The POWs walked the last few miles to Camp O'Donnell.

    Marshall was held as a prisoner at Camp O'Donnell which was an unfinished Filipino training base that the Japanese put into use as a POW camp.  Conditions in the camp were bad and many POWs died from disease.  There was one water spigot for the entire camp which meant the POWs stood in line for hours for a drink.  The Japanese guard would shut off the water whenever they felt like it.  Disease ran wild in the camp and as many as fifty-five POWs died each day.  To lower the death rate, the Japanese opened a new camp at Cabanatuan.
    Cabanatuan was a Filpino Army Base that the Japanese converted to a POW camp.  The POWs worked in rice paddies or on the camp farm.  It is not know if Marshall went directly there - when the camp opened - or if he arrived there after returning from a work detail.
   
Marshall was held at Cabanatuan until October 1942, when he was selected for transport to the Davao Penal Colony on the Island of Mindanao to work on a labor detail.  The POWs were taken to Manila and boarded on Erie Maru which sailed on October 28th.  After stopes at Iloido and Cebu, Mindanao, the ship arrived at Lasang, Mindanao, on November 7th.
    The POWs were taken to the Davao Penal Colony.  At the camp, the POWs were housed in eight barracks that were about 148 feet long and about 16 feet wide.  A four foot wide aisle ran down the center of each barracks.  In each barracks, were eighteen bays.  Twelve POWs shared a bay.  216 POWs lived in each barracks.  Four cages were later put in a bay.  Each cage held two POWs.
    The camp discipline was poor and the American commanding officer changed frequently.  The junior officers refused to take orders from the senior officers.  Soon, the enlisted men spoke anyway they wanted to, to the officers.  The situation improved because all majority of POWs realized that discipline was needed to survive. 
    At first, the work details were not guarded.  The POWs plowed, planted, and harvested the crops.  The sick POWs made baskets.  In April 1943, the POWs working conditions varied.  Those working the rice fields received the worst treatment.  They were beaten for not meeting quotas, misunderstandings between the POWs and guards, and a translator who could not be trusted to tell the truth.
    Many of the POWs became ill with what was called, "Rice Sickness".  This illness was caused by a POW cutting his foot or leg on a rice stalk.  The POW developed a rash and suffered from severe swelling.  If a POW bruised himself, the bruise developed into a ulcer.  Most, if not all the prisoners, suffered from malaria.
    As the American forces got closer to the Philippine Islands the Japanese began to send as many POWs to Japan or other occupied countries as possible. On June 6, 1944, the Japanese sent Marshall and other POWs to Lasang, Mindano, by truck.  Once there, the POWs were boarded onto the Yashu Maru and held in the ship's front holds for six days before it sailed.  The ship sailed on the 12th and dropped anchor off Zamboanga, Mindano. for two days before sailing for Cebu City arriving on June 17th.  The POWs were taken off the ship and held in a warehouse.  The POWs were returned to the dock and boarded an unnamed ship and arrived at Manila on June 25th and sent to Bilibid Prison.  From there they were sent to Cabanatuan.
    In mid-October a list of names of POWs being transferred from the Philippines was posted at the camp.  On October 19th, six trucks arrived a the camp and spent the night.  The next morning, the POWs were fed corn cakes and rice for breakfast.  The POWs were inspected at 7:30 A.M. and received a cornbread and rice.
    The POWs were packed onto the six trucks so tightly that they could not sit down which made the ride unpleasant.  Most of the trucks had 50 men on them. 
    It is not known when the trucks left the camp but at 11:00 A.M. as they made their way to Blibid Prison, the POWs saw two large formations of American planes on their way to bomb a Japanese fortification at Nichols Field and the Port Area of Manila.  It was the fifth or sixth day in a roll that the POWs had seen American planes.

    At noon, the POWs had lunch but could not get off the trucks.  If a man had to relieve himself, he had to make his way to the side of the truck and urinate or defecate over the side.  The trucks arrived at Bilibid at 4:00 P.M. 

    On December 8, 1944, Marshall was selected to be sent to another part of the Japanese Empire.  On December 12, 1944, roll call was taken and the names of the men selected for transport to Japan were called.  At 4:00 a.m. the morning of December 13th, Marshall and the other POWs were awakened and roll call was taken.  Afterwards, the POWs were allowed to roam the prison until they formed detached and were marched to Pier 7 in Manila.  Once there, tthe POWs were told to sit.  Many of the men laid down and slept until they were awakened to board the ship.  About 5:00 PM, the POWs were boarded onto the Oryoku Maru.
    The high ranking officers were the first put into the ship's afthold.  Being the first on meant that they would suffer many deaths.  Around the perimeter of the hold were two tiers of bunks for the POWs.  The heat was so bad that men soon began to pass out.  One survivor said, "The fist fights began when men to pass out.  We knew that only the front men in bay would be able to get enough air."  The POWs who were closer to the hold's hatch used anything they could find to fan air toward those further away from it.
    The ship left Manila at 8:00 P.M. but spent most of the night in Manila Bay.  At 10:00 P.M., the Japanese interpreter threatened to have the guards fire into the holds unless the POWs stopped screaming.  Some of the POWs fell silent because they were exhausted, and others because they had died. 
    One major of the 26th Cavalry stated the man next to him had lost his mind.  Recalling the conversation he had with the man he said, "Worst was the man who had gone mad but would not sit still.  One kept pestering me, pushing a mess kit against my chest, saying, 'Have some of this chow? It's good.'  I smelled of it, it was not chow. 'All right'  he said, 'If you don't want it. I'm going to eat it.' And a little later I heard him eating it , right beside me."
    At 3:30 A.M. it sailed as part of the MATA-37 a convoy bound for Takao, Formosa.  The ships sailed without any lights out of the bay.  By the swells in the water, the POWs could tell that the ship was in open water.  The cries for air began as the men lost discipline, so the Japanese threatened to cover the holds and cut off all air.  When the Japanese sent down fried rice, cabbage, and fried seaweed, those further back from the opening got nothing.
    The Japanese covered the holds and would not allow the slop buckets to be taken out of the holds.  Those POWs who were left holding the buckets at first asked for someone else to hold it for awhile.  When that did not work, they dumped the buckets on the men around them.
    As light began to enter the hold as morning came, the POWs could see men who were in stupors, men out of their minds, and men who had died.  The POWs in the aft hold which also had a sub-hold, put the POWs who out of their minds into it.
    On the side of the holds, water had condensed on the walls so the POWs tried to scrap it off the wall for a drink.  The Japanese did allow men who had passed out to be put on deck, but as soon as they revived they went back into the holds.  The Japanese would not allow the bodies of the men who had died to be removed from the holds. 
    The POWs received their first meal at dawn.  Meals on the ship consisted of a little rice, fish, some water, and three fourths of a cup of water was shared by 20 POWs.  It was 8:00 A.M., off the coast of Luzon, and the POWs had just finished eating breakfast when they heard the sound of guns.  At first, they thought the gun crews were just drilling, because they had not heard any planes.  It was only when the first bomb hit in the water and the ship shook that they knew it was not a drill.
     At first it seemed that most of the planes were attacking the other ships in the convoy.  Commander Frank Bridgit, had made his way to the top of the ladder into the hold and sat down.  He gave the POWs a play by play of the planes attacking, "I can see two planes going for a freighter off our starboard side.  Now two more are detached from the formation.  I think they may be coming for us."
    The POWs heard the change in the sound of the planes' engines as they began their dives toward the ships in the convoy.  Several more bombs hit the water near the ship causing it to rock  Explosions were taking place all around the ship.  In an attempt to protect themselves, the POWs piled baggage in front of them.  Bullets from the planes were ricocheted in the hold causing many casualties.  .
    Lt. Col. Elvin Barr of the 60th Coast Artillery came up to Maj, John Fowler of the 26th Cavalry on the cargo deck and said, "There's a hole knocked in the bulkheads down there.  Between 30 and 40 men have already died down there."  Barr would never reach Japan.  The attack by 30 to 50 planes lasted for about 20 to 30 minutes.  When the planes were ran out of bombs they strafed.  Afterwards, the planes flew off, returning to their carrier, and there was a lull of about 20 to 30 minutes before the next squadron of planes appeared over the ships and resumed the attack.  This pattern repeated itself over and over during the day.
    In the hold, the POWs concluded that the attacking planes were concentrating on the bridge of the ship.  They noted that the planes had taken out all the anti-aircraft guns leaving only .30 caliber machine guns to defend the ship.
    At 4:30 P.M., the ship went through the worse attack on it.  It was hit at least three times by bombs on its bridge and stern.  Most of the POWs, who were wounded, were wounded by ricocheting bullets and shrapnel from exploding bombs.  During the attack Chaplain Cummings, a Catholic priest, led the POWs in the Our Father.  As they prayed, the bombs that exploded near the ship sent torrents of water over the ship.
    Bullets from the planes hit the metal plates, of the haul, at an angle that prevented most of them from penetrating the haul.  Somewhere on the ship a fire started, but it was put out after several hours.  The POWs lived through seven or eight attacks before sunset.  Overall, six bombs hit the ship.  One hit the stern of the ship killing many POWs.
    At dusk the ship raised anchor and headed east.  It turned south and turned again this time heading west.  The next turn it made was north. It headed in this direction for a good amount of time before dropping anchor at about 8:00 P.M.  The POWs figured out that they had just sailed in a circle.  What had happened is that the ship's had been hit during the attack and the ship could not be steered.
    Sometime after midnight, the POWs heard the sound of the Japanese civilians being evacuated from the ship.  During the night, the POW medics were ordered onto the deck to treat the Japanese wounded.  One medic recalled that the dead, dying, and wounded were everywhere.
    The ship reached Subic Bay at 2:30 in the morning and steamed closer to the beach where its anchor was dropped.  At 4:00 A.M., the POWs were told that they would disembark at daybreak at a pier.  The moaning and muttering of POWs who were losing their minds kept the POWs up all night.  That night 25 POWs died in the hold.
    It was December 15th and the POWs sat in the ship's holds for hours after dawn.  The first 35 POWs were taken out of the hold and went into the water.  At 8:00 A.M. as the other POWs waited, the sound of A Japanese guard yelled into the hold at the POWs, "All go home; speedo!" He shouted that the wounded would be the first to be evacuated.   Suddenly, he looked up and shouted, "Planes, many planes!" As the POWs were abandoning ship the planes returned and continued the attack.  The ship bounced in the water from the explosions.  Chief Boatswain Clarence M. Taylor who was in the water said, "I saw the whole thing. A bomb fall, hit near the stern hatch, and debris go flying up in the air."
    In the hold, the POWs crowded together.  Chips of  rust fell on them from the ceiling.  After the raid, they took care of the wounded before the next attack started.  In the hold a Catholic priest, Father Duffy, began to pray, "Father forgive them.  They know not what they do."
    The Japanese guards and interpreter had abandoned ship, but the ship's captain remained on board.  He told the POWs - with his limited English - that they needed to get off the ship to safety.  The POWs made their way over the side and into the water.  As they swam to shore, the Japanese fired at them, with machine guns, to prevent them from escaping. 
    Four of the planes flew low over the water above the POWs.  The POWs waved frantically at the planes so they would not be strafed.  The planes banked and flew lower over the POWs.  This time the pilots dipped their wings to show that they knew the men in the water were Americans.  About a half hour later, the ship began to really burn and the bodies of the dead could be seen on the decks.
    The Japanese sent out a motorboat with a machine gun and snipers on it.  The POWs attempting to escape were hunted down and shot.  It is believed as many as 30 men died in the water.
    There was no real beach, so the POWs climbed up on a seawall and found the the Japanese Naval Landing Party had set up a machine gun and had just laid flat to rest when the gun opened up on them.   Those who came ashore were warned to stay in the water, but only did so when one man climbed up on the seawall and was wounded.  There were also Japanese snipers in wait to shoot anyone who attempted to escape.
    The POWs were gathered together and marched to the tennis court at Olongapo Naval Station which was about 500 yards from the beach.  There, they were herded onto a tennis court.  The Japanese packed 1300 of the POWs on the court with 100 wounded POWs taking up a great amount of room at one end.  They could barely sit down and only lay down by lying partially on another man. 

   While the POWs were at Olongapo, a Japanese officer, Lt. Junsaburo Toshio, told the ranking American officer, Lt. Col. E. Carl Engelhart, that those too badly wounded to continue the trip would be returned to Bilibid.  Fifteen men were selected and loaded onto a truck.  They were taken into the mountains and never seen again.  What was learned was that these men were taken to a cemetery and shot.  They were also buried in the cemetery.  The remainder of the POWs remained on the tennis court.  During this time, they were given water but not fed.
   The POWs remained on the tennis court for nine days.  During their time on the courts, American planes attacked the area around them.  The men watched as the fighter bombers came in vertically releasing bombs as they pulled out of the dives.  On several occasions, the planes dove right at the POWs, dropped their bombs, and pulled out of the dives.  The bombs drifted over the POWs and landed away from them exploding on contact.  
    Since the POWs had no place to hide, they watched and enjoyed the show.  They believed that the pilots knew they were Americans but had no way of knowing if this was true.  But what is known is that not one bomb was dropped on them even though they could be seen from the planes.
    The evening of December 16th, the Japanese brought 50 kilo bags of rice for the POWs to eat.  About half the rice had fallen out of the bags because of holes.   Each POW was given three spoonfuls of raw rice and a spoonful of salt. 
    At about 8:00 AM on the morning of December 22nd, 22 trucks arrived at the tennis court.  Rumors flew on where they were going to be taken.  At about 4:00 PM, a Taiwanese guard told the POWs, in broken English,"No go Cabanatuan. Go Manila; maybe Bilibid."  The guard knew as little as the POWs.
    On December 22nd, the POWs were taken by truck to San Fernando, Pampanga, arriving there about four or five in the afternoon.  Once there, they were put in a movie theater.  Since it was dark, the POWs saw the theater as a dungeon.
    During the time at San Fernando, Pampanga, the POWs lived through several air raids. 
The reason for the air raids was the barrio was military headquarters for the area.  Most of the civilians had been moved out of the barrio.   Many of the Americans began to believe they had been taken there so that they would be killed by their own countrymen.
    On December 23rd, at about 10:00 P.M., the Japanese interpreter spoke to the ranking American officer about moving the POWs.  The Japanese loaded the seriously ill into a truck.  The remaining POWs believed that the POWs in the truck were taken to Bilibid Prison.  Those remaining were moved to a trade school building in the barrio.
    After 10:00 A.M. on December 24th, the POWs were taken to train station. 
The POWs saw that the station had been hit by bombings and that the cars they were boarding had bullet holes in them from strafing.  180 to 200 were packed into steel boxcars with four guards in each boxcar.  The doors of the boxcars were kept closed and the heat in the cars was terrible.  Ten to fifteen POWs rode on the roofs of the cars along with two guards.  The guards told these POWs that it was okay to wave to the American planes.
 
   On December 25th, the POWs disembarked at San Fernando, La Union, at 2:00 AM.  They walked two kilometers to a school yard on the southern outskirts of the barrio.  From December 25th until the 26th, the POWs were held in a school house.  The morning of December 26th, the POWs were marched to a beach.  During this time the prisoners were allowed one handful of rice and a canteen of water.  The heat from the sun was so bad that men drank seawater; Many of those men died.
    Most of the remaining prisoners where boarded onto another "Hell Ship" the Enoura Maru.   On this ship, the POWs were held in three different holds.  The ship had been used to haul cattle.  The POWs were held in the same stalls that the cattle had been held in.  In the lower hold, the POWs were lined up in companies 108 men.  Each man had four feet of space.  Men who attempted to get fresh air by climbing the ladders were shot by the guards.  The remaining POWs were put on the Brazil Maru.
   The daily routine for the POWs on the ship was to have six men climb out of the hold.  Once on deck, they would use ropes to pull up the dead and also pull up the human waste in buckets.  Afterwards, the men on deck would lower ten buckets containing rice, soup, and tea.
    During the night of December 30th, the POWs heard the sound of depth charges exploding in the water.  The ship arrived at Takao, Formosa, on December 31st and docked around 11:30 AM.  After arriving at Takao, each POW received a six inch long, 3/4 inch wide piece hardtack to eat.  This was the first bread they had since receiving crackers in their Red Cross packages in 1942.  During the time in the harbor, the POWs received little water.  From January 1st through the 5th, the POWs received one meal and day and very little water.  This resulted in the death rate among the POWs to rise.  On January 6th, the POWs began to receive two meals a day.
    The Enoura Maru also came under attack by American planes the morning of January 9th.  The POWs were receiving their first meal of the day, when the sound of ship's machine-guns was heard.  The explosions of bombs falling closer and closer to the ship was also heard, while the waves created from the explosions rocked the ship.
    One bomb that hit the ship exploded in the corner of the forward hold killing 285 prisoners.  The surviving POWs remained in the hold for three days with the dead.  The stench from the dead filled the air.   On January 11th a work detail was formed and about half the dead were removed from the hold.  The dead were unloaded from the ship, and a POW detail of twenty men took the corpses to a large furnace where they were cremated.  These men reported that 150 POWs had been cremated.  Their ashes were buried in a large urn on Formosa.  Later in the day, the survivors of the forward hold were moved into another hold.
    About 1000 POWs were transferred to the Brazil Maru on Saturday, January 13th. 
The ship sailed at dawn on the 14th as part of a convoy.  Sometime afternoon, the POWs received their first meal of a quarter cup of red rice for each POW.  The POWs found the first night on the ship was extremely cold.  What made it worse was that most of the POWs had dysentery.   During the trip, the POWs received two meals a day which consisted of each man receiving a third of a cup of rice and eight teaspoons of tea.
    During this part of the trip, as many as 30 POWs died each day.  The ship also towed one or two other ships which had been damaged.  Of the original 1619 men that boarded the Oryoku Maru, only 459 of the POWs had survived the trip to Japan.  After being disembarked, the POWs formed detachments and were marched to the train station.  From there, they road a train to various POW camps along the line.

    Marshall was held as a POW at Fukuoka #1-D where he died on Monday, February 19, 1945, of dysentery and malnutrition.  After his death, his remains were cremated and placed into an urn with those of 98 other POWs who died in the camp.

    After the war, on Tuesday, September 27, 1949, the remains of 2nd Lt. Marshall H. Kennady Jr. were reburied, in Section 82, Site 1B-1D - with the ashes of the other POWs who had died at Fukuoka #1-D - at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri.  He shares his grave with Capt. Donald Hanes of HQ Company, 2nd Lt. Everett Preston of D Company, and 2nd Lt Harry Black of B Company.

    The photo below is of part of the headstone on the grave. 


 

 

 

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