Cpl. Leo H. Dorsey
Cpl. Leo H. Dorsey was born
May 11, 1919, to Hubert and Stella Dorsey of
Syracuse, New York. At some point the family moved
to Janesville, Wisconisn, where he lived, with his
three brothers and two sisters, at 639 Chestnut
Street. During the 1930s, his father died
and his family later lived at 263 Center
Avenue. Leo was educated in Janesville
Public Schools and attended Janesville High
School. While he was a teenager, he
joined the Civilian Conservation Corps.
In December of 1939, Leo enlisted in the
Wisconsin National Guard's 32nd Division Tank
Company in Janesville, Wisconsin. In
November of 1940, Leo was called to federal duty
when the tank company was federalized as A
Company, 192nd Tank Battalion. On November
27th, the company traveled by train to Fort
Knox, Kentucky. He trained at Ft. Knox,
Kentucky, and was transferred to the newly
created Headquarters Company of the 192nd Tank
Battalion in January 1941. His exact
duties with the company are
The battalion spent the next four months
attempting to slow the Japanese conquest of the
Philippines. Like the other men of his
battalion, Leo knew that no reinforcements were
coming to rescue them. He and the other
members of his company worked to keep the tank
of HQ Company remained in their bivouac for two days
until Japanese soldiers arrived and ordered them to
move out to the road that ran past where they were
encamped. After moving out onto the road, they
were ordered to kneel along the shoulders of the
road and place their belongings in front of
them. As they knelt, Japanese soldiers, who
were passing them, went through their
belongings. They remained in the position for
of the company finally boarded their trucks and
drove to an area just outside of Mariveles.
From there they were ordered to Mariveles Airfield
and ordered to sit. They were lest in the sun
for hours without food or water.
As the POWs sat, they saw a group of Japanese soldiers forming in front of them. They soon realized that this was a firing squad. As they sat and watched, a Japanese officer pulled up in a car and got out. He walked up to the sergeant and spoke to him for several minutes. As they watched, the Japanese sergeant ordered the soldiers to disband. The Japanese officer got into his jeep and drove away.
Leo took part in what would become known as the
Bataan Death March. It took Leo three
weeks to complete the march because he was
ill. He recalled that on the march men
were beaten for attempting to get water.
Others were shot or bayoneted if they fell out
and could not continue. He recalled that a Filipino
women risked their lives to give the POWs
food. As the POWs marched by, the women
ran up and gave them raw eggs or water wrapped
in leaves. These women saved the lives of
When Leo finally arrived at Camp O'Donnell, he was put into the hut that passed for a hospital. The next six weeks he spent in the camp hospital suffering from malaria. During this time, his weight dropped to 90 pounds. To get Leo out of the hospital and the camp, Lt. Leroy Scoville got himself and Leo assigned to a work detail. So that Leo would be selected, Scoville and another member of A Company held Leo up under his armpits. Lt. Scoville then helped Leo walk out of the camp to show that he was healthy. The day he went out on this work detail was May 11, 1942, his 23rd birthday.
On the work detail, Leo and the other POWs recovered scrap metal near San Fernando. Members of the two tank battalions were specifically selected for this detail because the Japanese knew they could drive cars. To recover the metal, the POWs worked in teams. The vehicles were tied together by rope and each man drove one vehicle to San Fernando. From there, the vehicles were sent to Manila and taken to Japan. Leo recalled that the Japanese commanding officer of this detail was decent to the POWs. He made sure that they were well fed and that they were not beaten.
When this detail was ended Leo was sent to Cabanatuan. He was not at Cabanatuan long when he was sent to Bilibid Prison outside of Manila in October 1942. At Bilibid, the prisoners were given a physical to determine if they were healthy enough to be sent to Japan. If a man failed, he was kept at the prison.
800 POWs gathered at 2:00 A.M. on October 6th,
and were given rice coffee, lugow rice, and a
big rice ball. After eating and packing
their kits, the POWs marched out of the camp at
2:30 A.M. and received two buns as they marched
through the gate to the barrio of Cabanatuan
which they reached at 6:00 A.M. There, 50
men were boarded onto each of the small wooden
boxcars waiting for them at about 9:00
A.M. The trip to Manila lasted until 4:00
P.M. and because of the heat in the cars, many
POWs passed out.
Upon arriving in Japan, Leo was sent to Tanagawa to build a dry dock. He remained in this camp for two years. In an attempt to get the POWs to work harder, the Japanese offered a food bonus of an onion or rice ball to any POW who loaded fourteen cars of dirt. Leo recalled that many men killed themselves working for the bonus.
It was also at this camp that the POWs refused to load and unload war materials for the Japanese. After several beatings, the Japanese pulled the POWs from the detail. With their success with the munitions in mind, the prisoners decided that they were going to slow construction of the dry dock by slowing the amount of dirt they removed for the dry-dock. Even though they were beaten, the prisoners would not load more than four cars of dirt a day. It should be mentioned that pay for a day's work was about four, U.S., cents a day.
The prisoners also retaliated against the Japanese by committing acts of sabotage. One of the easiest acts of sabotage to commit was to mix the concrete for the dry-dock walls to thin. The POWs would make the concrete soupy and mostly water. They did this so the walls of the dry-dock would start to crumble after it was completed. While in the camp, the POWs received three meals of rice a day. Occasionally, they received a bowl of potato vine soup and other scraps from the guards' food.
When the work was completed, Leo was sent to Osaka #5-B a camp near Tsuruga, Honshu, on the Sea of Japan. The POWs in this camp were used as stevedores unloading foodstuffs from ships that were arriving in Japan from Korea and Manchuria. In this camp, Leo became bunk mates with Emerson McCarter of A Company, and the two men spent the rest of the war together.
While unloading the food from the ships, the prisoners stole food for themselves to supplement their meager rations. An average meal for the POWs was soybean and rice. The POWs carried 100 pound burlap sacks of soybeans. To get extra food, the POWs would tear holes into the bags and drop beans into their pockets. The pockets had holes to allow the beans to fall down their legs and settle in pouches around their ankles. This prevented the Japanese from finding them when they searched the POWs when they returned to camp.
When the Japanese attempted to get the prisoners to unload munitions from ships, Leo and the other prisoners went on strike. Even though they were beaten, the prisoners would not unload the war materials from the ships. The Japanese finally gave in and took the Americans off the detail.
Showing how little respect the Japanese had for the POWs, as part of their diets, the Japanese served barley or burned wheat in place of the rice to the prisoners. The wheat had been in a warehouse fire and determined to be too badly burnt to be given to the Japanese civilians but good enough for the prisoners.
As time went on, Leo became a witness to the bombing of Tsuruga by American planes. The first air raid Leo lived through took place in December 1944. During that month there were twenty air raids. In January 1945, there were even more air raids causing greater destruction.
The prisoners got use to the air raids and did not run for shelter when the air raid siren was sounded. When the siren went off, the prisoners stayed where they were. Only when the short alert was sounded that the bombers were minutes away did they run for cover.
During an air raid, Leo went to the lower floor of the his barracks. Realizing that all his possessions were on the third floor of the barracks, Leo left the floor and attempted to reach his bunk. As he climbed the stairs, the building burst into flames. Leo lost all his clothing except the shoes and shorts he was wearing. He also lost two of his fingers.
In another air raid, Leo did not go to the shelter but watched the bombers. As he watched a Japanese fighter that was attacking the formation of B-29s was hit. Leo watched the plane burst into flames as it fell toward the ground within a mile of the camp.
In July 1945, Leo and other POWs watched a B-29 fly over the camp with its bomb bay doors open. As it went over it dropped a 1000 pound bomb. Leo remembered watching the bomb's 20,000 foot downward trip. As they watched, it appeared that the bomb was going to land on the camp. The bomb hit about two blocks from the camp destroying a power plant. The explosion sent a shock wave and debris flying all over the camp.
1945, Leo and the other prisoners noticed a
change in the attitude of the guards. The
guards who abused the POWs disappeared while
those who had not remained. They turned
their guns over to the POWs who took command of
Leo was sent
back to the Philippines and after recuperation
sent back to the United States by the U.S.A.T.
General R. L. Howze which arrived at San
Francisco on October 16, 1945. After time
in a military hospital, Leo returned to
Janesville. Leo was discharged from the
army on May 29, 1946, but he was again
hospitalized when it was discovered that he was
suffering from tuberculosis. While he was
in the sanitarium, he met Ruby Watters.
The two married on September 8, 1951, and raised
a family of nine children.
Dorsey passed away on February 24, 2003, in
Madison, Wisconsin. He was buried at
Highland Memory Gardens, Cottage Grove,