Pvt. Earl R. Simpson was born on November 27, 1917, to Percy H. Simpson & Myrtle A. Leap-Simpson in Ashland
It is known that he had a twin sister, and that he was called “Ray” by his family and friends.
With his three sisters and six brothers, he grew up in Ashland, Kentucky.
Like many others of the time, he left school after the eighth grade.
He worked as an automobile mechanic.
On August 9, 1939, he married to Wanda Workman and became the father of a daughter.
On January 30, 1941, Ray was inducted into the U.S. Army in Huntington, West Virginia, and was sent to Fort
Knox, Kentucky, for basic training.
After basic training, he was assigned to the 19th Ordnance Battalion as a tank mechanic.
At some point after Ray was assigned there, A Company of the battalion was designated as the 17th Ordnance
Ray became a member of the new unit.
The company trained on the tanks of the 192nd Tank Battalion.
In the late summer of 1941, the decision had been made to build up the American forces in the Philippines.
The company was sent by train to San Francisco and then ferried, on the
U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Cose
to Angel Island, where
the soldiers were given physicals and inoculated.
Any man found unfit for overseas duty was transferred out of the company and replaced.
On September 8, the soldiers board the
S.S. President Calvin Coolidge
which sailed for Hawaii and arrived
there on the September 13; After arriving and the soldiers were given day passes but had to be back on the
ship at 3:00 P.M.
At 5:00 P.M. on the same day, the ship sailed for the Philippines.
The ship was escorted by a cruiser, the
, and an unknown destroyer, on this part of the trip.
The ships also sailed a southerly route to avoid the normal shipping lanes. On several occasions the
cruiser intercepted unknown ships after smoke was spotted on the horizon, but each time the ship belonged to a
friendly country. At 7:00 A.M., the ship arrived at Manila Bay, on September 26, and arrived at Manila later
in the morning. and the soldiers rode buses to Ft. Stotsenburg.
After the ship docked, it was 17th Ordnance job to unload the tanks, of the 194th Tank Battalion, from the
The members of the company had to attach the turrets to the tanks.
They had been removed because the tanks could not fit into the hold with them on the tanks.
The tanks were completed unloaded by 10:00 A.M. the next day
When the members of the company arrived at Ft. Stotsenburg, they found themselves living in tents between the
fort and Clark Airfield.
After they arrived at the fort, they helped the members of the 194th ready their tanks for use.
On December 8, 1941, the tanks of the 194th and the 192nd Tank Battalions were ordered to the perimeter of Clark
Airfield to guard it against Japanese paratroopers.
This was just hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
The members of 17th Ordnance remained in the battalion’s bivouac.
At 12:45 in the afternoon, planes approached the airfield from the north.
When bombs began exploding, the soldiers knew the planes were Japanese.
Ray and the other members of the company took cover since they were not equipped to fight planes.
After the attack, which lasted about 15 minutes, they saw the damage that had been done.
For the next four months, Ray and the other members of 17th Ordnance worked to keep the tanks running.
This. at times, meant that they had to cannibalize tanks that could not be repaired.
The longer the Americans held out, their food rations were cut further.
The night of April 9, 1942, the soldiers heard the order
This meant that the company was to destroy their ammunition and anything that the Japanese could use.
After this was done, the soldiers waited until the Japanese made contact.
When they made contact, Ray and his company were officially Prisoners of War.
It is not known when the Japanese arrived in the bivouac of 17th Ordnance and on what date they made their way
to Mariveles at the southern tip of Bataan.
It is known that the company made its way north toward San Fernando.
The first five miles of the march were uphill which was extremely hard on underfed, sick men.
When the members of the company arrived at San Fernando, they were put into small wooden boxcars that were used
to haul sugarcane.
The cars, known as forty and eights, could hold forty men or eight horses.
The Japanese put 100 POWs into each car which meant they had no room to move.
Those who died remained standing until the living left the cars at Capas.
From Capas, the POWs made their way to Camp O’Donnell.
The camp was an unfinished Filipino training base that was pressed into use as a POW camp on
April 1, 1942. When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese confiscated any extra clothing that the POWs had
and refused to return it to them. They searched the POWs and if a man was found to have Japanese money on
them, they were taken to the guardhouse. Over the next several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of
the camp. These POWs had been executed for looting.
There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two to
eight hours waiting for a drink. The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and the
next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again. This situation
improved when a second faucet was added.
There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing when it
had been soiled. In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the camp and
mess kits could not be washed. The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon overflowing since
most of the POWs had dysentery. The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp including the POW
kitchens and in the food.
The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant. When the ranking American doctor
at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies, he was told
never to write another letter. When the Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the
camp, Tsuneyoshi refused to allow the truck into the camp. When the Japanese Red Cross sent medical supplies
to the camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six medic
assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them. When a representative of the
Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150 bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a
Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to the
hospital and placed underneath it. The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried in the
camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria. To clean the ground under the
hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it. The bodies of the dead were placed in the area,
and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
Work details were sent out on a daily basis. Each day, the American doctors gave a list
of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work. If the quota of POWs needed to work
could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick, but could walk, to work. The death rate among
the POWs reached 50 men dying a day. The Japanese finally acknowledge that they had to do something, so the
opened a new POW camp at Cabanatuan.
On June 1, 1942, the POWs formed detachments of 100 men each and were marched to Capas.
There, the were put in steel boxcars with two Japanese guards. At Calumpit, the train was switched onto
another line which took it to Cabanatuan. The POWs disembarked and were taken to a schoolyard where they were
fed cooked rice and onion soup. From there, they were marched to Cabanatuan which had been the headquarters
of the 91st Philippine Army Division and was known as Camp Panagaian.
The camp was actually three camps. Camp 1 was where the men who captured on Bataan and
taken part in the death march where held. Camp 2 did not have an adequate water supply and was closed.
It later reopened and housed Naval POWs. Camp 3 was where those men captured when Corregidor surrender were
taken. In addition, men from Bataan who had been hospitalized when the surrender came were sent to the
camp. Camp 3 was later consolidated into Camp 1.
Once in the camp, the POWs were allowed to run the camp. The Japanese only entered if
they had an issue they wanted to deal with. To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a detail that patrolled the
fence of the camp. The reason this was done was that those who did escape and were caught, were tortured
before being executed, while the other POWs were made to watch. It is believed that no POW successfully
escaped from the camp.
In the camp, the Japanese instituted the "Blood Brother" rule. If one man escaped the
other nine men in his group would be executed. POWs caught trying to escape were beaten. Those who did
escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed. It is not known if any POW successfully escaped
from the camp.
The barracks in the camp were built to house 50 POWs, but most had between 60 to 120 POWs in
them. The POWs slept on bamboo slats, without mattresses, bedding, or mosquito netting. Many quickly
became ill. The POWs were assigned to barracks which meant that the members of their group lived together,
went out on work details together, and would be executed together since they were Blood Brothers.
The POWs were sent out on work details one was to cut wood for the POW kitchens. The
two major details were the farm detail and the airfield detail which lasted for years. A typical day on any
detail lasted from 7:00 A.M. until 5:00 P.M. The POWs on the farm detail would have to go to a shed
each morning to get tools. As they left the shed, the Japanese guards thought it was great fun to hit them
over their heads.
The detail was under the command of
who spoke very little English. When he wanted the POWs to work faster, he told the POWs
Although he was known to have a temper, the POWs thought he was fair. Another guard was "Little
Speedo" who was smaller and also used the word
when he wanted the POWs to work faster. The POWs also felt he was pretty fair in his treatment of
them. "Smiley" was another guard who always had a smile on his face but could not be trusted. He was
the meanest of the guards and beat men up for no reason. He liked to hit the POWs with the club. Any
prisoner who he believed was not working hard enough got knocked over with it. Any prisoner who he believed
was not working hard enough got knocked over with it. Each morning, after arriving at the farm, the POWs went
into a tool shed to get their tools. As they left the shed, the guards hit them on their heads.
Other POWs worked in rice paddies. While working in the fields, the favorite punishment
given to the men in the rice paddies was to have their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on by a guard to drive
their faces deeper into the mud. Returning from a detail the POWs bought, or were given, medicine, food, and
tobacco, which they somehow managed to get into the camp even though they were searched when they returned.
Rice was the main food given to the POWs fed to them as "lugow" which meant "wet rice."
During their time in the camp, they received few vegetables and almost no fruit. Once in awhile, they
The camp hospital was known as "Zero Ward" because it was missed by the Japanese when they
counted barracks. The sickest POWs were sent there to die. The Japanese put a fence up around the
building to protect themselves, and they would not go into the building. There were two rolls of wooden
platforms around the perimeter of the building. The sickest POWs were put on the lower platform which had
holes cut into it so the they could relieve themselves. Most of those who entered the ward died.
The death rate was still nine men a day into December and dropped once Red Cross Packages were given out at
He remained in the camp until the late 1944.
One day, his name appeared on a list of POWs who were being sent to Bilibid Prison outside of Manila.
On October 14, Ray was sent to Bilibid.
Rumors stated that a detachment of POWs was going to be sent out.
On December 8, a list of names was posted.
These POWs were given physicals.
On December 12, 1944, the POWs heard rumors that a detail was being sent out.
The POWs went through what was a farce of an inspection.
They were told cigarettes, soap, and salt would be issued.
The POWs were also told that they would also receive a meal to eat and one to take with them. At 4:00 a.m.
the morning of December 13, Marshall and the other POWs were awakened and roll call was taken. The Japanese stated
they would leave by 7:00 in the morning, so the lights were left on all night.
Afterwards, the POWs were allowed to roam the prison until they formed detached and were
marched to Pier 7 in Manila. During the march, they could see the damage being done by American planes. Once
there, the POWs were told to sit. Many of the men laid down and slept until they were awakened to board the
ship. About 5:00 PM, the POWs were boarded onto the
The high ranking officers were the first put into the ship's aft hold. Being the first
on meant that they would suffer many deaths. Around the perimeter of the hold were two tiers of bunks for the
POWs. The heat was so bad that men soon began to pass out. One survivor said,
"The fist fights began when men to pass out. We knew that only the front men in bay would be able to
get enough air."
The POWs who were closer to the hold's hatch used anything they could find to fan air toward those
further away from it.
The ship left Manila at 8:00 P.M. but spent most of the night in Manila Bay. At 10:00
P.M., the Japanese interpreter threatened to have the guards fire into the holds unless the POWs stopped
screaming. Some of the POWs fell silent because they were exhausted, and others because they had died.
One major of the 26th Cavalry stated the man next to him had lost his mind. Recalling
the conversation he had with the man he said, "Worst was the man who had gone mad but would not sit still.
One kept pestering me, pushing a mess kit against my chest, saying,
'Have some of this chow? It's good.' I smelled of it, it was not chow. 'All right' he said, 'If
you don't want it. I'm going to eat it.' And a little later I heard him eating it , right beside me."
At 3:30 A.M. it sailed as part of the MATA-37 a convoy bound for Takao, Formosa. The
ships sailed without any lights out of the bay. By the swells in the water, the POWs could tell that the ship
was in open water. The cries for air began as the men lost discipline, so the Japanese threatened to cover
the holds and cut off all air. When the Japanese sent down fried rice, cabbage, and fried seaweed, those
further back from the opening got nothing.
The Japanese covered the holds and would not allow the slop buckets to be taken out of the
holds. Those POWs who were left holding the buckets at first asked for someone else to hold it for
awhile. When that did not work, they dumped the buckets on the men around them.
As light began to enter the hold as morning came, the POWs could see men who were in stupors,
men out of their minds, and men who had died. The POWs in the aft hold which also had a sub-hold, put the
POWs who out of their minds into it.
On the side of the holds, water had condensed on the walls so the POWs tried to scrap it off
the wall for a drink. The Japanese did allow men who had passed out to be put on deck, but as soon as they
revived they went back into the holds. The Japanese would not allow the bodies of the men who had died to be
removed from the holds.
The POWs received their first meal at dawn. Meals on the ship consisted of a little
rice, fish, some water, and three fourths of a cup of water was shared by 20 POWs. It was 8:00 A.M., off the
coast of Luzon, and the POWs had just finished eating breakfast when they heard the sound of guns. At first,
they thought the gun crews were just drilling, because they had not heard any planes. It was only when the
first bomb hit in the water and the ship shook that they knew it was not a drill.
At first it seemed that most of the planes were attacking the other ships in the
convoy. Commander Frank Bridgit, had made his way to the top of the ladder into the hold and sat down.
He gave the POWs a play by play of the planes attacking,
"I can see two planes going for a freighter off our starboard side. Now two more are detached from the
formation. I think they may be coming for us."
The POWs heard the change in the sound of the planes' engines as they began their dives
toward the ships in the convoy. Several more bombs hit the water near the ship causing it to rock
Explosions were taking place all around the ship. In an attempt to protect themselves, the POWs piled baggage
in front of them. Bullets from the planes were ricocheted in the hold causing many casualties. .
Lt. Col. Elvin Barr of the 60th Coast Artillery came up to Maj, John Fowler of the 26th
Cavalry on the cargo deck and said
There's a hole knocked in the bulkheads down there. Between 30 and 40 men have
already died down there."
Barr would never reach Japan. The attack by 30 to 50 planes lasted for about 20 to 30 minutes. When
the planes were ran out of bombs they strafed. Afterwards, the planes flew off, returning to their carrier,
and there was a lull of about 20 to 30 minutes before the next squadron of planes appeared over the ships and
resumed the attack. This pattern repeated itself over and over during the day.
In the hold, the POWs concluded that the attacking planes were concentrating on the bridge of
the ship. They noted that the planes had taken out all the anti-aircraft guns leaving only .30 caliber
machine guns to defend the ship.
At 4:30 P.M., the ship went through the worse attack on it. It was hit at least three
times by bombs on its bridge and stern. Most of the POWs, who were wounded, were wounded by ricocheting
bullets and shrapnel from exploding bombs. During the attack Chaplain Cummings, a Catholic priest, led the
POWs in the Our Father. As they prayed, the bombs that exploded near the ship sent torrents of water over the
Bullets from the planes hit the metal plates, of the haul, at an angle that prevented most of
them from penetrating the haul. Somewhere on the ship a fire started, but it was put out after several
hours. The POWs lived through seven or eight attacks before sunset. Overall, six bombs hit the
ship. One hit the stern of the ship killing many POWs.
At dusk the ship raised anchor and headed east. It turned south and turned again this
time heading west. The next turn it made was north. It headed in this direction for a good amount of time
before dropping anchor at about 8:00 P.M. The POWs figured out that they had just sailed in a circle.
What had happened is that the ship's had been hit during the attack and the ship could not be steered.
Sometime after midnight, the POWs heard the sound of the Japanese civilians being evacuated
from the ship. During the night, the POW medics were ordered onto the deck to treat the Japanese
wounded. One medic recalled that the dead, dying, and wounded were everywhere.
The ship reached Subic Bay at 2:30 in the morning and steamed closer to the beach where its
anchor was dropped. At 4:00 A.M., the POWs were told that they would disembark at daybreak at a pier.
The moaning and muttering of POWs who were losing their minds kept the POWs up all night. That night 25 POWs
died in the hold.
It was December 15 and the POWs sat in the ship's holds for hours after dawn. The first
35 POWs were taken out of the hold and went into the water. At 8:00 A.M. as the other POWs waited, the sound
of A Japanese guard yelled into the hold at the POWs,
"All go home; speedo!"
He shouted that the wounded would be the first to be evacuated.
Suddenly, he looked up and shouted,
"Planes, many planes!"
As the POWs were abandoning ship the planes returned and continued the attack. The ship bounced in the
water from the explosions. Chief Boatswain Clarence M. Taylor who was in the water said,
"I saw the whole thing. A bomb fall, hit near the stern hatch, and debris go flying up in the air."
In the hold, the POWs crowded together. Chips of rust fell on them from the
ceiling. After the raid, they took care of the wounded before the next attack started. In the hold a
Catholic priest, Father Duffy, began to pray,
"Father forgive them. They know not what they do."
The Japanese guards and interpreter had abandoned ship, but the ship's captain remained on
board. He told the POWs - with his limited English - that they needed to get off the ship to safety.
The POWs made their way over the side and into the water. As they swam to shore, the Japanese fired at them,
with machine guns, to prevent them from escaping.
Four of the planes flew low over the water above the POWs. The POWs waved frantically
at the planes so they would not be strafed. The planes banked and flew lower over the POWs. This time
the pilots dipped their wings to show that they knew the men in the water were Americans. About a half hour
later, the ship began to really burn and the bodies of the dead could be seen on the decks.
The Japanese sent out a motorboat with a machine gun and snipers on it. The POWs
attempting to escape were hunted down and shot. It is believed as many as 30 men died in the water.
There was no real beach, so the POWs climbed up on a seawall and found the the Japanese Naval
Landing Party had set up a machine gun and had just laid flat to rest when the gun opened up on them.
Those who came ashore were warned to stay in the water, but only did so when one man climbed up on the seawall and
was wounded. There were also Japanese snipers in wait to shoot anyone who attempted to escape.
The POWs were gathered together and marched to the tennis court at Olongapo Naval Station
which was about 500 yards from the beach. There, they were herded onto a tennis court. The Japanese
packed 1300 of the POWs on the court with 100 wounded POWs taking up a great amount of room at one end. They
could barely sit down and only lay down by lying partially on another man.
It is not known when, but Ray died during the attack on the
. He may have been killed in the ship's hold from ricocheting bullets or from shrapnel from exploding
bombs, or he may have been killed by Japanese fire as he swam to shore. Whatever was the cause of his death,
Pvt. Earl R. Simpson was reported to have died on December 15, 1944, during the sinking of the
at Olongapo, Philippine Islands.
After the war, the name of Pvt. Earl R. Simpson was placed on the Tablets of the Missing at
the American Military Cemetery at Manila.\