Martel

Pvt. Edward Francis Martel


    Pvt. Edward F. Martel was the son of William & Bina Martel.  He was born on February 2, 1919, and grew up at 87 Mall Street in Lynn, Massachusetts.  Ed attended St. Jean Baptist Catholic School and Breed Junior High School.  He attended high school but left during his junior year.

    In 1936, Ed joined the Massachusetts National Guard.  He was a member of the 101st Engineer Battalion for one year.  In 1937, Ed transferred into the regular army and was assigned to the 66th Infantry.  This unit trained in light tanks and Ed trained as a tank driver.  During this time, Ed was stationed at Fort Devens in Ayer, Massachusetts.

    In 1939, Ed was reassigned to Ft. Benning, Georgia.  There he trained in medium tanks.  The unit he was in was reassigned to Camp Polk, Louisiana, in 1941.  During this time Ed rose in rank from private to sergeant.  

    In the fall of 1941, after taking part in maneuvers in Louisiana, the 192nd Tank Battalion received orders to be sent overseas.  Those National Guardsmen 29 years old or older were allowed to resign from federal duty.  After this had been done, replacements were sought to fill out the battalion's roster.  

    Although volunteering to join the 192nd meant that Ed would lose his rank and be busted to private, Ed volunteered to be transferred to the 192nd.  He did this so that he had the opportunity to go overseas.

    Once Ed became a member of the 192nd, he was assigned to C Company as a tank driver.  Ed became a member of the tank crew of Sgt. Kenneth Thompson.  He and the other members of his new company were sent to San Francisco by train and ferried to Angel Island.  They were given physicals and boarded a transport for the Philippine Islands.
    The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed from San Francisco on Monday, October 27th, for Hawaii as part of a three ship convoy.  They arrived at Honolulu on Sunday, November 2nd.  The soldiers were given leaves so they could see the island.  On Tuesday, November 4th, the ships sailed for Guam.
    At one point, the ships passed an island at night.  While they passed the island, they did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  When they arrived at Guam, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables.  The ships sailed the same day for Manila and entered Manila Bay on Thursday, November 20th.  They docked at Pier 7 and the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg. 

    They were greeted by Gen. Edward King, who apologized that they had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Field.  He made sure that they all received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own.  Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
    For the next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their weapons.  The grease was put on the weapons to protect them from rust while at sea.  They also loaded ammunition belts and did tank maintenance.

    The tanks were ordered to the perimeter of the Clark Field to guard against Japanese paratroopers on December 1st to guard against paratroopers.  Two members of each tank remained with their tank at all times.  The morning of December 8, 1941, Ed and the other men heard the news of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.  They were ordered to move their tanks to the perimeter of the airfield to prevent the Japanese from using paratroopers.  That morning, every available American plane was in the air to prevent another Pearl Harbor.

    Around noon every American plane landed and their pilots went to lunch.  Around 12:45, the tankers were having lunch when they saw formations of planes approaching the airfield.  At first they believed that the planes were American, it was only when they heard the sound of bombs falling that they knew the planes were Japanese.  The attack literally wiped out the American Army Air Corps.

    After the attack, Ed saw the carnage from the attack.  His unit remained on alert around Clark Field.  On December 21st, the Japanese began landing troops at Lingayen Gulf, C Company was ordered north in support of B Company.   Ed recalled that the tanks dodged Japanese bombers on their trek north.

    Arriving in the foothills just north and west of Bagio, Ed witnessed the destruction of the 26th U. S. Cavalry.  The tankers drove passed carcasses of dead horses.  As they passed, they also saw the bodies of the dead Filipino Scouts who had rode the horses.

    When the tanks reached Lingayen Gulf, Ed recalled looking out onto the water and seeing more ships than he could have ever imagined.  The tankers realized that there was no possible way to stop the Japanese on the beaches, so they made an orderly retreat toward Manila.

    On December 23rd and 24th, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta.   The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of river.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening.  They successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25th, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27th.
    The tankers were fell back toward Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27th, and December were at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan on December 28th and 29th.  While there, the bridge over the Pampanga River was destroyed, they were able find a crossing over the river.     
    At Cabu, seven tanks of the company fought a three hour battle with the Japanese.  The main Japanese line was south of Saint Rosa Bridge ten miles to the south of the battle.
  The tanks were hidden in brush as Japanese troops passed them for three hours without knowing that they were there.  While the troops passed, Lt. William Gentry was on his radio describing what he was seeing.  It was only when a Japanese soldier tried take a short cut through the brush, that his tank was hidden in, that the tanks were discovered.  The tanks turned on their sirens and opened up on the Japanese.  They then fell back to Cabanatuan.           
    C Company was re-supplied and withdrew to Baluiag where the tanks encountered Japanese troops and ten tanks.  It was at Baluiag that Gentry's tanks won the first tank victory of World War II against enemy tanks.       

    After this battle, C Company made its way south.  When it entered Cabanatuan, it found the barrio filled with Japanese guns and other equipment.  The tank company destroyed as much of the equipment as it could before proceeding south.

    On December 31, 1941,  Company was sent out reconnaissance patrols north of the town of Baluiag.  The patrols ran into Japanese patrols, which told the Americans that the Japanese were on their way.  Knowing that the railroad bridge was the only way into the town and to cross the river, Lt. Gentry set up his defenses in view of the bridge and the rice patty it crossed. 

    Early on the morning of the 31st, the Japanese began moving troops and across the bridge.  The engineers came next and put down planking for tanks.  A little before noon Japanese tanks began crossing the bridge.  

    Later that day, the Japanese had assembled a large number of troops in the rice field on the northern edge of the town.  One platoon of tanks under the command of 2nd Lt. Marshall Kennady were to the southeast of the bridge.   Gentry's tanks were to the south of the bridge in huts, while third platoon commanded by Capt Harold Collins was to the south on the road leading out of Baluiag2nd Lt. Everett Preston had been sent south to find a bridge to cross to attack the Japanese from behind.  

    Major Morley came riding in his jeep into Baluiag.  He stopped in front of a hut and was spotted by the Japanese who had lookouts in the town's church's steeple.  The guard became very excited so Morley, not wanting to give away the tanks positions, got into his jeep and drove off.  Bill had told him that his tanks would hold their fire until he was safely out of the village.

    When Gentry felt the Morley was out of danger, he ordered his tanks to open up on the Japanese tanks at the end of the bridge.  The tanks then came smashing through the huts' walls and drove the Japanese in the direction of Lt. Marshall Kennady's tanks.  Kennady had been radioed and was waiting.

    Kennady's platoon held its fire until the Japanese were in view of his platoon and then joined in the hunt.  The Americans chased the tanks up and down the streets of the village, through buildings and under them.  By the time Bill's unit was ordered to disengage from the enemy, they had knocked out at least eight enemy tanks. 

    During the withdraw into the peninsula, the company crossed over the last bridge which was mined and about to be blown.  The 192nd held its position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leap frog past it and then cover the 192nd's withdraw. The 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan.
    Over the next several months, the battalion fought battle after battle with tanks that were not designed for jungle warfare.  The tank battalions , on January 28th, were given the job of protecting the beaches.  The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast.  The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.  
    C Company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets to wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind the main defensive line.  The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket.  Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the pocket.
    To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used.  The first was to have three Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank.  As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole.  Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually exploded.
    The other method to use to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over the foxhole.  The driver gave the other track power resulting with the tank spinning around and grinding its way down into the foxhole.  The second method was simple.  The tank was parked with one track across the foxhole.   The driver spun the tank on one track.  The tank dug into the dirt until the Japanese soldiers were dead. 

The tankers slept upwind of their tanks.

    As Ed and the other members of Company C withdrew toward Bataan, they received orders to go to kilometer post 101 on the west coast of Bataan.  This order placed the company about 40 miles north of Mariveles.  Their orders were to prevent the Japanese from landing troops behind the main defensive battle line.

    It was while on this duty that Ed took part in what became known as "The Battle of the Pockets".  At night, the Japanese landed Marines behind the main line of defense.  Their plan was for the Marines to fight their way north toward the main battle line.  Instead, the Japanese were cut off from reinforcements.

    A few nights later, in an attempt to reinforce the first group of Marines, the Japanese landed Marines a second time.  Since this second group of Japanese Marines was landed in the wrong place, a second pocket was created.

    In attempt to wipe out these pockets, C Company tanks with tanks from B Company were sent to the pockets.  The Japanese had dug themselves in and were almost impossible to flush out.

    Lt. John Hay, of C Company, came up with the idea of driving the tanks over the Japanese foxholes.  On the back of each tank, were soldiers with a bag of hand grenades.  Since the Japanese dove back into their foxholes when the tanks approached, the soldiers sitting on the tanks dropped grenades into the Japanese foxholes as the tanks drove over them.  This tactic wiped out the two pockets

    Ed also recalled that during this operation, that one of the tanks of C Company was knocked out when a magnetic mine was attached to it.  The crew was trapped inside the tank.  When they did not surrender, the Japanese filled the tank with dirt through the viewing ports suffocating the crew

    Since the tank could be used for spear parts for the other tanks, the tankers had to recover it.  Ed remembered that those tankers attempting to recover the tank came under sniper fire.  The sniper fire resulted in the death of at least one member of B Company.

    Word came down to Ed and the rest of C Company of the surrender.  They were given instructions to destroy their tanks when they heard the order "crash".  When the order was given, most of the tanks were destroyed.
   
    On April 7, 1942, the Japanese broke through the east side of the main defensive line on Bataan.  C Company was pulled out of their position along the west side of the line.  They were ordered to reinforce the eastern portion of the line.  Traveling south to Mariveles, the tankers started up the eastern road but were unable to reach their assigned area due to the roads being blocked by retreating Filipino and American forces.

    Two days later on April 9, 1942, Bataan was officially surrendered to the Japanese.  Ed was now a Prisoner of War.  After receiving orders from the Japanese to move to Mariveles, C Company was allowed to ride trucks to the barrio.

    In Mariveles, the company lined up in a field facing Corregidor.  As they stood there, the Japanese searched them for what they called contraband.  This included guns, knives, jewelry, other valuables, money, watches, and whatever else that the Japanese wanted to take.

Ed and the other men were organized into groups of 100 POWs.  Japanese officers walked among the prisoners looking for Filipinos.  The officers pulled the Filipinos out of the group and shot them in their temples.  After they fell to the ground, the Japanese kicked their bodies into the ditches alongside the road.

    The POWs were ordered to form 100 men detachments.  Once this was done, they were marched to the train station in San Fernando and put into a small wooden boxcars used to haul sugarcane.  The cars could hold forty men or eight horses, but the Japanese packed 100 men into each car.  Those who died remained standing - since they could not fall to the floor - until the living climbed out of the cars at Capas.  From Capas, they walked the last miles to Camp O' Donnell.    
    The camp was an unfinished Filipino training base which the Japanese pressed the camp into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942.  When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese confiscated any extra clothing that the POWs had and refused to return it to them.  They searched the POWs and if a man was found to have Japanese money on them, they were taken to the guardhouse.  Over the next several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of the camp.  These POWs had been executed for looting.
    There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two to eight hours waiting for a drink.  The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and the next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again.  This situation improved when a second faucet was added.
    There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing when it had been soiled.  In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the camp and mess kits could not be washed.  The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon overflowing since most of the POWs had dysentery.  The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp including the POW kitchens and in the food.
    The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant.  When the ranking American doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies, he was told never to write another letter.  When the Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the camp, Tsuneyoshi refused to allow the truck into the camp.  When the Japanese Red Cross sent medical supplies to the camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
    The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them.  When a representative of the Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150 bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a Japanese lieutenant.
    Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to the hospital and placed underneath it.  The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried in the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria.  To clean the ground under the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it.  The bodies of the dead were placed in the area, and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
    Work details were sent out on a daily basis.  Each day, the American doctors gave a list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work.  If the quota of POWs needed to work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick, but could walk, to work.  The death rate among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day.

    Ed recalled that by the time he and the other men reached Camp O'Donnell, that they were sick.  At least half of the POWs had yellow jaundice, malaria, beriberi, scurvy, Dengue fever and dysentery.  The situation there was so bad that he volunteered to go out on a work detail.

    The detail Ed was put on was to collect scrap-metal that would be sent to Japan.   He estimated that there were as many as 150 POWs on the detail.  The POWs were driven in trucks to a Catholic girls' school and put up in a dormitory at San Fernando.  The prisoners were then taken to Bataan where they towed vehicles to the Sam Miguel Brewery outside of Manila and back to San Fernando.

    In September, the detail ended and Ed was sent to Cabanatuan, which had opened because of the conditions at Camp O'Donnell.  Cabanatuan had been the headquarters of the 91st Philippine Army Division and had been known as Camp Panagaian.  The camp was actually three camps.  Camp 1 was where the men who captured on Bataan and taken part in the death march where held.  Camp 2 did not have an adequate water supply and was closed.  It later reopened and housed Naval POWs.  Camp 3 was where those men captured when Corregidor surrender were taken.  In addition, men from Bataan who had been hospitalized when the surrender came were sent to the camp.  Camp 3 was later consolidated into Camp 1.
    Once in the camp, the POWs were allowed to run the camp.  The Japanese only entered if they had an issue they wanted to deal with.  To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a detail that patrolled the fence of the camp.  The reason this was done was that those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed, while the other POWs were made to watch.  It is believed that no POW successfully escaped from the camp.
    In the camp, the Japanese instituted the "Blood Brother" rule.  If one man escaped the other nine men in his group would be executed.  POWs caught trying to escape were beaten.  Those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed.  It is not known if any POW successfully escaped from the camp.
    The barracks in the camp were built to house 50 POWs, but most had between 60 to 120 POWs in them.  The POWs slept on bamboo slats, without mattresses, bedding, or mosquito netting.  Many quickly became ill.  The POWs were assigned to barracks which meant that the members of their group lived together, went out on work details together, and would be executed together since they were Blood Brothers.
    The POWs were sent out on work details one was to cut wood for the POW kitchens.  The two major details were the farm detail and the airfield detail which lasted for years.  A typical day on any detail lasted from 7:00 A.M. until  5:00 P.M.  The POWs on the farm detail would have to go to a shed each morning to get tools.  As they left the shed, the Japanese guards thought it was great fun to hit them over their heads.
    The detail was under the command of "Big Speedo" who spoke very little English.  When he wanted the POWs to work faster, he told the POWs "speedo."  Although he was known to have a temper, the POWs thought he was fair.  Another guard was "Little Speedo" who was smaller and also used "speedo" when he wanted the POWs to work faster.  The POWs also felt he was pretty fair in his treatment of them.  "Smiley" was another guard who always had a smile on his face but could not be trusted.  He was the meanest of the guards and beat men up for no reason.  There was one Japanese sergeant who carried a club.  This sergeant liked to hit the POWs with the club.  Any prisoner who he believed was not working hard enough got knocked over with it.  Any prisoner who he believed was not working hard enough got knocked over with it.  A typical day on any detail lasted from 7:00 A.M. until  5:00 P.M. 
    Rice was the main food given to the POWs fed to them as "lugow" which meant "wet rice."  During their time in the camp, they received few vegetables and almost no fruit.  Once in awhile, they received bread.
    The camp hospital was known as "Zero Ward" because it was missed by the Japanese when they counted barracks.  The sickest POWs were sent there to die.  The Japanese put a fence up around the building to protect themselves, and they would not go into the building.  There were two rolls of wooden platforms around the perimeter of the building.  The sickest POWs were put on the lower platform which had holes cut into it so the they could relieve themselves.  Most of those who entered the ward died.
    The POWs had the job of burying the dead.  To do this, they worked in teams of four men.  Each team carried a litter of four to six dead men to the cemetery where they were buried in graves containing 15 to 20 bodies.

    He remained in the camp for one year.  During this time he was often so sick that he came close to dying.  He was admitted to the camp hospital on February 1, 1943.  Records kept at the camp do not give a reason why he was admitted or when he was discharged.

    Ed stated that he and the other prisoners knew how the war was going from POWs coming in from work details.  The Filipino people would tell these men the news from that they heard from American radio broadcasts, and the POWs would share it with the men in the camp.

    In July of 1944, Ed was selected for transport to Japan.  He was taken to Bilibid Prison and stayed there for two weeks before being taken to the Port Area of Manila and boarded onto the Canadian Inventor.  As the POWs were boarding the ship Ed and other men witnessed a commercial Japanese shop blow up in the harbor.  They were delighted.  The ship sailed for Japan on July 4th.  During the trip, the ship stopped and Takao and Keelung on Formosa.  It next sailed for Okinawa and docked at Naha.  The ship finally arrived at Moji on September 1st.

    After arriving in Japan, Ed was sent to Fukuoka #17.  The barracks for the POWs at the camp were 20 feet wide by 120 feet long.  Each one was divided into ten rooms which were shared by four to six POWs each.  
    The POWs worked in a condemned coal mine.  They worked bent over since they were taller than the average Japanese miner.  At the mine, each prisoner was expected to load three cars of coal a day.  The POWs worked 12 hour work days in areas of the mine which had cracks in the ceiling indicating a cave-in might take place.  One was known as the "hotbox" because of its temperatures.  To get out of working, the POWs would intentionally have their arms broken by another POW.
    Daily meals consisted of seven spoonfuls of water and one fourth a cup of very poor quality watery rice a day.  To supplement their diets, the prisoners also ate dog meat, radishes, potato greens and seaweed.  To get a meal, when entering the food line, the POWs had to shout out there number, in Japanese, and another man would put a nail in a hole opposite the man's number on a board.  The nails remained in the board until all the POWs had been fed.
    Corporal punishment was an everyday occurrence at the camp.  The guards beat the POWs for slightest reason and continued until the POW was unconscious.  The man was then taken to the guardhouse and put in solitary confinement without food or water for a long period of time.
    On one occasion in November 1944, shirts had been stolen from a bundle, sent by the British Red Cross, from a building.  The Japanese ordered all the POWs to assemble and told them that they would not be fed until the shirts were returned.  The men who stole the shirts returned the shirts anonymously, and the POWs received their meal at 10:00 P.M.
    During the winter, the POWs, being punished, were made to stand at attention and had water thrown on them as they stood in the cold, or they were forced to knee on bamboo poles.  It is known that the POWs were made to stand in water and shocked with electrical current.  At some point, two POWs were tied to a post and left to die.  This was done they had violated a camp rule.
    Life at Fukuoka #17 was hard and there were prisoners who would steal from other prisoners, especially clothing.  To prevent this from happening, the POWs would "buddy up" with each other.  While one man was working in the mine, the POW who was not working would watch the possessions of the other man.
 
    In his opinion, he and other prisoners were "Rip Van Wrinkles" because they had no news of how the war was going.
  One of the few times they received news was when one of the Japanese guards told them that they were "chesa" or "small" while the new Americans were "oke" or "big."  They were delighted to hear this because this meant that the American forces were close.
    In addition, the sick were forced to work.  The Japanese camp doctor allowed the sick, who could walk, to be sent into the mine.  Men who had one good arm were made to lift heavy loads.   He also took the Red Cross medical supplies meant for the POWs for his own use and failed to provide adequate medical treatment.  Food that came in the packages was eaten by the guards.
    During his time at the camp, he suffered from beriberi.  While he was there, the camp was hit by bombs from American planes.  The American section of the camp was badly damaged, so they moved in with the British and Dutch POWs.
    On August 9, 1945, some of the POWs saw the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki.  Those who saw it described that it was a sunny day and that the explosion still lit up the sky.  The pillar of smoke that rose from the bomb was described as having all the colors of the rainbow.  Afterwards, the POWs saw what they described as a fog blanketing Nagasaki which seemed to have vanished.
    The POWs went to work and talked to the Japanese civilians who spoke about how those, who had survived the blast, would touch their heads and pull out their hair.  They stated these Japanese died within days.  They also told of how they heard about a detachment of Japanese soldiers sent into Nagasaki to recover victims and how its members suffered the same fate.
   When the POWs came out of the mine, they found that the next shift of POWs was not waiting to go to work.  That night, the POWs were made to stand at attention for two hours.  They all had their blankets because they believed they were going to be moved.  Instead, they were returned to their barracks.  The next day, when it was their turn to go to work, they were told it was a holiday, and they had the day off.  They knew something was up because they had never had a holiday off before this.
    Finally, the POWs were gathered in the camp and told that Japan and the United States were now friends.  They were also told to stay in the camp.  They also found a warehouse with Red Cross packages and distributed the packages to the camp.  One day, George Weller, a reporter for the Chicago Daily News entered the camp.  He told the POWs that there were American troops on Honshu.  The camp was liberated on September 13, by a POW Recovery Team and on September 18, at 7:09 A.M., the POWs left the camp and were taken to the Dejima Docks at Nagasaki, where they boarded a ship and were returned to the Philippines.

    Sometime around August 15, 1945, the guards left the camp.  Some of the able bodied POWs took off for Prince Kanoe Airport.  Ed and the other weaker POWs remained in the camp receiving food by air drops made by B-52 bombers.

    Ed and the other POWs were later trucked to Nagasaki and taken aboard a hospital ship.  From there, Ed got a ride on an aircraft carrier to Guam and back to the Philippines.  He stayed in the Philippines for four weeks eating and receiving medication.

    When Ed was declared healthy, he was put on the U.S.S.Marine Shark which arrived at San Francisco on November 1, 1945.  He took a train to Ft. Devens, Massachusetts and with a 104 day recuperation leave.  Ed reenlisted and received an additional 90 day reenlistment leave.

    In September 1945, Ed reported for active duty, this time as a member of the Army Air Corps.  He remained in the military and completed 24 years of active duty.  He retired as a staff sergeant at age 62 in March 1981.  

    After his retirement Ed lived in North Chicago, Illinois.  He later resided in Kenosha, Wisconsin, with his wife, the former Doris Donahue, and daughter.  As Ed looked back on his life, he was amazed that he had lived so many years beyond the experiences of a 23 year old who had lived the life of a Japanese POW. 

    Edward Martel passed away on August 14, 2008.  He was buried at Sunset Ridge Memorial Park in Kenosha, Wisconsin.


 

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