Lt. Harvey A. Jennings was born on June 1, 1913, to Sanford E. Jennings & Carrie Belle
With his brother, he grew up at 175 Jefferson Pike in Union, Ohio.
It is known he attended college for two years.
In 1940, he was living at 1356 Summit Street in Columbus, Ohio, with his parents, and working as a general
Harvey was inducted into the U.S. Army at Fort Hayes in Columbus in 1941.
He was sent to Ft. Knox, Kentucky, and did his basic training.
He was assigned to C Company, 192
Tank Battalion, after completing his training.
During his time with the company, he rose in rank from private to sergeant.
A typical day started at 6:15 A.M. with reveille, but most of the soldiers were already up
so they could wash, dress, and be on time for assembly. Breakfast was from 7 to 8 A.M. which was followed
buy calisthenics from 8 to 8:30. After this, the remainder of the morning dealt with .30 and .50 caliber
machine guns, pistols, map reading, care of personal equipment, military courtesy, and training in military
At 11:30, the tankers got ready for lunch, which was from noon to 1:00 P.M., when they went
back to work by attending the various schools. At 4:30, the tankers day ended and retreat was at 5:00 P.M.
followed by evening meal at 5:30. The day ended at 9:00 P.M. with lights out, but they did not have to be
in bed until 10:00 P.M. when taps was played.
In the late summer of 1941, the battalion was sent to Louisiana where it took part in maneuvers from September
1 through 30.
It was after the maneuvers, that the battalion was ordered to Camp Polk, Louisiana, instead of returning to
Ft. Knox. It was on the side of a hill, the members of the battalion learned that they were being sent
The move was known as â€œPLUM.â€
Within hours, many of the members of the battalion had figured out they were going to the Philippine
The decision for this move - which had been made in August 1941 - was the result of
an event that took place in the summer of 1941. A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen
Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something
odd. He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the
distance. He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the
direction of an Japanese occupied island which was hundred of miles away. The island had a large radio
transmitter. The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day. The next day, when
another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its deck -
which was seen making its way to shore. Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult,
the boat escaped. It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in
Before traveling west by train, the battalion was issued M3 tanks which came from the 753rd Tank
It was also at this time, that many of the members of the battalion were given leaves home to say their
goodbyes to family and friends.
The battalion traveled by train to Ft. Mason in San Francisco,
California, where they ferried to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island on the
U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe. On the island, they received inoculations and physicals from the
battalion's medical detachment. Those members of the battalion who were found to have treatable medical
conditions were held back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date, while some men were simply
The 192nd was boarded onto the
U.S. A. T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27. During this part of the trip, many of the
tankers suffered from seasickness. Once they recovered, they spent their time breaking down machine guns,
cleaning weapons, and doing KP. The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2 and had a two
day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
On Wednesday, November 5, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from
the main shipping lanes. It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the
U.S.S. Louisville and, another transport, the
S. S. President Calvin Coolidge. Sunday night, November 9, the soldiers went to bed and when they
awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11. During the night, while they slept, the ships had
crossed the International Dateline. On Saturday, November 15, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the
horizon. The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the
direction of the smoke. It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16, the ships took on water, bananas,
coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day. At one point, the ships passed an island
at night and did so in total blackout. This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent
into harm's way. The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20, and docked at
Pier 7 later that morning. At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.
Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to
unload the tanks.
After arriving in the Philippines, the tankers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.
When they arrived at the fort, Gen. Edward King greeted them and made sure they had what they needed.
He also apologized that they had to live in tents because their were no barracks for them. He made sure
that they had Thanksgiving dinner before he had his dinner.
The first week of December, 1941, the tankers were ordered to Clark Field to assigned
locations. At all times, two members of each tank crew or half-track crew had to remain with their tank or
On the morning of December 8, 1941, the members of B Company were informed of the Japanese
attack on Clark Field. His tank and the others were sent to the perimeter of the airfield to guard against
All morning, the sky was filled with American planes.
At noon, the planes landed and their pilots went to lunch.
The members of the tank crews each sent one member to get their lunches.
At 12:45, while the tank crews were eating, they watched as planes approached the airfield from the north.
When bombs began exploding, they knew the planes were Japanese.
Since the tanks had orders not to fire on the planes and not equipped to fight planes, the crews just watched
as the attack took place.
After the attack, the tank crews saw the damage done to the airfield.
The 192nd remained at Clark Field until December 14. They then moved to a dry stream
bed. The battalion was ordered north on December 21 to oppose Japanese landings at Lingayen
On December 23 and 24, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta. The bridge
they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of
river. As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening. They successfully
crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
On December 25, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from
Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held
the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27.
The tankers were fell back toward Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27th, and
December were at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan on December 28 and 29. While there, the bridge over the
Pampanga River was destroyed, they were able find a crossing over the river.
During the withdraw into the peninsula, the company crossed over the last bridge which was
mined and about to be blown. The 192nd held its position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leap frog
past it and then cover the 192nd's withdraw. The 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan.
Over the next several months, the battalion fought battle after battle with tanks that were
not designed for jungle warfare. The tank battalions, on January 28, were given the job of protecting the
beaches. The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east
coast. The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting
C Company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets
- from January 2
3 to February 17 - to wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped
behind the main defensive line. The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the
pocket. Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the pocket. Doing this was so
stressful that each tank company was rotated out and replaced by one that was being held in reserve.
To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used. The first was to have three
Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank. As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos
dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole. Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually
The other method to use to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over
the foxhole. The driver gave the other track power resulting with the tank spinning around and grinding
its way down into the foxhole. The tankers slept upwind of their tanks.
While the tanks were doing this job, the Japanese sent soldiers, with cans of
gasoline, against the tanks. These Japanese attempted to jump onto the tanks, pour gasoline into the
vents on the back of the tanks, and set the tanks on fire. If the tankers could not machine gun the
Japanese before they got to a tank, the other tanks would shoot them as they stood on a tank. The tankers
did not like to do this because of what it did to the crew inside the tank. When the bullets hit the
tank, its rivets would pop and wound the men inside the tank. It was for their performance during this
battle that the 192nd Tank Battalion would receive one of its Distinguished Unit Citations.
Since the stress on the crews was tremendous, the tanks rotated into the pocket one at
a time. A tank entered the pocket and the next tank waited for the tank that had been relieved to exit
the pocket before it would enter. This was repeated until all the tanks in the pocket were relieved.
What made this job so hard was that the Japanese dug "spider holes" among
the roots the trees. Because of this situation, the Americans could not get a good shot at the
The tankers, from A, B, and C Companies, were able to clear the pockets. But
before this was done, one C Company tank which had gone beyond the American perimeter was disabled and the tank
just sat there. When the sun came up the next day, the tank was still sitting there. During the
night, its crew was buried alive, inside the tank, by the Japanese. When the Japanese had been wiped out,
the tank was turned upside down to remove the dirt and recover the bodies of the crew. The tank was put
back into use.
The company also took part in the Battle of the Points on the west coast of
Bataan. The Japanese landed troops but ended up trapped. One was the Lapay-Longoskawayan points
from January 23 to 29, the Quinawan-Aglaloma points from January 22 to February 8, and the Sililam-Anyasan
points from January 27 to February 13. The defenders successfully eliminated the points by driving their
tanks along the Japanese defensive line and firing their machine guns. The 45th Infantry, Philippine
Scouts followed the tanks eliminating any resistance and driving the Japanese Marines over the edge of the
cliffs where they hid in caves. The tanks fired into the caves killing or forcing them out of them into
Sometime in February 1942, Harvey resigned, as an enlisted man, and reenlisted as a second lieutenant.
He was also transferred from C Company to B Company.
With B Company, he was made the commanding officer of the 2
The company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets. The
Japanese offensive had been stopped and two groups of Japanese soldiers were trapped behind the main line of
defense. The tanks were sent in to help eliminate the pockets. The tanks would enter the pocket
one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket. Another tank did not enter the pocket until the tank, which
had been relieved, had left the pocket.
To wipe out the Japanese two methods were employed. The first method was to have
three Filipino soldiers sit on the back of the tanks with sacks of hand grenades. When the Japanese dove
back into their foxholes, the tank would go over it and the soldiers would drop three hand grenades into the
foxhole. Since the ordnance was from World War I, one out of three hand grenades would usually explode.
The second method was simple. The tank was parked with one track across the
foxhole. The driver gave power to the opposite track and spun the tank dragging the other track. The
tank dug into the dirt until the Japanese soldiers were dead.
The soldiers were hungry and began to eat everything they could get their hands on to
eat. The Carabao were tough but if they were cooked long enough they could be eaten. They also began
to eat horse meat provided by the 26th U. S. Cavalry. To make things worse, the soldiers' rations were
cut in half again on March 1, 1942. This meant that they only ate two meals a day.
The Japanese also were dropping surrender leaflets with a scantly clad blond on
them. The Japanese would have been more successful at getting the Americans to surrender if the picture had
been hamburger, since the men were so hungry that they most likely would have surrendered for a good
During the Battle of the Points, on March 2 and 3, the tanks were sent in to wipe out
Japanese troops that had broken through the main defensive line and than trapped behind the line after the
Filipino and American troops pushed the Japanese back toward the sea and wiped out the pockets.
On April 3, 1942, the Japanese launched a attack supported by artillery and
aircraft. A large force of Japanese troops came over Mount Samat and descended down the south face of the
volcano. This attack wiped out two divisions of defenders and left a large area of the defensive line open
to the Japanese. By this point, the tankers knew that there was no help on the way. Many had listened
to Secretary of War Harry L. Stimson on short wave. When asked about the Philippines, he said
, "There are times when men must die."
The soldiers cursed in response because they knew that the Philippines had already been lost.
It was at this time that Gen. King decided that further resistance was futile.
Approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight, and he estimated they would last one more day.
In addition, he had over 6,000 troops who sick or wounded and 40,000 civilians who he feared would be
massacred. At 10:30 that night, he sent his staff officers to negotiate surrender terms.
Tank battalion commanders received this order
, "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy
within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat
vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as
On April 9, 1942, Harvey became a Prisoner of War when Bataan was surrendered to the Japanese.
The tankers circle their tanks, opened up the gasoline cocks in the tanks, and threw hand grenades into each
They then waited for the Japanese.
When the Japanese made contact, the tankers were made to move to Mariveles.
It was from this barrio at the southern tip of Bataan that Harvey started the death march.
The soldiers who were already weak from undernourishment and suffering from disease, had to walk to San
At one point the soldiers had to run past guns firing on Corregidor which had not surrendered.
At San Fernando the POWs were put in a bullpen.
In one corner, there was a pit for the POWs to use to relieve themselves.
The top of the pit was covered in maggots.
From the pen, the POWs were marched to the train station.
Once there, they were packed into small wooden boxcars used to haul sugarcane.
The cars could hold forty men or eight horses.
The Japanese put 100 POWs into each car.
Those who died remained standing until the living left the cars at Capas and walked the last miles to Camp
The camp was an unfinished Filipino Army training base that the Japanese pressed into
use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942. When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese confiscated any extra
clothing that the POWs had and refused to return it to them. They searched the POWs and if a man was found
to have Japanese money on them, they were taken to the guardhouse. Over the next several days, gunshots
were heard to the southeast of the camp. These POWs had been executed for looting.
There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two to
eight hours waiting for a drink. The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and the
next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again. This situation
improved when a second faucet was added.
There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing when
it had been soiled. In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the camp
and mess kits could not be washed. The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon overflowing
since most of the POWs had dysentery. The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp including the
POW kitchens and in the food.
The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant. When the ranking American
doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies, he
was told never to write another letter. Tsuneyoshi also told the doctor that the only thing he wanted to
know about the Americans was their names and serial numbers when they died.
The Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the camp, the Japanese
commandant refused to allow the truck into the camp. When the Japanese Red Cross sent medical supplies the
camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six
medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them. When a representative of the
Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150 bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a
Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to
the hospital and placed underneath it. The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried
in the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria. To clean the ground
under the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it. The bodies of the dead were placed
in the area, and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
Work details were sent out on a daily basis. Each day, the American doctors gave a
list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work. If the quota of POWs needed to
work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick, but could walk, to work. The death rate
among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day.
The burial detail would carry the dead to the cemetery and put the corpse in the grave.
Since the water table was high, so that it could be covered with dirt, one POW held the body down with a pole
while dirt was thrown on the corpse. The next day when the burial detail returned to the cemetery, the dead
often were dug up by wild dogs or sitting up in their graves.
On June 1, 1942, the POWs formed detachments of 100 men each and were marched to
Capas. There, the were put in steel boxcars with two Japanese guards. The trip was not as bad since
the POWs had more room in the boxcars. At Calumpit, the train was switched onto another line which took it
to Cabanatuan. The POWs disembarked and were taken to a schoolyard where they were fed cooked rice and
onion soup. From there, they were marched to Cabanatuan which had been the headquarters of the 91st
Philippine Army Division and was formerly known at Camp Panagaian.
The camp was actually three camps. Camp 1 housed the POWs who had been captured on
Bataan and held at Camp O'Donnell. Camp 2 was two miles from Camp 1 and was closed because it lacked an
adequate water supply. It was later reopened and held Naval POWs. Camp 3 was eight miles from Camp 1
and six miles from Camp 2. It housed the POWs from Corregidor and those men who had been hospitalized when
Bataan surrendered. The camp was later closed and the POWs were sent to Camp 1. The camp was actually three
camps. Camp 1 housed the POWs who had been captured on Bataan and held at Camp O'Donnell. Camp 2 was
two miles from Camp 1 and was closed because it lacked an adequate water supply. It was later reopened and
held Naval POWs. Camp 3 was eight miles from Camp 1 and six miles from Camp 2. It housed the POWs
from Corregidor and those men who had been hospitalized when Bataan surrendered. Camps 1 and 3 were later
consolidated into one camp.
The barracks were built for 50 men, but most had 60 to 120 men in them. Each man
had a are two feet wide by six feet long to sleep in. The POWs slept on bamboo slats without mattresses,
bedding, and mosquito netting. Disease soon spread quickly.
To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a detail that patrolled the fence of the camp.
The reason this was done was that those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed,
while the other POWs were made to watch. In September 1942, three officers were caught attempting to
escape. After being beaten for day, they were shot. In October, seven POWs were made to dig their own
graves and shot. It is believed that no POW successfully escaped from the camp.
The POWs were sent out on work details to cut wood for the POW kitchens. Meals on
a daily basis consisted of 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, and sweet potato or corn.
Other POWs worked in rice paddies. Each morning, after arriving at the farm, the POWs went into a tool shed
to get their tools. As they left the shed, the guards hit them on their heads. While working in the
fields, the favorite punishment given to the men in the rice paddies was to have their faces pushed into the mud
and stepped on by a guard. Returning from a detail the POWs bought, or were given, medicine, food, and
tobacco, which they somehow managed to get into the camp even though they were searched when they returned.
The Camp 1 hospital was made up of 30 wards. Zero ward had been missed when the
wards were being counted so it was given the name of "Zero Ward." The ward became the place were
POWs who were going to die were sent. The Japanese were so terrified by it, that they put a fence up around
it and would not go near the building. Inside the buildings were two rolls of wooden platforms along
the walls. The sicker POWs were put on the lower platform which had holes cut into them. This allowed
the POWs to relieve themselves without having to get off the platform.
According to records kept by the medical staff, he was admitted into the camp hospital on
Saturday, October 10, 1942.
Harvey died on July 1, 1943 at 5:15 P.M. from beriberi and edema.
Albert Allen, a member of C Company, stated that Harvey died because he gave up.
He was buried in the camp cemetery in Plot 2, Row 22, Grave 2725.
After the war, the remains of 2nd Lt Harvey A. Jennings were exhumed and positively identified.
His parents requested that his remains be returned home, and he
was buried at Green Lawn Cemetery in Columbus, Ohio, on April 20, 1949.