Sgt. Leroy Clark Anderson

    Sgt. Leroy C. Anderson was the son of Erwin and Emma Anderson.  He was born on April 7, 1918, and raised in a house that his father built at 623 Briody Street in Burlington, Wisconsin.  When he was a child, his mother died and his father remarried.

     LeRoy attended school in Burlington and was a 1937 graduate of Burlington High School.  He was known as Roy to his family.  His father died in November 1937, leaving Roy to support his stepmother.  After high school, Roy worked in the Burlington Mills as as a machinist.

    On January 29, 1941, Roy was inducted in Milwaukee into the U. S. Army with six other men from Burlington.  He was sent to Fort Sheridan, Illinois, where he was assigned to the 192nd Tank Battalion.  This was done because the army was attempting to fill vacancies in the battalion with men from the home states of the letter companies. From Ft. Sheridan, Roy was sent to Ft. Knox, Kentucky, to join his new unit.

    Roy spent the next eight months training at Ft. Knox and qualified as a tank driver.  He was assigned to A Company which had been a Wisconsin National Guard Tank Company from Janesville.  During this time, he rose in rank to Private First Class.  

    In the fall of 1941, Roy took part in maneuvers in Louisiana.  After the maneuvers, at Camp Polk, he with his battalion was informed they were being sent overseas.  Roy like the other men received a leave home to say goodbye to his family and friends.
    The battalion traveled by train to San Francisco.  By ferry, they were taken to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island.  On the island, they received inoculations and physicals.  Those members of the battalion who were found to have treatable medical conditions remained behind on the island.  They were scheduled to join the battalion at a later date.
The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.S Hugh L. Scott and sailed from San Francisco on Monday, October 27th, for Hawaii as part of a three ship convoy.  They arrived at Honolulu on Sunday, November 2nd.  The soldiers were given leaves so they could see the island.  On November 5th, the ships sailed for Guam.  At one point, the ships passed an island at night.  While they passed the island, they did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  When they arrived at Guam, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables.  The ships sailed the same day for Manila and entered Manila Bay on Thursday, November 20th.  They docked at Pier 7 and the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg. 
    At the fort, they were greeted by Gen. Edward King, who apologized that they had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Airfield.  He made sure that they all received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own. 
Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
For the next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their weapons.  The grease was put on the weapons to protect them from rust while at sea. 

    On December 1st, the tankers were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Airfield to guard against Japanese paratroopers.  From this time on, two tank crew members remained with each tank at all times.
   The members of A Company were informed of the Japanese attack on Clark Field on December 8th, just hours after the attack and ordered to be on alert.  About 12:45 in the afternoon, as the tankers were eating lunch, planes appeared in the sky.  At first, the soldiers thought they were American planes.  It was only when they heard the sound of bombs falling and saw explosions that the soldiers knew that the planes were Japanese. 

    The company was sent to the Barrio of Dau, on December 12th, so that it would be near the highway and railroad to protect them from sabotage.   It would remain there for over a week.  On December 21, 1941, his family received the last cable they were to receive from him.  It it, Roy said, "I'm alright but busy."
    On December 23rd and 24th, the company was in the area of Urdaneta.  It was there, that the tankers lost the company commander, Capt. Walter Write.  After he was buried, the tankers made an end run to get south of Agno River after the main bridge had been destroyed.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening. They successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25th, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27th.

    A Company was sent, in support of the 194th, to an area east of Pampanga sometime around December 31st.  It was there that they lost a tank platoon commander, Lt. William Reed. 
    At Guagua, A Company, with units from the 11th Division, Philippine Army, attempted to make a counterattack against the Japanese.  Somehow, the tanks were mistaken, by the Filipinos to be Japanese.  The 11th accurately used mortars on them.  The result was the loss of three tanks.  The company rejoined the 194th west of Guagua and was returned to the 192nd on January 8, 1942.

    While American and Filipino forces were withdrawing from the Pilar-Bigac Line, the tank battalion prevented the Japanese from overrunning the position and cutting off the withdrawing troops.  The morning of January 27th, a new battle line had been formed and all units were suppose to be beyond it.  That morning, the tanks were still holding their position six hours longer after they were suppose to have withdrawn.  While holding the position, the tanks, with self-propelled mounts, ambushed, at point blank range, three Japanese units causing 50 percent casualties. 
    On January 28th, the tank battalions were given the job of protecting the beaches.  The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast.  The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.

    It was during this time that Roy was promoted to sergeant and given command of his own tank.  On February 3, 1942, in an engagement against the Japanese, Roy led his platoon of tanks into action against Japanese in the Battle of the Pockets.  According to newspaper clippings from the time, an American counterattack was being held up by Japanese machine gun nests.  Roy's platoon of tanks were called in to clear out the machine gun nests. 

    While leading the counterattack and attempting to retake positions lost to the Japanese, Roy's tank was knocked out.  Roy and his crew climbed out of their tank and continued the attack on foot using hand grenades and rifles to wipe-out the machine gun nests.  Roy was wounded during the attack and did not return to duty until March 12th.

    Roy was awarded the Distinguish Service Cross.  It should be noted that he was first American inducted into the U.S. Army through the Selective Service to receive the medal during World War II.  During the presentation General MacArthur stated that Roy had demonstrated "extraordinary heroism" in action against the Japanese. 

    The events that led to Roy receiving the medal was that the Japanese had stopped the advance of Filipino and American forces along the Pilar-Bagac Line.   Roy volunteered to see if he could dislodge the Japanese.  He did a personal reconnaissance then took his tank, which had been held in reserve, into the Japanese positions.  His tank wiped out three enemy machine guns.  It proceeded further and wiped out a fourth machine gun. 

    On April 9, 1942, Roy became a Prisoner Of War when the Filipino and American defenders of Bataan were surrendered to the Japanese.  He and the other members of A Company made their way to Mariveles at the southern tip of the Bataan Peninsula.  It was from there that Roy began the death march.

    It is not known how long Roy took to complete the march.  What is known is that he was held as a POW at Camp O'Donnell and Cabanatuan.  Col. Ted Wickord of the 192nd was put in command of a work detail being sent to Bataan.  Wickord attempted to fill the detail with men from his own battalion.  One of these men was Roy.  The detail returned to Bataan to rebuild the bridges that had been destroyed by the retreating Filipino and American forces as they entered Bataan.  Roy remained on this detail for several months until he returned to Cabanatuan.

    In October 28, 1942, Roy and other prisoners were loaded onto the Erie Maru and sent to Davao, Mindanao.  During the trip, the ship stopped at Iloilo, Cebu, and Lasang, Mindanao.  At Lasang, the POWs were unloaded and used as labor.  Some of the POWs were used as labor at construction sites while others farmed in the camp farm.  Many of the POWs were ill and needed vitamins.  The fruit that was being grown on the farm could have helped the prisoners, but it was allowed to rot on the ground by the Japanese instead of being given to the prisoners.

     At the camp, the POWs were housed in eight barracks that were about 148 feet long and about 16 feet wide.  A four foot wide aisle ran down the center of each barracks.  In each barracks, were eighteen bays.  Twelve POWs shared a bay.  216 POWs lived in each barracks.  Four cages were later put in a bay.  Each cage held two POWs.

    The camp discipline was poor.  The American commanding officer changed frequently.  The junior officers refused to take orders from the senior officers.  Soon, the enlisted men spoke anyway they wanted to, to the officers.  The situation improved because all majority of POWs realized that discipline was needed to survive. 

    At first, the work details were not guarded.  The POWs plowed, planted, and harvested the crops.  The sick POWs made baskets.  In April 1943, the POWs working conditions varied.  Those working the rice fields received the worst treatment.  They were beaten for not meeting quotas, misunderstandings between the POWs and guards, and a translator who could not be trusted to tell the truth.

    Roy spent almost two years at Davao.  During that time, American forces were making their way toward the Philippines.  Bombings of Japanese installations became a daily occurrence.  It was at this time that the Japanese decided to move the 750 POWs at Davao back to Manila.

    The POWs were taken to Lasang and boarded onto the Yashu Maru.  The ship sailed on June 12, 1944 for Cebu City.  There, the ship waited for the arrival of the Teiryu Maru.  After the second ship's arrival, the POWs were transferred to the ship.  The ship sailed for Manila on June 21, 1944 and arrived on June 24th.

    From Manila, the POWs were taken to Cabanatuan when the Japanese began to transfer large numbers of POWs to Japan, Roy was returned to Cabanatuan.  The POWs were later transferred to Bilibid Prison and examined to determine which prisoners were too ill to be sent to Japan.  Those POWs remained at Bilibid.

    In early October, the POWs were marched to the Port Area of Manila and boarded onto the Arisan Maru.  The ship sailed from Manila on October 10th, but instead of heading for Formosa, the ship sailed south to Palawan.  There it sat in a cove off the island for ten days.  This was done to keep the ship safe from American planes.  After ten days, the ship returned to Manila. 

    Roy and the other prisoners were held in the ship's hold while the Japanese formed a twelve ship convoy.  On October 21st, the convoy left Manila and entered the South China Sea.  Since the Japanese refused to mark POW ships with red crosses to indicate they were carrying POWs, the ship was endanger of being torpedoed by American submarines.

    According to the survivors of the Arisan Maru, on Tuesday, October 24, 1944, near dinner time, POWs were on deck preparing the meal for those in the ship's two holds.  The ship was near Shoonan, off the coast of China.  There was a sudden jar which was caused by the ship being hit by two torpedoes.  The ship stopped dead in the water.  It is believed that the submarine that fired the torpedoes was the U. S. S. Snook.

    The Japanese guards fired at the POWs on deck to get them back into the holds.  Once they were in the holds, the Japanese cut the rope ladders and put the hatch covers on the holds.  They did not tie the covers down.  When this was done, the Japanese abandoned the ship.

    Some of the POWs in the second hold were able to climb out and reattached the rope ladders to those in the first hold.  They also dropped rope ladders to the POWs in second  hold.  

     Most of the POWs survived the attack but died because the Japanese refused to rescue  them.  Many of the POWs attempted to escape the ship by clinging to rafts, hatch covers, flotsam and jetsam.  Those who could not swim, ate their full of the food left behind by the Japanese as a last meal.  At some point, the ship broke into two.

    In attempt to survive the attack, the POWs swam to Japanese destroyers which were picking up Japanese survivors.  Some of the destroyers in the convoy deliberately pulled away from the POWs as they attempted to reach them.  The crews of other ships pushed the POWs away from the ships with poles and hit them with clubs.  

Five POWs found an abandoned lifeboat.  Since the sea was rough and they had no oars, they could not reach other POWs crying for help.  As the night went on, the cries for help grew fewer until there was silence.  

    Of the approximately 1800 men who had boarded the Arisan Maru in Manila, only nine survived the sinking.  Eight of these men survived to see the end of the war.  Sgt. Leroy C. Anderson was not one of them.

    Since Sgt. Leroy C. Anderson was lost at sea, his name appears on The Tablets of the Missing at the American Military Cemetery outside Manila.



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