Sgt. Elmer Nelson Smith
Sgt. Elmer N. Smith was born on October 9, 1920, and was the son of Amiel & Dora Smith. With his two brothers and five sisters, he lived at 117½ West Second Street in Port Clinton, Ohio, and attended Port Clinton schools. He was a 1938 graduate of Port Clinton High School. After high school, he worked in a shipyard as a metal worker. At some point, Elmer joined the Company H Tank Corp of the Ohio National Guard which was headquartered in Port Clinton.
Elmer was one of the original Ohio National Guardsmen called to federal service on November 25, 1940. He trained at Fort Knox, Kentucky, as a member of C Company, 192nd Tank Battalion. During his training, Elmer took classes in cooking and baking, and after successfully completing the courses, he became the youngest certified mess sergeant in the army from the State of Ohio.
Elmer participated in maneuvers in
Louisiana at the end of August 1941. After
completion of the maneuvers, the battalion was
sent to Camp Polk where the members learned that
the battalion was being sent overseas.
why the 192nd Tank Battalion received orders for
duty, in the Philippines, was because of an
event that happened during the summer of
1941. A squadron of American fighters was
flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots
noticed something odd. He took his plane
down and identified a buoy in the water.
He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a
straight line, in the direction of an Japanese
occupied island. When the squadron landed
he reported what he had seen. By the time
a Navy ship was sent to the area, the buoys had
been picked up. It was at that time the
decision was made to build up the American
military presence in the Philippines.
The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.A.T.
Hugh L. Scott
part of the
but once they
spent much of
and had a two
leave so they
could see the
On November 21, 1941, he wrote in his diary:
"Today we arrived here at Ft. Stotsenburg. Our sea voyage was not unusual. Many were seasick. Many of us never looked out all the time on water."
A few days later on November 23 in another entry he said:
"Today we were busy getting settled here at Ft. Stotsenburg. Most of us have found natives to do our laundry for a small sum. Ft. Stotsenburg is the center of a fascinating romantic tropical beauty. It lies in a broad, gently rolling valley that reaches north from Manila more than a hundred miles to Lingayen Gulf. Watery rice fields, sugar cane fields lay everywhere interspersed with clumps of vegetation."
For the next
seventeen days the tankers worked to remove
cosmoline from their weapons which had been
greased to protect them from rust while at
sea. They also loaded ammunition belts and
did tank maintenance., and prepared for
maneuvers with the 194th Tank Battalion.
"It's Dec. 8 here, but Dec. 7 back home in the
States. This morning we were up at 6 a.m. Some
of us were strolling toward the mess tent when
we heard a cook say 'God, the Japs have bombed
Pearl Harbor!' As we went in we heard the
radio announcer say, 'flights of Jap planes ---
smoke and flames at Pearl Harbor. Ships
reported sunk by bombs,' Breakfast was
forgotten. Our immediate job was to
protect Clark Field, our 3 companies of Tanks
--- ABC under command of Capt. Sorenson were
dispersed around Clark Field at 10:45.
They told us the Japs were nearing Lingayen
Gulf. First bomb fell shortly after 11:45
a.m. We found ourselves faced down in the
ditches. We hardly knew what
should be noted the attack started at 12:45 and
ended around 1:30.
For the next four months, Elmer worked to feed the other members of C Company. As time went on, this became more difficult as the supplies of food dwindled. Being a mess sergeant, Elmer knew that without food the Filipino and Americans could not hold on forever. The Japanese lunched a major offense on April 3rd, and when it became apparent that there was no way to win, Gen. King sent his staff officers to negotiate terms of surrender. On April 8, 1942, Elmer wrote this entry in his diary:
"Rumors have reached us that tomorrow Gen. Wainwright is going to surrender. Oh God what there is in store for us. We have been out here to defend this land against the greatest of all foes, nothing to fight with and the full might of an enemy's military power thrown against us. Where will we go after the white flags go up? This is the greatest humility the Stars and Stripes have suffered. But the U.S. will not let us down. They're come to free us. But how long will it be?
Will we be in prison camps for years, will we escape, will we be put to death, or will we be rescued? Only God knows. I'm not only praying for myself and my buddies, but for the folks back home. I can still hear the voice of God, as we sat side by side in that foxhole on "Bataan" as he said ----Fear not, I am with thee always."
When the Philippines were surrendered to
the Japanese on April 9. 1942, Elmer became a
Prisoner of War and was held at Camp O'Donnell
and moved to Cabanatuan Prison Camp when it
opened. He was held there until September
there, he did clerical work in the camp’s
was also during this time that his family
learned he was a POW on April 2, 1943.
In September 1943, Elmer was selected
for a work detail at Las Pinas. The POWs were
held at Las Pinas School and slept 30 men
to a room in eighteen classrooms.
Their food was scraps from the Japanese kitchen.
When Elmer was sent to the detail, it was
already under a new commander. The
officer of the
known as "the
He was a
he would come
to the POW
made them line
men were made
to put one leg
on each side
of a trench
and then do 50
If a man's
arms gave out
and he touched
the ground, he
In a series of letters he wrote while at
Bilibid from November to December 1944, he
described his life as a POW. Elmer
indicated that he knew that Bilibid was the
clearing point for Americans being sent to Japan
or another Japanese occupied country. He also
described the daily life of the POW.
"Another day is wearing itself away in slow monotonous, dreary hours...I visit Collins (Capt. Harold Collins of LaCarne, Ohio) now and then...We discussed everything already...nothing new to speak of."
As if to reinforce this, he wrote on November 7, 1944:
“Another day begun…Nothing of interest insight
so far…two meals each day …One-half portion of
Lugoa is our main concern …It’s very weak…Next
meal 3:00 p.m. …May be camote soup
today…Yesterday and the day before heavy raids.
food is the important item. What
little we do have is issued by our hosts (the
Japs) is so highly prized men will do anything
to get it.
Scrape it off the ground…grass…peelings,
all mix water with our food…eat as slow as
possible and lick our kits afterwards.”
In a letter written three days before he was sent to Manila for shipment to Japan, he wrote:
“Weather rather unsteady…Rained for the past
three days…Now and then the sun tries to shine….
Still getting colder…Christmas will be here in
three weeks….Christmas…The day will come and go
here….and a Merry Christmas will be in
order….But the drab environment that surrounds
us and the conditions we live in permits us no
joys or harmony.”
One reason for the bad feelings among the prisoners at Bilibid Prison was that the 1100 prisoners lived in extremely crowded conditions. As if to demonstrate this, Elmer like every prisoner had a 22 inch wide sleeping space.
In a letter dated, December 9, 1944,
Elmer revealed how the items the prisoners
received would have been taken for granted at
home. Things which would seem unimportant
were extremely important to him.
Dec. 8, each man received one-third bag of
is a great help…it is like getting a package
Elmer described the old stone hospital he lived in within the walls of Bilibid Prison. He wrote of the high walls and electric fences which kept Elmer from seeing or hearing anything of the outside world. But the one thing that the prison walls could not stop Elmer from seeing were the airplanes. Above the prison, Elmer could see the American planes on the way to bomb Japanese installations at Manila. These planes brought him memories and desires for a life he no longer had. He wrote:
a few thousand feet above us are free
Free to talk, write home, and sleep
Free to go back and eat what they want
and laugh and smoke. It makes a fellow wonder
if he will appreciate more what he had before. I
know I will.”
Elmer also wrote of that rumors of the war were what kept the prisoners going. As his time in the prison went on, he tired of these rumors. He wrote:
have been no planes for weeks. We get rumors and
that is all, but they are started by some
moronic officer in his pensive mood or some
Tanoan guard wanting a good joke. If
one percent of the rumors had been true that
I’ve heard while in prison, I would have been
home two years ago.”
“There’s no sign of Red Cross this year…I’m down to 138 pounds but haven’t given up hope. Last night (Dec. 11, 1944) we had the best mess since arriving from Rigul. 540 grams of wet, steamed rice and 12 ounces ogree soup with bean meal.”
In an earlier letter dated December 4, 1944, he commented on the health of the prisoners at Bilibid. He also indicated knowledge that American forces had returned to the Philippines.
many cripples, aenemics, and plain cases of
Now, we are
have been a lot of deaths lately…average one a
day in the wards…Only thing now that does it is
He described how he had learned to speak, write and interpret Japanese fairly well. This allowed him to act as an interpreter for his fellow POWs, a job he had held at Las Pinas. Elmer wrote of how, at the start of the war, he had wanted to return to the Philippines, because he saw it as a place of endless opportunities to make money. But, by December, 1944, he just wanted to get out of the prison camp and return home.
In the notebook, he wrote about his plans for the future when he got home. Some of his entries were about his plans for a farm. Another was about staying in the army until he could afford to buy a small restaurant or a bar. Still, a third entry spoke of his wildest plan of traveling around the world in a sailboat.
mid-December, 1944, Elmer marked an
anniversary of a fateful event in his life.
"Three years ago today (Dec. 12, 1941) we received a severe bombing at Fort Stotsenburg, Pamaanga...They bombed us most of the day...about seven raids...we moved to Barrio Dam after dusk that evening and stayed there until we were sent north to Lingayen Gulf on the 23. (Dec. 23, 1941).
In early December, the Japanese ordered the American medical staff at the prisoner to put together a list of POWs who were healthy enough to be sent to Japan. On the morning of December 12th, roll was taken and Elmer's name and the names of the other POWs being sent to Japan were read off. Before he left Bilibid Prison, Elmer gave his letters to Pfc. Garrett Royalty of D Company. According to Royalty, Elmer said to him, "If I don't get out alive, will you see that my family gets these notes."
That night at 4 a.m., the POWs were awakened and fed breakfast. They were marched to Pier 7 in Manila. The Japanese boarded Japanese civilians first. The last group to board the Oryoku Maru were the POWs who boarded that evening.
ranking officers were the first put into the
ship's afthold. Being the first on meant
that they would suffer many deaths. Around
the perimeter of the hold were two tiers of
bunks for the POWs. The heat was so bad
that men soon began to pass out. One
survivor said, "The
fist fights began when men to pass
out. We knew that only the front men
in bay would be able to get enough
air." The POWs who were
closer to the hold's hatch used anything they
could find to fan air toward those further away
After he was liberated at Bilibid Prison at the end of the war. Garrett Royalty returned home and gave Elmer's letters to his parents. It was from those letters that the quotations in this biography were taken.