Pvt. Leon L. Wolf
Born: 20 April 1915 - Illinois
Parents: Abe & Bessie Wolf
Siblings: 1 brother
Home: Grayville, Illinois
Enlisted:
    - Illinois National Guard
 Enlisted:
    - U.S. Army
        - 22 January 1940 - Camp Shelby, Mississippi
Training:
    - Fort Knox, Kentucky
Units:
    - 19th Ordnance Battalion
        - learned to maintain 567 different vehicles used by the Army
        - maintained and repaired weapons used by a tank battalion
        - August 1941 - battalion takes part in maneuvers in Arkansas
            - A company ordered back to Ft. Knox
    - 17th Ordnance Company
        - 17 August 1941 - A Company reorganized as 17th Ordnance Company
Note: On August 15, 1941, 17th Ordnance received orders for duty in the Philippines because of an event that happened during the summer.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a buoy in the water.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island, with a large radio transmitter, hundred of miles away.  The squadron continued its flight plane and flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field.  By the time the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
    The next morning, another squadron was sent to the area and found that the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat which was seen making its way toward shore.  Since communication between and Air Corps and Navy was poor, the boat was not intercepted.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
Overseas Duty:
    -  1 September  1941 -
        - company traveled by train to San Francisco, California
    - Arrived: 5 September 1941
        - ferried to Ft. McDowell, Angel Island on U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
        - given physicals and inoculations
        - men with medical conditions replaced
        - spent most of their time preparing equipment for shipment to the Philippines
        - removed turrets from tanks of the 194th Tank Battalion
            - spray painted tank's serial number on turret so that it could be attached to correct tank

    - Ship: S.S. President Calvin Coolidge
        - Boarded: San Francisco, California - Monday - 8 September 1941 - 3:00 P.M.
        - Sailed: 9:00 P.M. - same day
        - Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii - Saturday - 13 September 1941 - 7:00 A.M.
        - Sailed: 5:00 P.M. - same day
            - took southern route away from main shipping lanes
            - escorted by heavy cruiser, U.S.S. Astoria, and an unknown destroyer
                - heavy cruiser intercepted several ships after smoke was seen on the horizon
                - ships belonged to friendly countries
        - Tuesday, 16 September 1941 - ships crossed International Dateline
            - became Thursday, 18 September 1941
        - Arrived: Manila, Philippine Islands - Friday - 26 September 1941
            - disembarked ship
        - 17th Ordnance unloaded the tanks of the 194h Tank Battalion

            - reattached turrets to tanks
    - Philippines
        - lived in tents until barracks completed - 15 November 19

Engagements:
    - Battle of Luzon
        - 8 December 1941 - 6 January 1942
            - 17th Ordnance supported tanks wherever they where
    - Battle of Bataan
        - 7 January 1942 - 9 April 1942
            - headquartered in an abandoned ordnance building
Prisoner of War:
    - 9 April 1942
        - men received word of the surrender from Capt. Richard Kadel
        - prepared a meal with all their remaining food
        - moved to a pass and waited for the Japanese
           - while there, they were strafed and bombed by Japanese planes
    - 10 April 1942
        - Japanese made contact and ordered the POWs to move
        - selected to do work for Japanese
POW Camps:
    - Philippines:
        - Bataan - maintenance work detail
            - did take part in Death March
        - Cabanatuan
        - original name: Camp Panagaian
            - Philippine Army Base built for 91st Philippine Army Division
                - actually three camps
                -  POWs from Camp O'Donnell put in Camp 1
                    - Camp 2 was four miles away
                        - all POWs moved from there because of a lack of water
                        - later used for Naval POWs
                    - Camp 3 was six miles from Camp 2
                        - POWs from Corregidor and from hospitals sent there
        - Camp Administration:
            - the Japanese left POWs to run the camp on their own
                - Japanese entered camp when they had a reason
                - POWs patrolled fence to prevent escapes
                    - Note: men who attempted to escape were recaptured
                    - Japanese beat them for days
                    - executed them
            - Blood Brother Rule
                - POWs put into groups of ten
                    - if one escaped the others would be executed
                    - housed in same barracks
                    - worked on details together
            - Barracks:
                - each barracks held 50 men
                    - often held between 60 and 120 men
                    - slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, and mosquito netting
                        - diseases spread easily
                    - no showers
            - Morning Roll Call:
                - stood at attention
                    - frequently beaten over their heads for no reason
                - when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in
                  their shins with their hobnailed boots because they didn't like the way the POWs lined up
            - Work Details:
                - Two main details
                    - the farm and airfield
                        - farm detail
                            - POWs cleared land and grew comotes, cassava, taro, sesame, and various greens
                            - Japanese took what was grown
                    - Guards:
                        - Big Speedo - spoke little English
                            - in charge of detail
                            - fair in treatment of POWs
                            - spoke little English
                                - to get POWs to work faster said, "speedo"
                        - Little Speedo
                            - also used "speedo" when he wanted POWs to work faster
                            - fair in treatment of POWs
                        - Smiley
                            - always smiling
                            - could not be trusted
                            - meanest of guards
            - Airfield Detail:
                - Japanese built an airfield for fighters
                    - POWs cut grass, removed dirt, and leveled ground
                        - at first moved dirt in wheel barrows
                        - later pushed mining cars
                   - Guards:
                        - Air Raid
                            - in charge
                            - usually fair but unpredictable
                                - had to watch him
                        - Donald Duck
                            - always talking
                            - sounded like the cartoon character
                            - unpredictable - beat POWs
                            - POWs told him that Donald Duck was a big American movie star
                                - at some point, he saw a Donald Duck cartoon
                                - POWs stayed away from him when he came back to camp
                - Work Day: 7:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
                    - worked 6 days a week
                        - had Sunday off
            - Other Details:
                - work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens and plant rice
                    - they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
                - POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on
                - the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
                - if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn't doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
                - many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
            - daily POW meal
                - 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn
                - rice was main staple, few vegetables or fruits
        - Camp Hospital:
            - 30 Wards
                - each ward could hold 40 men
                    - frequently had 100 men in each
               - two tiers of bunks
                   - sickest POWs on bottom tier
               - each POW had a 2 foot by 6 foot area to lie in

            - hospitalized - 10 June 1942
                - discharged - no date given
           
        - Zero Ward
            - given name because it had been missed when counting wards
            - became ward where those who were going to die were sent
            - fenced off from other wards
                - Japanese guards would not go near it
                - POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving
                - medical staff had little to no medicine to treat sick
                - many deaths from disease caused by malnutrition
        - Burial Detail:
            - POWs worked in teams of four men to bury dead
                - carried as many as six dead POWs in slings to cemetery
                - buried in graves that contained 16 to 20 bodies
        - Bilibid Prison
            - Admitted: Not Known
                - dengue fever
            - Discharged: not known

Hell Ship:
    - Coral Maru
        - also known as Taga Maru
        - Sailed: Manila - 20 September 1943
        - Arrived: Takao, Formosa - 23 September 1943
        - Sailed: 26 September 1943
        - Arrived: Moji, Japan - 5 October 1943
   
POW Camps:
- Japan
        - Hirohata

            - POWs worked Seitetsu Steel Mills
                - unloaded ships
                    - stole rice from sacks
            - POWs in camp were beaten for smallest reason
                - hit with belts, clubs, slapped, punched, and ropes which were 3 inch thick
                - they were immersed in cold water and forced to stand at attention wet and
                  and naked in the winter
            - Japanese withheld Red Cross packages and raided them for canned meats,
              fruits, soup, chocolate, and cigarettes
                - they also did not issue Red Cross clothing or shoes to the POWs
            - closed
        - Nagoya #9B
            - 27 May 1945
Note: The camp opened on May 29, 1945, and the POWs arrived the same day.  They lived in two barracks which had dirt floors.  The barracks had 100 feet long and 24 feet wide, with two tiers of platforms around the perimeter of each building.  The POWs were given straw mats to sleep on, on the platforms.  A 8 foot wide aisle ran down the center of the barracks.  A ten foot high fence encircled the camp.
    There was no real hospital building and one end of the barracks were used for this purpose.  There was room for 20 POWs, but everyday, there were as many as 100 sick POWs.  The hospital was manned by an American doctor, who was a dentist, four American medics, and one Japanese medic.
    Men would wear out from being overworked and underfed.  Then pneumonia took over and the men died in a couple of days.  Their bodies would be put in a four by four by two foot box.  It had handles that allowed it to be carried.  A Buddhist priest from the village walked ahead of the procession in his white and gold robes.  When the remains were returned to the camp, they were in a four by four by twelve inch box.  The man's name and serial number were on the box.  The box was kept by the camp commandant in his office.
     Being that the Japanese had a quota of POWs they needed to work on the details each day, those suffering from diarrhea or dysentery were not considered sick.  The sick were beaten with shovels to get them to do work that they were too sick to do.  They also had their meal rations reduced.
    The meals of the POWs were primarily wheat, rice, and soybeans with some vegetables like onions and daikon a Japanese beet.  They had fish, either fried or in a soup, every ten days.  Their food was performed by six POWs who also prepared the POWs lunches that they took with them to work.
    Most of the POWs walked three quarters of a mile and worked on the docks loading and unloading coal, rice, and beans.  While working they received a hour lunch and two half hour rest periods.  A work day started about 7:30 A.M. and ended at 4:30 P.M.  When there was a lot of work, POWs returned and worked fro  7:00 P.M. until midnight.  100 POWs worked in the camp garden.
    Collective punishment was a common occurrence in the camp and involved stealing rice or beans.  When one POW broke a camp rule, all the POWs were punished.  On one occasion, for 7 days, the POWs were denied coal, in the middle of winter, because someone had broken a rule.  15 POWs were accused of stealing rice from sacks that they were unloading from a ship.  Once they returned to the camp, they were forced to kneel for from an 1 to 5 hours to get them to confess.  Six of the fifteen men confessed and the others were fed and sent to their barracks.
    When the camp commandant left the camp at 8:30 that evening, all the POWs were called from the barracks by the second in command and ordered to stand at attention.  They were then beaten with pick axe handles, rope, that was about 3 inches thick and five feet long, clubs, and farrison belts across the buttocks, face, and legs.  Kicking was also a frequent method of punishment.
    When the POWs passed out, they were either thrown into a large tub of water, with their hands and feet bound, or they had water poured on them until they revived.  They once again had to stand at attention as the beating continued for a total of 3 hours.  One POW counted that he received 150 blows to his face and 20 on his buttocks.
    The Japanese denied the POWs food, clothing, shoes, and other items sent to the camp by the Red Cross.  Instead of giving these things to the POWs, the Japanese pilfered the items for their own use. The guards were seen wearing shoes sent by the Red Cross for the POWs.
Liberated:
    - September 1945
        - taken by U.S.S. Marigold to Saipan
Transport:
    - Air Transport Command
        - flown from Mariana Islands
        - arrived Hickam Field and then Hamilton Airfield north of San Francisco
Wife: Nora Wolf
Children:
    - five
Military Career:
    - remained in military
    - rank: Master Sergeant
    - retired - October 1960
Residence:
    - EuPora, Mississippi
    - Mathison, Mississippi
Died:
    - 15 October 1994 - Grayville, Illinois          
Buried: Oak Grove Cemetery, Grayville, Illinois



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