Pvt. Lewis Mark Wallisch
Pvt. Lewis M. Wallisch was born on June 7, 1922, to William Wallisch & Helen Zierath-Wallisch. He had two brothers and a sister and lived at 1302 South Center Avenue in Janesville, Wisconsin. |
When Lewis was eighteen, he joined the Wisconsin National Guard's 32nd Tank Company in Janesville. His reason for doing this was that his cousin was in the National Guard and that he liked the idea of earning a little extra money when he drilled. He was a senior in high school when the company was called to federal service, in the fall of 1940, and received his diploma while at Fort Knox, Kentucky.
When the company was federalized on November 20, 1940, and on November 28, 1940, Lewis went to Fort Knox, Kentucky to train. It was there that the company's name was changed to A Company, 192nd Tank Battalion.
In January 1941, replacements entered A Company to fill vacancies when twenty of the original members, including Lewis, were transferred to the newly created Headquarters Company. This transfer would lead to Lewis reaching the rank of sergeant and tank commander.
Lewis recalled that the biggest task at Ft. Knox facing the members of the 192nd, was that each company had to get use to each other. During this process of adjustment, the members of the different companies often were involved in fist fights. As time passed, the fights ended as the members of the battalion became friends.
According to Lewis, each company was made up three platoons of thirty men. Each company had the same number of tanks assigned to it. The one exception was Headquarters Company which had three assigned tanks. One of these tanks was the tank commanded by Lewis.
A typical day started at 6:15 A.M. with reveille, but most of the soldiers were already up so they could wash, dress, and be on time for assembly. Breakfast was from 7 to 8 A.M. which was followed buy calisthenics from 8 to 8:30. After this, the remainder of the morning dealt with .30 and .50 caliber machine guns, pistols, map reading, care of personal equipment, military courtesy, and training in military tactics.
At 11:30, the tankers got ready for lunch, which was from noon to 1:00 P.M., when they went back to work by attending the various schools. At 4:30, the tankers day ended and retreat was at 5:00 P.M. followed by evening meal at 5:30. The day ended at 9:00 P.M. with lights out, but they did not have to be in bed until 10:00 P.M. when taps was played.
In the late summer of 1941, the battalion was sent to Louisiana for maneuvers from September 1 through 30. The one thing that Lewis remembers about the maneuvers was the rain. Everything seemed to be underwater. At the end of the maneuvers, the battalion was sent to Camp Polk, Louisiana, instead of returning to Ft. Knox as expected.
It was on the side of a hill that Major Beacon Moore, commanding officer of the battalion, informed the members of the battalion that it was being sent overseas. The soldiers who were considered "too old" were allowed to resign from active duty. This included Major Moore who was too old for his rank. All others received furloughs to return home to say their goodbyes to their families.
The decision for this move - which had been made in August 1941 - was the result of an event that took place in the summer of 1941. A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd. He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance. He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island which was hundred of miles away. The island had a large radio transmitter. The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day. The next day, when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its deck - which was seen making its way to shore. Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult, the boat escaped. It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
The idea of going overseas excited Lewis because it would give him a chance to see the country and the world. In his opinion, none of the soldiers believed that the war would catch up with them
The battalion traveled west over different train routes and arrived at Ft. Mason in San Francisco and were ferried, on the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe, to Angel Island where they given physicals and inoculated by the battalion's medical detachment. Anyone who had a medical condition was replaced or held back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date.
The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S. A. T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27. During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP. The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2 and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
On Wednesday, November 5, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes. It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and, another transport, the S. S. Calvin Coolidge. Sunday night, November 9, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11. During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Date Line. On Saturday, November 15, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon. The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke. It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country. During this part of the voyage, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon. The cruiser that was escorting the two transports revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it took off in the direction of the smoke. It turned out that the unknown ship was from a friendly country.
When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day. At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout. This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way. The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning. At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg. Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
At the fort, they were greeted by Gen. Edward P. King, who apologized that the men had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Airfield., but the fact was he had learned of their arrival just days before their ship docked. He made sure that they had all they needed and received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own dinner. Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
The members of the battalion pitched the tents in an open field halfway between the Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg. The tents were set up in two rows and five men were assigned to each tent. There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at the end of the rows of tents.
The battalion spent the next seventeen days preparing for maneuvers with the 194th Tank Battalion. During this time they cleaned their guns of cosmoline which had been applied to them so that they would not rust at sea. They also loaded ammunition belts.
On Monday, December 1, the tanks were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field to guard against paratroopers. The 194th Tank Battalion guarded the northern half of the airfield, while the 192nd guarded the southern half. At all times, two members of every tank and half-track crew remained with their vehicles. Meals were brought to them by food trucks.
Lewis remembered that on December 8, 1941, he had just finished eating lunch and was walking to his tank. On his way back to his tank, Lewis noticed the other tankers looking up into the sky at planes. At first, the men all seemed to believe that the planes were the reinforcements that they believed were coming to the Philippines. One reason for this confusion was that the P-35's silhouette looked almost like the silhouette of the Japanese Zero. It was only when the bombs began exploding around them that the soldiers realized the planes were Japanese.
In an attempt to escape the bombs, Lewis ran to his tank, climbed in and closed the hatch. In the tank, Lewis could feel the concussions from the bombs. It was then that he realized that he was not alone in the tank. With him was another GI and a Filipino Scout who had followed him into the tank. After the bombing ended, both went on their way. Leaving the tank, Lewis could see that the Japanese had hit Clark Field very hard.
When the Japanese were finished, there was not much left of the airfield. The soldiers watched as the dead, dying, and wounded were hauled to the hospital on bomb racks, trucks, and anything that could carry the wounded was in use. When the hospital filled, they watched the medics place the wounded under the building. Many of these men had their arms and legs missing.
Around December 21st, Lewis's tank and other tanks from the 192nd were sent north to Lingayen Gulf. As they approached, they could hear the sound of Japanese guns firing on the beaches where the Japanese were landing. He remembered seeing horses, from the 26th U. S. Cavalry, of Filipino Scouts, without riders galloping past his tank. The tankers never reached the landing area because they were ordered from the area.
From this time on, until the withdrawal into the Bataan Peninsula, the tankers would find themselves sent to areas where the Japanese had broken through the Filipino and American lines. The tanks were used repeatedly as a rearguard so that the infantry could withdraw from an engagement.
Lewis recalled how his tank used a bridge to cross a river. That night, he and his crew watched as the engineers blew the bridge to prevent the Japanese from using it. This was a process he and other tankers saw over and over again as the Filipino and Americans withdrew into the peninsula.
In a separate incident, Lewis' tank was in a Filipino village. They came upon some men whom they believed to be Filipinos cooking in a hut. He recalled that these men could have been Japanese infiltrators. It was shortly after this incident that his tank was strafed by Japanese planes.
As the American and Filipino forces withdrew into Bataan, it seemed the Japanese artillery knew where the American tanks were located. The tank's job during the withdraw was to set a line so that the other troops could pull out. One of the things that made this possible was the food and gasoline for the tanks was transported to them by truck. The tanks of the 192nd Tank Battalion were the last American forces to enter the Bataan Peninsula.
It was at the time that Lewis' tank was transferred to B Company. The reason for the transfer was the company had lost a number of tanks and his tank was one of the replacements. B Company was assigned to guarding the east coast of the Bataan Peninsula. From Manila Bay, the Japanese were using barges to land troops behind Filipino and American lines. During the day, the tanks of B Company were hidden under tall trees to protect them from Japanese attack. At dusk, the tanks would be driven out of the jungle onto the beaches.
One night, Lewis recalled seeing flashes out on the bay. A few moments later, shells were landing among the tanks. The tanks returned fire which resulted in a firefight. As it turned out, the Japanese were attempting to land troops on the beach. When morning came, the Japanese had failed to land one soldier on the beach.
Lewis also lived through the strafing experienced one morning by the company. According to the members of B Company, Walter Cigoi, was awoken by "Photo Joe" attempting to locate the tanks. Being aggravated and tired of this, he had his driver pull his half-track onto the beach. As the plane flew over, he took pot-shots at it with his .50 caliber machine gun and missed. 20 minutes later the company was bombed and strafed by Japanese fighters. The strafing resulted in the deaths of three members of the company.
As time went on, the meals the soldiers received were cut to two a day. One meal was in the morning, and the other was in the evening. The one thing Lewis recalled about these meals was the lack of meat in the food. According to Lewis, it was at this time that the remaining horses of the 26th U. S. Cavalry were slaughtered for meat.
The first result of the lack of adequate food was the increase in the number of cases of malaria and diphtheria. Another result was that the soldiers all began to lose weight. In spite of this situation, Lewis believed that the morale among the soldiers was still good. The reason it was good was that the soldiers still believed that help was on the way. This belief was reinforced by the motorcycle messengers, of the battalion, who told the tankers that they had seen boats off the shore of Corregidor. What the messengers did not know was that these boats had simply been moved from the other side of the island to protect them from the Japanese Navy.
In March, the amount of gasoline was reduced to 15 gallons a day for all vehicles except the tanks. This would later be dropped to ten gallons a day. At the same time, food rations were cut in half again. Also at this time, Gen. Weaver suggested to Gen. Wainwright that a platoon of tanks be sent to Corregidor.
The Japanese lunched an all out attack on April 3. On April 7, the 57th Infantry, Philippine Scouts, supported by tanks, attempted to restore the line, but Japanese infiltrators prevented this from happening. During this action, one tank was knocked out but the remaining tanks successfully withdrew. C Company, 194th, which was attached to the 192nd, had only seven tanks left.
The tanks became a favorite target of the Japanese receiving fire on trails and while hidden in the jungle. and could not fight back. The situation was so bad that other troops avoided being near the tanks, and the 26th Cavalry turned down a tank company's offer of assistance in a counter-attack.
It was at this time that Gen. Edward P. King decided that further resistance was futile, since approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight, and he estimated they would last one more day. In addition, he had over 6000 troops who sick or wounded and 40000 civilians who he feared would be massacred. At 10:30 that night, he sent his staff officers to negotiate surrender terms.
Tank battalion commanders received this order, "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished."
Later, Lewis' tank was reassigned to Headquarters Company. It was not too long after this that Lt. Col. Wickord and Capt. Fred Bruni informed the soldiers of Headquarters Company of the surrender. The evening of April 8, 1942, Capt. Fred Bruni, HQ's commanding officer, gave his men the news of the surrender. While informing the members of the company of the surrender, he waved his arm toward the tanks and told the men that they would no longer need them. As he spoke, his voice choked. He turned away from the men for a moment, and when he turned back he continued. He next told the sergeants what they should do to disable the tanks. During the announcement, Bruni emphasized that they all were to surrender together. He told the soldiers to destroy their weapons and any supplies that could be used by the Japanese. The only thing they were told not to destroy were the company's trucks. The men waited in their bivouac until ordered to move. Somehow, Bruni had found enough bread and pineapple juice for what he called, "Their last supper."
On April 11, the first Japanese soldiers appeared at HQ company's encampment. Donald was now a Prisoner of War. A Japanese officer ordered the company, with their possessions, out onto the road that ran in front of their encampment. Once on the road, the soldiers were ordered to kneel along the sides of the road with their possessions in front of them. As they knelt, the Japanese soldiers, who were passing them, went through their possessions and took whatever they wanted from the Americans. They remained along the sides of the road for hours.
HQ Company finally boarded trucks and drove to just outside of Mariveles. From there, they walked to Mariveles Airfield and ordered to sit. As they sat, the POWs noticed a line of Japanese soldiers forming across from them. They soon realized that this was a firing squad and the Japanese were going to kill them.
As they prepared to die, a car pulled up and a Japanese officer got out of the car and spoke to the sergeant in charge of the detail. After talking to the sergeant, he got back in the car and drove off. The sergeant ordered the soldiers to lower their guns.
Later in the day, the POWs were order to move and taken to a school yard in Mariveles and ordered to sit. Behind them were Japanese artillery pieces. The guns were firing on Corregidor and Ft. Drum. When the two American strongholds began returning fire, the prisoners found themselves in the line of fire and shells began landing around them. Five POWs who hid in an old brick building were killed when it took a direct hit. When the barrage ended, three if the four Japanese guns had been destroyed.
It was from this school yard that the POWs began the death march. The first five miles of the march was uphill. They made their way north from Mariveles to San Fernando. During the march men who fell were shot and bayoneted where they fell.
Lewis remembered seeing the bloated bodies of dead Americans along the sides of the road. One Japanese guard showed kindness to the Americans and gave them little pieces of candy. As it turned out, this candy would be the only food that Lewis and the other Prisoners Of War received for two days until they arrived at Tarlac.
One day on the march, Lewis' thirst got the best of him, and he attempted to get water from one of the many artesian wells along the road. As he was getting his drink, he heard a guard coming up behind him. As the guard went to bayonet him, Lewis twisted his body which resulted in his being bayoneted in the hip. This wound made the march even more difficult for him to do.
It was also on the march that Lewis and other POWs sneaked into the peanut fields and dug up peanuts as they trudged passed the fields. When they heard a guard coming, they got back in line and continued the march.
Lewis remembered that even though the POWs were weak and ill, the concern they showed for their comrades was amazing. To prevent the Japanese from killing their friends, the POWs would carry those men who were ready to fallout. All the men knew that if a prisoner fell out, it meant he would be bayoneted.
At night, the prisoners were held in bullpens. When the next day came, the Japanese would count 100 prisoners and they would continue on the march. Finally, when the POWs reached San Fernando, they received their first food and water. From there, the Japanese boarded the prisoners on trains for Camp O'Donnell. After disembarking the train at Capas, the prisoners marched the last few miles to the camp.
At one point on the march, Lewis attempted to get water from one of the artesian wells that flowed across the road. A Japanese guard spotted him and stuck Lewis with his bayonet. This made it harder for Lewis to continue the march.
Upon arrival at Camp O'Donnell, the POWs were greeted by the camp commandant, Captain Tsuneyoshi. Through an interpreter, he read them the rules of the camp and informed the prisoners that they would be shot if they did not follow them. Lewis did not stay long at Camp O'Donnell. Col. Wickord was put in charge of a work detail and filled the detail with as many members of his own battalion as he could.
No sooner did Lewis leave Camp O'Donnell on the Calumpit Bridge Detail than he came down with malaria. The Japanese captain in charge of the detail had gone to school in the United States and treated the POWs fairly well. He allowed a Filipino doctor to treat the Americans who were ill. This resulted in Lewis receiving quinine to treat his malaria.
With Lewis on the work detail were Dale Lawton, Ken Schoeberle, John Wood, Phil Parish, Forrest Teal and James Schultz. When they finished the bridge at Calaun, they were taken to Batangas and then Candaleria.
Lewis also came down with wet beriberi which resulted in his swelling up like a balloon. At the same time that he was suffering from beriberi, Lewis also had malaria and dysentery. Being sick, he was sent to Cabanatuan which had opened to improve the living conditions for the POWs. It is known he was in the camp hospital on June 19, 1942. The report by the camp medical staff does not give the date he was discharged.
At Cabanatuan, he would perform different duties. One of the duties Lewis did was to bury the dead. The prisoners would dig the graves in the morning and bury the dead in the afternoon. Since the water table was high, the dead were held down with poles. Lewis recalled that the bodies of the dead were unrecognizable unless the POWs looked carefully at the dead.
One day on the burial detail, Lewis saw the body of M/Sgt. Osborne McDonald among the dead. For Lewis, working this detail was both physically and emotionally draining. What made it so hard was seeing the number of men dying each day but also seeing the bodies of prisoners he personally knew.
Lewis worked in the camp's kitchen. He recalled that the guards assigned to the kitchen detail asked him and a couple other POWs if it was their tank battalion that had been involved in the the wiping out the pockets of Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind Filipino-American lines during the Battle of Bataan. Fearing retribution, the Americans did not answer the Japanese question.
As a cook, Lewis used the job as an opportunity to give his friends extra food. If he had been caught by the Japanese, he most likely would have been executed.
At some point Lewis went out on a work detail designated as the "Air Detail" by the medical staff at Bilibid. It is known that he was sent to the prison and admitted to its hospital on May 23, 1944, with dengue fever. After three days, he was discharged on May 26th and sent back to the Air Detail.
At some point, Lewis was returned to Bilibid Prison. While there, he worked as a stevedore loading and unloading ships in the port area of Manila. He recalled that they filled 50 gallon drums with gasoline to be sent to other parts of Luzon for use by the Japanese Army.
On July 17, 1944, Lewis was boarded onto the Japanese ship the Nissyo Maru which was bound for Japan. With him on the ship was Robert Boehm of A Company. On the journey, American submarines infiltrated the convoy and sunk a number of ships. The POWs began to panic and attempted to get out of the hold. Lewis recalled that a Fr. Riley, a Roman Catholic priest, calmed the prisoners by leading them in "The Lord's Prayer."
The Nissyo Maru docked at Takao, Formosa, on July 27 before sailing for Moji, Japan. The ship left the next day and arrived at Moji on July 30, 1944. On August 3, the ship arrived at Moji where the POWs were disembarked and sent to
Before being sent out to work, the Japanese allowed the prisoners a few days off of work to recover from the trip. When the POWs were sent to work, they were assigned to work at a locomotive plant making charcoal. The prisoners would work ten days straight before being allowed one day off. The plant was producing speed boats for the Japanese war effort.
The prisoners worked alongside the Japanese civilians in the plant. One of these civilians was referred to as the "Little Old Man,"who was good to the POWs and tried to help them. He would give them potatoes and tobacco to make their lives a little better. Lewis recalled how the man would tell them that he had a son fighting in China and of his letters home.
In this camp the POWs worked for the Nippon Wheel Manufacturing Company producing wheels. To get to the plant, the POWs had to ride a train with the Japanese civilians. The civilians would throw their cigarette butts on the floor of the train cars. The Americans who got on the trains first were able to collect the butts. One day, Lewis attempted to beat the other POWs onto the train by diving in through a window. He was caught by a guard who called him out of the car by his number and beat him in front of the other prisoners.
The common punishment given to the POWs was to be beaten and kicked while standing at attention. Having their clothing stripped from them, and being made to stand at attention for long periods of time. Since a certain number of POWs were needed to work each day, the sick POWs who could stand were forced to work.
It was also at this camp that Lewis witnessed a prisoner put to death for stealing. One night, the man crawled into the camp kitchen to steal food. For whatever reason, the man did not get out. Realizing he would be caught, he attempted to kill himself. The Japanese allowed the man to heal and then made him stand naked in front of the other POWs. The Japanese then proceeded to starve the man to death.
In the little free time that the POWs had, they would sit around and talk about food and the meals they would have when they got home. This was one of the things that Lewis believed helped him to survive as a POW. Lewis and the other prisoners would actually feel as if they had eaten after each of these sessions.
As the war went on, American bombs fell around the camp. Lewis remembered seeing craters on both sides of the camp from raids to knock out the train station. As they went to work, the POWs counted the bomb craters.
One night, the bombers destroyed the factory that the POWs worked in. No prisoners were killed because the attack came at night. It was not too long after this that the POWs heard that they were going to be moved to another camp.
One day, the POWs heard that the emperor was going to speak to his people over loudspeakers. Through the interpreter, the POWs learned of the surrender. The camp was turned over to the POWs and the guards vanished. The guards left behind their weapons so the POWs posted guards to protect themselves against any possible attack. The POWs also marked the camp so that it could be spotted by American planes. The B-29s began dropping fifty gallon barrels of supplies to the former prisoners. On September 2, 1945, American planes appeared and dropped food to the POWs. These missions continued and the POWs also received clothing.
The strangest experience for the former prisoners was the fact the Japanese now insisted on bowing to them. It also seemed a little strange to them that the Japanese brought all the food dropped by the B-29s to them without taking anything for themselves. This was strange to Lewis and the other men, because they knew that the Japanese civilians did not have much more to eat than the former POWs. Even the "Little Old Man" refused to accept food from the Americans when it was offered. Lewis assumed that he, like the other Japanese, must have been told they would be killed if they were caught with American food. On September 4, 1945, American troops liberated the former POWs.
On September 12, 1945, the former POWs received orders to move south. They boarded trains and went to southern Japan. There they boarded the USS Rescue for medical treatment. It was on this ship that Lewis learned that he weighed 95 pounds. Since it was determined that Lewis was in pretty good health, he was boarded onto another American ship and taken to the Philippines.
Lewis returned to the United States, on the U.S.S. Yarmouth, arriving at San Francisco on October 8, 1945. He was taken to Letterman General Hospital for more medical treatment before being allowed to visit Janesville on October 18, 1945.
Of the original ninety-nine soldiers who left Janesville in November 1940, Lewis was one of only thirty-four to return home at the end of the war. He was discharged from the army on May 13, 1946.
Lewis married Phyllis Jean Hall, on August 25, 1946, and together they raised a family of ten children. Lewis Wallisch resided the rest of his life in Janesville and worked as a electrician. He was the last surviving National Guard member of A Company called to federal duty in the fall of 1940.
Lewis Wallisch passed away on October 7, 2009, and was buried, next to his wife, at Oak Hill Cemetery in Janesville, Wisconsin.