Sgt. Willard W. Von Bergen was born on October 8, 1920, to Henry and Minnie Von Bergen. With his brother,
sister and half-sister, he was raised in Park Ridge, Illinois, at 1939 West Oakton Street. His father passed
away in 1932, and his mother married William Warnke.
Willard attended Oakton Grammar School and Maine Township High School, where at fifteen
years old, he was a member of the Class of 1936. He was known as "Von" to his friends. After
high school, he worked at the Federal Reserve Bank in Chicago. He met his future wife while working there.
In 1940, Willard. along with his two best friends from Maine Township High School in Park
Jim Bashleben and
Andrew Hepburn joined the Illinois National Guard's
Maywood Tank Company together. The reason he and his friends did this was that the draft act had just passed,
and they wanted to fulfill their military obligation.
Willard, Jim and Andy went to Maywood and had an agreement that they would not enlist but see
what the National Guard had to offer them. Once in the armory, all three experienced the "divide and
conquer" method of recruitment. After entering the armory, each one was taken on a tour by guardsmen and never
saw each other until they were ready to go home. On their way home to Park Ridge, each of the friends
admitted that he had enlisted.
In November 1940, Willard went with the 33rd Tank Company to Fort Knox, Kentucky. In
September 1940, the company had been designated Company B, 192nd Tank Battalion. A typical day for the
soldiers started in 6:15 with reveille, but most of the soldiers were up before this since they wanted to wash and
dress. Breakfast was from 7:00 to 8:00 A.M., followed by calisthenics at 8:00 to 8:30. Afterwards, the
tankers went to various schools within the company. The classes consisted of .30 and .50 caliber machine
guns, pistol, map reading, care of personal equipment, military courtesy, and training in tactics.
At 11:30 the soldiers stopped what they were doing and cleaned up for mess which was from
noon to 1:00 P.M. Afterwards, they attended the various schools which they had been assigned to on January
13, such as: mechanics, tank driving, radio operating. At 4:30, the soldiers called it a day and
returned to their barracks and put on dress uniforms and at five held retreat and followed by dinner at 5:30.
After dinner, they were off duty and lights were out at 9:00 P.M., but they did not have to turn in until 10:00
when Taps was played.
During his training, Willard qualified as a member of a tank crew. He also was assigned to a tank as
Late in the summer of 1941, Willard took part in maneuvers in Louisiana
from September 1 through 30. According to members of the battalion, during the maneuvers, they broke
through the defensive perimeter of the Blue Army and on their way to capture the headquarters of General George
Patton when the maneuvers were suddenly canceled. After the maneuvers, the battalion was ordered to Camp
Polk, Louisiana, where they learned they were being sent overseas as part of Operation PLUM. Within hours,
many men had figured out they were being sent to the Philippine Islands.
The reason for this move was an event that took place in the summer of
1941. A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots, who was flying at
a lower altitude - noticed something odd. He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water
and saw another in the distance. He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to
the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island that a large radio transmitter. The island was
hundred of miles away. The squadron continued its flight plan and flew south to Mariveles before returning to
Clark Field. When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
The next day, another squadron was sent to the area and found that the buoys had been
picked up by a fishing boat that was seen making its way to shore. Since communication between the Air Corps
and Navy was poor, the boat escaped. It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American
military presence in the Philippines.
Many of the POWs were given leaves home. While on leave,
on October 8, 1941, Willard married Helen Connele. He returned to Camp Polk, two days later, with Jim
Bashleben and Andy Hepburn. Before leaving the fort, the battalion received the tanks of the 753rd Tank
After the companies were brought up to strength with replacements, the battalion was
equipped with new tanks and half-tracks with came from the 753rd Tank Battalion. The battalion traveled
over different train routes to Ft. Mason in San Francisco, California, where they were taken by the ferry, the
U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe to Angel Island. At Ft. McDowell, on the island, they received
physicals and inoculations. Men found with minor medical conditions were held back and scheduled to rejoin
the battalion at a later date. Other men were simply replaced.
The 192nd boarded the
U.S.A.T. Gen. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27. During this part of the trip, many
tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine
guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP. The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2
and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
On Wednesday, November 5, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away
from the main shipping lanes. It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the
U.S.S. Louisville and, another transport, the
S.S. President Calvin Coolidge. Sunday night, November 9, the soldiers went to bed and when they
awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11. During the night, while they slept, the ships had
crossed the International Dateline. On Saturday, November 15, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the
horizon. The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the
direction of the smoke. It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16, the ships took on water, bananas,
coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day. At one point, the ships passed an island
at night and did so in total blackout. This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent
into harm's way. The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20, and docked at
Pier 7 later that morning. At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.
Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to
unload the tanks.
At the fort, they were greeted by Gen. Edward P. King, who apologized they had to live in
tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Airfield. He made sure that they had what they
needed and received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own dinner. Ironically, November 20
was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
The members of the battalion pitched the tents in an open field halfway between the
Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg. The tents were set up in two rows and five men
were assigned to each tent. There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed
at the end of the rows of tents.
For the next seventeen days the tankers spent much of their time removing cosmoline
from their weapons. They also spent a large amount of time loading ammunition belts. The plan was
for them, with the 194th Tank Battalion, to take part in maneuvers.
On December 1, the tanks were ordered
to the perimeter of Clark Field. Two members of each
tank crew remained with their tanks at all
The morning of December 8, the officers of the battalions met and were informed of the Japanese attack on
Pearl Harbor hours earlier. The 192nd letter companies were ordered back to the perimeter of Clark
All morning long, the sky was filled with American planes. At noon, all the planes
landed and the pilots went to lunch. At 12:45 planes approached the airfield from the north. The
tankers on duty at the airfield counted 54 planes. When bombs began exploding, the men knew the planes were
Japanese. After the attack the 192nd remained at Ft. Stotsenburg for almost two weeks. They were than
sent to the Lingayen Gulf area where the Japanese had landed.
On December 21, 1941, Willard's tank platoon engaged the Japanese at Lingayen Gulf.
His platoon was selected because they had just refueled their tanks and had enough gas to make it there and
back. Willard's tank crew was under the command of 2nd Lt. Ben Morin. The platoon was sent north to
Agoo to engage the Japanese on December 22, 1941. This was the first time American tanks were involved in
tank to tank combat in World War II.
During the engagement, the tanks came under heavy enemy fire. When Lt. Morin's tank
was disabled, the remaining tanks of the platoon attempted to come to his aid. For some reason, Willard bent
over in the turret of his tank. While he was bent over, a Japanese shell came through the turret. Had he
been standing straight up in the turret, he most likely would have been killed. Instead, he received
minor wounds. His tank crew spent the next four months attempting to slow the Japanese conquest of the
On December 23 and 24, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta, where the bridge they were
going to use to cross the Agno River had been destroyed. The tankers made and end run to get south of river and
ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening but successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
On December 25, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen
to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position
until 5:30 in the morning on December 27. The tankers were fell back toward Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on
December 27th, and December were at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan on December 28 and 29.
The tankers were at Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27, and at San Isidro south of
Cabanatuan on December 28 and 29. On December 31/January 1, the tanks were stationed on both sides of the
Calumpit Bridge when they received conflicting orders, from Gen. MacArthur's chief of staff, about whose command
they were under and to withdraw from the bridge. The defenders were attempting to stop the Japanese advance down
Route 5 which would allow the Southern Luzon Forces to withdraw toward Bataan. General Wainwright was unaware of
Because of the orders, there was confusion among the Filipinos and American forces defending the
bridges over the Pampanga River and about half the defenders withdrew. Due to the efforts of the Self Propelled
Mounts, the 71st Field Artillery, and a frenzied attack by the 192nd Tank Battalion the Japanese were halted.
From January 2 to 4, the 192nd held the road open from San Fernando to Dinalupihan so the southern forces could
At 2:30 A.M., the night of January 5/6, the Japanese attacked at Remlus in force and using smoke
as cover. This attack was an attempt to destroy the tank battalions. At 5:00 A.M., the Japanese withdrew
having suffered heavy casualties.
The night of January 6/7 the tanks withdrew into the peninsula with the 192nd holding its
position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leap frog past it, cross the bridge, and then cover the 192nd's
withdraw over the bridge. The 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan, before the engineers blew up the
bridge at 6:00 A.M.
The next day, the battalion was between Culo and Hermosa and assigned a road to enter Bataan on
which was worse than having no road. The half-tracks kept throwing their rubber tracks and members of 17th
Ordnance assigned to each battalion had to re-track them in dangerous situations. After daylight, Japanese
artillery fire was landing all around the tanks.
A composite tank company was formed, the next day, under the command of Capt. Donald Haines, B
Co., 192nd. Its job was to protect the East Coast Road north of Hermosa open and to stop Japanese tanks
attempting to use it to overrun the next defensive line that was forming. While in this position, the tanks were under
constant enemy artillery fire. The rest of the tanks were ordered to bivouac south of the Abucay-Hacienda
When word came that a bridge was going to be blown, all the tanks were ordered out of the area,
which included the composite company. This could have resulted in a catastrophe, but the Japanese did not take
advantage of the situation.
The tanks bivouacked south of the Pilar-Bagac Road and about two kilometers from the East Coast
Road. It had almost been one month since the tank crews had a rest and the tanks had maintenance work done on
them by 17th Ordnance. It was also on this day that the tank platoons were reduced to three tanks per tank
platoon. The men rested and the tanks received the required maintenance. Most of the tank tracks had worn
down to bare metal and the radial engines long past their 400 hour overhauls.
It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen.
"Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will
jeopardize withdrawal. If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then
destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal
weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible
The battalions were sent to cover the junctions of the Back Road and East Road with the
Abucay-Heicienda Road on January 25th. While holding the position, the 45th Infantry, Philippine Scouts, fought
its way to the position at 3:00 A.M. One platoon was sent to the front of the the column of trucks which were
loading the troops. The tanks provided heavy fire so that the infantry could withdraw and inflicted heavy losses
on the Japanese.
Later on January 25, both the 192nd and 194th held a defensive line on the
Bakanga-Cardre-BaniBani Roads until the withdraw was completed at midnight. They held the position until the
night of January 26/27, when they dropped back to a new defensive line roughly along the Pilar-Bagac Roads. When
ordered to withdraw to the new line, the 192nd found that the bridge at Balanga, that they were suppose to use had been
destroyed by enemy fire. To withdraw, they had to use secondary roads to get around the barrio and tanks were
still straggling in at noon.
The tank battalions, on January 28, were given the job of protecting the beaches. The 192nd
was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast, while the battalion's
half-tracks were used to patrol the roads. The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches
prevented them from attempting landings.
Companies A & C were ordered to the west coast of Bataan while B Company - which was held in
reserve - and 17th Ordnance held the southern shore of Bataan. The tankers were awake all night and attempted to
sleep under the jungle canopy, during the day, which protected them from being spotted by Japanese reconnaissance
planes. During the night, they were kept busy with repeated threats both on and off shore.
On one occasion, a member of the company, who had gotten frustrated by being awakened by the
planes, had his half-track pulled out onto the beach and took pot shots at the plane. He missed the plane, but
twenty minutes later, Japanese planes appeared over the location and dropped bombs that exploded in the tree
tops. Three members of the company were killed.
The tank battalions, on their own, took up the job of protecting the airfields at Cabcaban,
Bataan, and Mariveles, since Japanese paratroopers were known to be available. The tanks and half-tracks were
well hidden in the jungle around the airfields and different plans were in place to be used against Japanese
forces. There was only one major alert in March when 73 Japanese planes came over the area.
The company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets - from January 23 to February 17 - to
wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind the main defensive line after a Japanese offensive was stopped
and pushed pack to the original line of defense. The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a
tank in the pocket. Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the pocket. Doing this was
so stressful that each tank company was rotated out and replaced by one that was being held in reserve.
To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used. The first was to have three
Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank. As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos dropped
three hand grenades into the foxhole. Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually exploded.
The other method to use to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over the
foxhole. The driver gave the other track power resulting with the tank spinning around and grinding its way
down into the foxhole. The tankers slept upwind of their tanks.
While the tanks were doing this job, the Japanese sent soldiers, with cans of gasoline,
against the tanks. These Japanese attempted to jump onto the tanks, pour gasoline into the vents on the back of
the tanks, and set the tanks on fire. If the tankers could not machine gun the Japanese before they got to a
tank, the other tanks would shoot them as they stood on a tank. The tankers did not like to do this because of
what it did to the crew inside the tank. When the bullets hit the tank, its rivets would pop and wound the men
inside the tank. It was for their performance during this battle that the 192nd Tank Battalion would receive
one of its Distinguished Unit Citations.
Since the stress on the crews was tremendous, the tanks rotated into the pocket one at a
time. A tank entered the pocket and the next tank waited for the tank that had been relieved to exit the pocket
before it would enter. This was repeated until all the tanks in the pocket were relieved.
What made this job so hard was that the Japanese dug "spider holes" among the
roots the trees. Because of this situation, the Americans could not get a good shot at the Japanese.
The tankers, from A, B, and C Companies, were able to clear the pockets. But before
this was done, one C Company tank which had gone beyond the American perimeter was disabled and the tank just sat
there. When the sun came up the next day, the tank was still sitting there. During the night, its crew
was buried alive, inside the tank, by the Japanese. When the Japanese had been wiped out, the tank was turned
upside down to remove the dirt and recover the bodies of the crew. The tank was put back into use.
At the same time the company took part in the Battle of the Points on the west coast
of Bataan. The Japanese landed troops but ended up trapped. One was the Lapay-Longoskawayan points from
January 23 to 29, the Quinawan-Aglaloma points from January 22 to February 8, and the Sililam-Anyasan points from
January 27 to February 13. The defenders successfully eliminated the points by driving their tanks along the
Japanese defensive line and firing their machine guns. The 45th Infantry, Philippine Scouts followed the tanks
eliminating any resistance and driving the Japanese Marines over the edge of the cliffs where they hid in
caves. The tanks fired into the caves killing or forcing them out of them into the sea.
The soldiers were hungry and began to eat everything they could get their hands on to
eat. The Carabao were tough but if they were cooked long enough they could be eaten. They also began to
eat horse meat provided by the 26th U. S. Cavalry. To make things worse, the soldiers' rations were cut in
half again on March 1, 1942. This meant that they only ate two meals a day.
The Japanese also were dropping surrender leaflets with a scantly clad blond on them.
The Japanese would have been more successful at getting the Americans to surrender if the picture had been hamburger,
since the men were so hungry that they most likely would have surrendered for a good meal.
In March, the amount of gasoline was reduced to 15 gallons a day for all vehicles except the
tanks. This would later be dropped to ten gallons a day. At the same time, food rations were cut in
half again. Also at this time, Gen. Weaver suggested to Gen. Wainwright that a platoon of tanks be sent to
On April 3, 1942, the Japanese launched a attack supported by artillery and
aircraft. A large force of Japanese troops came over Mount Samat and descended down the south face of the
volcano. This attack wiped out two divisions of defenders and left a large area of the defensive line open to
the Japanese. On April 7, the 57th Infantry, Philippine Scouts, supported by tanks, attempted to restore the
line, but Japanese infiltrators prevented this from happening. During this action, one tank was knocked out
but the remaining tanks successfully withdrew. C Company, 194th, was attached to the 192nd and had only seven
It was the evening of April 8 that Gen. Edward P. King decided that further resistance was
futile, since approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight, and he estimated they would last one more
day. In addition, he had over 6,000 troops who sick or wounded and 40,000 civilians who he feared would be
massacred. At 10:30 that night, he sent his staff officers to negotiate surrender terms.
Tank battalion commanders received this order
: "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within
one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat vehicles,
arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as
At about 6:45 in the morning of April 9, 1942, the tankers received the order
They circled their tanks and disabled them by firing an armor piercing shell into the engine of each
tank. They than opened the gasoline cocks inside the tanks and dropped grenades into them.
Willard was now a Prisoner of War. After the Japanese made contact with them, the
tankers made their way to Mariveles at the southern tip of Bataan. It was from there that they started what
they called "the march."
The tankers made their way north along the east coast of Bataan. The first five
kilometers were uphill which made the march more difficult. At one point, the POWs ran past Japanese
artillery which was firing on Corregidor which had not surrendered. When they reached San Fernanado, the POWs
were put in a bull pen which was covered in human waste. In one corner was a trench that served as a
toilet. The surface of the trench moved from the maggots that covered it.
The Japanese organized the POWs into detachments of 100 men. They marched them to
the train station and packed them into small wooden boxcars known as "forty or eights." This
referred to the fact that each car could hold forty men or eight horses, but the Japanese packed 100 POWs into each
During the trip to Capas, those POWs who died remained standing until the living left the
cars at Capas. From there, the POWs marched last miles to Camp O'Donnell, which was an unfinished
Filipino training base that was pressed into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942.
When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese confiscated any extra clothing that the POWs
had and refused to return it to them. They searched the POWs and if a man was found to have Japanese money on
them, they were taken to the guardhouse. Over the next several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of
the camp. These POWs had been executed for looting.
There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two to
eight hours waiting for a drink. The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and the
next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again. This situation
improved when a second faucet was added.
There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing when it
had been soiled. In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the camp and
mess kits could not be washed. The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon overflowing since
most of the POWs had dysentery. The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp including the POW
kitchens and in the food.
The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant. When the ranking American
doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies, he
was told never to write another letter. When the Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to
the camp, Tsuneyoshi refused to allow the truck into the camp. When the Japanese Red Cross sent medical
supplies to the camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six
medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them. When a representative of the
Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150 bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a
Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to the
hospital and placed underneath it. The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried in the
camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and malaria. To clean the ground under the
hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it. The bodies of the dead were placed in the area,
and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
Work details were sent out on a daily basis. Each day, the American doctors gave a
list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work. If the quota of POWs needed to
work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick, but could walk, to work. The death rate
among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day.
It was while he was a prisoner at Camp O'Donnell, Willard went out on a work detail to
rebuild bridges in Bataan. On this detail, he was reunited with his friend Jim Bashleben. The
commanding officer of the detail was Lt. Col. Ted Wickord of the 192nd Tank Battalion, who attempted to fill the
detail with as many of his own men as he could.
According to Jim Bashleben, Willard was working on this detail when he became ill and was
sent to Cabanatuan Camp #1. Records kept by the medical staff show that Willard was admitted to the camp
hospital on Sunday, July 5, 1942, suffering from malaria and dysentery and assigned to Barracks 28. Records
also show that he died of dysentery and malaria on Tuesday, August 11, 1942, at 6:30 P.M.
When Willard's high school friend, Jim Bashleben, was given the chance to send a postcard home as a POW, he
said "hello" to Miss Helen Connele. He hoped by doing this that Helen would know that her husband was
dead. After the war when Jim returned home, Helen told him that as soon as she read his greeting she knew her
husband was dead.
Sgt. Willard Von Bergen's wife and family officially learned of his death
on June 1, 1943. A memorial service was held at Saint Luke's Lutheran Church in Park Ridge, Illinois, on
June 5, 1943.
After the war, the remains of Sgt. Willard Von Bergen were interred in Plot J, Row 4, Grave
13, at the American Military Cemetery outside Manila.