S/Sgt. Carl H. Vest
Born: 9 June 1914 - Richland, Indiana
Parents: Franklin R. Vest & Glaydis Grace Hasler-Vest
    - mother died in 1915
Siblings: 1 sister, 3 brothers
Hometown: Bloomfield, Indiana
    - 1940 - Canal Zone, Panama
Education: two years of college
Married: Josie E. Basham - 1940
Children: 1 daughter, 1 son
Occupation: foreman
    - 15 January 1938
        - U. S. Army
    - Fort Knox, Kentucky
    - 19th Ordnance Battalion
        - learned to maintain 567 different vehicles used by the Army
        - maintained and repaired weapons used by a tank battalion
        - August 1941 - battalion takes part in maneuvers in Arkansas
            - A company ordered back to Ft. Knox
    - 17th Ordnance Company
        - 17 August 1941 - A Company reorganized as 17th Ordnance Company
Note: On August 15, 1941, 17th Ordnance received orders for duty in the Philippines because of an event that happened during the summer.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a buoy in the water.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island, with a large radio transmitter, hundred of miles away.  The squadron continued its flight plane and flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field.  By the time the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
    The next morning, another squadron was sent to the area and found that the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat which was seen making its way toward shore.  Since communication between and Air Corps and Navy was poor, the boat was not intercepted.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
Overseas Duty:
    -  1 September  1941 -
        - company traveled by train to San Francisco, California
    - Arrived: 5 September 1941
        - ferried to Ft. McDowell, Angel Island on U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
        - given physicals and inoculations
        - men with medical conditions replaced
        - spent most of their time preparing equipment for shipment to the Philippines
        - removed turrets from tanks of the 194th Tank Battalion
            - spray painted tank's serial number on turret so that it could be attached to correct tank
    - Ship: S.S. President Calvin Coolidge
        - Boarded: San Francisco, California - Monday - 8 September 1941
        - Sailed: 9:00 P.M.
        - Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii - Saturday - 13 September 1941
            - soldiers received shore leave for the day
        - Sailed: 5:00 P.M.
        - Tuesday - 16 August 1941 - crossed International Dateline
            - date changed to - Thursday - 18August 1941
        - Arrived; Manila, Philippine Islands - Friday - 26 September 1941
            - 17th Ordnance remained at pier and unloaded the tanks of the 194th Tank Battalion
                - reattached turrets of tanks
        - rode bus to Fort Stotsenburg
        - lived in tents - barracks completed - 15 November 1941
    - Battle of Luzon
        - 8 December 1941 - 6 January 1942
    - Battle of Bataan
        - 7 January 1942 - 9 April 1942
        - headquartered in an abandoned ordnance depot building
        - serviced the tanks of the 192nd & 194th Tank Battalions
Prisoner of War:
    - 9 April 1942
        - Death March
- Mariveles - POWs start march at southern tip of Bataan
            - POWs ran past Japanese artillery firing at Corregidor
                - Americans on Corregidor returned fire
            - San Fernando - POWs put into small wooden boxcars
                - each boxcar could hold eight horses or forty men
                - 100 POWs packed into each car
                - POWs who died remained standing
            - Capas - dead fell to floor as living left boxcars

POW Camps:
    - Philippine Islands
            - 1 April 1942 - unfinished Filipino training base Japanese put into use as a POW camp
                - Japanese believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs
            - POWs searched upon arrival at camp
                - those found with Japanese money were accused of looting
                - sent to guardhouse
                - over several days, gun shots heard southeast of the camp
                    - POWs who had money on them had been executed
            - Japanese took away any extra clothing from POWs as they entered the camp and refused to return it
                - since no water was available for wash clothing, the POWs threw soiled clothing away
                - clothing was taken from dead
                - few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing
            - POWs were not allowed to bathe
            - only one water spigot for entire camp
                - POWs waited 2 hours to 8 hours to get a drink
                    - water frequently turned off by Japanese guards and next man in line waited as long as 4 hours for water to be turned on again
                    - mess kits could not be cleaned
                - POWs had to carry water 3 miles from a river to cook their meals
                - second water spigot installed a week after POWs arrived
            - slit trenches overflowed since many of the POWs had dysentery
                - flies were everywhere including in camp kitchens and food
            - camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant
            - the senior POW doctor wrote a list of medicines he wanted to treat the sick and was told by the camp commandant, Capt. Yoshio
              Tsuneyoshi, never to write another letter
                - Tsuneyoshi said that all he wanted to know about the American POWs was their names and numbers when they died
                - refused to allow a truckload of medicine sent by the Archbishop of Manila into the camp
                - 95% of the medicine sent by Philippine Red Cross was taken by the Japanese for their own use
            - POWs in camp hospital lay on floor elbow to elbow
            - operations on POWs were performed with mess kit knives
            - only one medic out of six assigned to care for 50 sick POWs, in the hospital, was well enough to work
            - as many as 50 POWs died each day
                - each morning dead were found everywhere in the camp and stacked up under the hospital
                - ground under hospital was scrapped and cover with lime to clean it
                - the dead were moved to this area and the section where they had laid was scrapped and cover with lime
                - usually not buried for two or three days
            - work details: if a POW could walk, he was sent out on a work detail
                - POWs on burial detail often had dysentery and malaria
                    - to bury the dead, the POWs held the body down with a pole while it was covered with dirt
                    - the next day when they returned, the bodies often were sitting up in the graves or had been dug up by wild dogs
            -POWs volunteered to go out on work details to get out of camp
        - Cabanatuan
            - original name - Camp Panagaian
            - Philippine Army Base built for 91st Philippine Army Division
            - camp had been opened to lower death rate among POWs
            - three camps
                - Camp #1
                    - housed POWs captured on Bataan
                - Camp #2
                    - 2 miles from Camp 1
                    - closed because of lack of adequate water
                    - later reopened and used to house Naval POWs
                - Camp #3
                    - 6 miles from Camp 2
                    - POWs taken on Corregidor sent there
                    - POWs from Bataan hospitals also sent there
                    - later closed and the POWs were sent to Camp 1
        - Camp Administration:
            - the Japanese left POWs to run the camp on their own
                - Japanese entered camp when they had a reason
                - POWs patrolled fence to prevent escapes
                    - Note: men who attempted to escape were recaptured
                    - Japanese beat them for days
                    - executed them
            - Blood Brother Rule
                - POWs put into groups of ten
                    - if one escaped the others would be executed
                    - housed in same barracks
                    - worked on details together
            - Barracks:
                - each barracks held 50 men
                    - often held between 60 and 120 men
                    - slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, and mosquito netting
                        - diseases spread easily
                    - no showers
            - Morning Roll Call:
                - stood at attention
                    - frequently beaten over their heads for no reason
                - when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in
                  their shins with their hobnailed boots because they didn't like the way the POWs lined up
            - Work Details:
                - 7:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
                    - worked 6 days a week
                        - had Sunday off
                - work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens and plant rice
                    - they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
                - POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on
                - the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
                - if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn't doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
                - many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
            - daily POW meal
                - 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn
                - rice was main staple, few vegetables or fruits
        - Camp Hospital:
            - 30 Wards
                - each ward could hold 40 men
                    - frequently had 100 men in each
               - two tiers of bunks
                   - sickest POWs on bottom tier
               - each POW had a 2 foot by 6 foot area to lie in
            - Zero Ward
                - given name because it had been missed when counting wards
                - became ward where those who were going to die were sent
                - fenced off from other wards
                    - Japanese guards would not go near it
                    - POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving
                    - medical staff had little to no medicine to treat sick
                    - many deaths from disease caused by malnutrition
        - Burial Detail:
            - POWs worked in teams of four men to bury dead
                - carried as many as six dead POWs in slings to cemetery
                - buried in graves that contained 16 to 20 bodies

Hell Ship:
     - 5 October 1942 - POWs left Cabanatuan for Manila
         - housed in warehouse on Pier 7
    - Tottori Maru
        - 7 October 1942 - POWs boarded ship
            - 1961 POWs board ship
                - 500 POWs put in front hold
                - remainder in rear hold
        - Sailed: Manila - 8 October 1942
            - Note: 9 October 1942 - American submarine fired two torpedoes at ship
            - ship passes mine laid by American submarine
        - Arrived: Takao, Formosa - 12 October 1942
        - Sailed: 16 October 1942
            - returned to Takao
        - Sailed: 18 October 1942
        - Arrived: 18 October 1942
            - anchored off the Pescadores Islands - same day
            - remained anchor for several days
                - two POWs die - buried at sea
        - Sailed: 27 October 1942
        - Arrived: Takao - 27 October 1942
            - 28 October 1942 - POWs taken ashore and bathed
        - Sailed: 30 October 1942
        - Arrived: Makon and Pescadores Islands - same day
        - Sailed: 31 October 1942
        - Arrived: Fusan, Korea - 7 November 1942
            - 8 November 1942 - POWs disembark ship
            - sick left behind at Fuson
        - Arrived: Mukden, Manchuria - 11 November 1942

POW Camp:
    - Manchuria
        - Mukden
            - POWs worked in machine shop
               Note: Website on camp can be reached at: mukdenpows.org
Hospitalized - Mukden Prisoner of War Hospital
    - Friday - 26 February 1943 - dysentery & beriberi
        - bodies of POWs stored in warehouse until ground thawed
    - Camp Cemetery - Plot 12. Grave 2
Remains Returned Home:
    - U.S.S. Cardinal O'Connell
        - February 1948
    - Walnut Grove Cemetery - Park, Indiana
        - headstone indicates he died in 1942
        - military records indicate he died in 1943
        - buried next to his brother who died as a teenager



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