S/Sgt. Carl H. Vest
Born: 9 June 1914 - Richland, Indiana
Parents: Franklin R. Vest & Glaydis Grace Hasler-Vest
    - mother died in 1915
Siblings: 1 sister, 3 brothers
Hometown: Bloomfield, Indiana
    - 1940 - Canal Zone, Panama
Education: two years of college
Married: Josie E. Basham - 1940
Children: 1 daughter, 1 son
Occupation: foreman
Enlisted:
    - 15 January 1938
        - U. S. Army
Training:
    - Fort Knox, Kentucky
Unit:
    - 19th Ordnance Battalion
        - learned to maintain 567 different vehicles used by the Army
        - maintained and repaired weapons used by a tank battalion
        - August 1941 - battalion takes part in maneuvers in Arkansas
            - A company ordered back to Ft. Knox
    - 17th Ordnance Company
        - 17 August 1941 - A Company reorganized as 17th Ordnance Company
Note: On August 15, 1941, 17th Ordnance received orders for duty in the Philippines because of an event that happened during the summer.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a buoy in the water.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island, with a large radio transmitter, hundred of miles away.  The squadron continued its flight plane and flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field.  By the time the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
    The next morning, another squadron was sent to the area and found that the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat which was seen making its way toward shore.  Since communication between and Air Corps and Navy was poor, the boat was not intercepted.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
Overseas Duty:
    -  1 September  1941 -
        - company traveled by train to San Francisco, California
    - Arrived: 5 September 1941
        - ferried to Ft. McDowell, Angel Island on U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
        - given physicals and inoculations
        - men with medical conditions replaced
        - spent most of their time preparing equipment for shipment to the Philippines
        - removed turrets from tanks of the 194th Tank Battalion
            - spray painted tank's serial number on turret so that it could be attached to correct tank
    - Ship: S.S. President Calvin Coolidge
        - Boarded: San Francisco, California - Monday - 8 September 1941
        - Sailed: 9:00 P.M.
        - Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii - Saturday - 13 September 1941
            - soldiers received shore leave for the day
        - Sailed: 5:00 P.M.
        - Tuesday - 16 August 1941 - crossed International Dateline
            - date changed to - Thursday - 18August 1941
        - Arrived; Manila, Philippine Islands - Friday - 26 September 1941
            - 17th Ordnance remained at pier and unloaded the tanks of the 194th Tank Battalion
                - reattached turrets of tanks
        - rode bus to Fort Stotsenburg
        - lived in tents - barracks completed - 15 November 1941
 Engagements:
    - Battle of Luzon
        - 8 December 1941 - 6 January 1942
    - Battle of Bataan
        - 7 January 1942 - 9 April 1942
        - headquartered in an abandoned ordnance depot building
        - serviced the tanks of the 192nd & 194th Tank Battalions
Prisoner of War:
    - 9 April 1942
        - men received word of the surrender from Capt. Richard Kadel
        - prepared a meal with all their remaining food
        - moved to a pass and waited for the Japanese
           - while there, they were strafed and bombed by Japanese planes
    - 10 April 1942
        - Japanese arrived and ordered POWs to move
        - Death March
            
- Mariveles - POWs start march at southern tip of Bataan
            - POWs ran past Japanese artillery firing at Corregidor
                - Americans on Corregidor returned fire
            - San Fernando - POWs put into small wooden boxcars
                - each boxcar could hold eight horses or forty men
                - 100 POWs packed into each car
                - POWs who died remained standing
            - Capas - dead fell to floor as living left boxcars

POW Camps:
    - Philippine Islands
            - 1 April 1942 - unfinished Filipino training base Japanese put into use as a POW camp
                - Japanese believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs
            - POWs searched upon arrival at camp
                - those found with Japanese money were accused of looting
                - sent to guardhouse
                - over several days, gun shots heard southeast of the camp
                    - POWs who had money on them had been executed
            - Japanese took away any extra clothing from POWs as they entered the camp and refused to return it
                - since no water was available for wash clothing, the POWs threw soiled clothing away
                - clothing was taken from dead
                - few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing
            - POWs were not allowed to bathe
            - only one water spigot for entire camp
                - POWs waited 2½ hours to 8 hours to get a drink
                    - water frequently turned off by Japanese guards and next man in line waited as long as 4 hours for water to be turned on again
                    - mess kits could not be cleaned
                - POWs had to carry water 3 miles from a river to cook their meals
                - second water spigot installed a week after POWs arrived
            - slit trenches overflowed since many of the POWs had dysentery
                - flies were everywhere including in camp kitchens and food
            - camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant
            - the senior POW doctor wrote a list of medicines he wanted to treat the sick and was told by the camp commandant, Capt. Yoshio
              Tsuneyoshi, never to write another letter
                - Tsuneyoshi said that all he wanted to know about the American POWs was their names and numbers when they died
                - refused to allow a truckload of medicine sent by the Archbishop of Manila into the camp
                - 95% of the medicine sent by Philippine Red Cross was taken by the Japanese for their own use
            - POWs in camp hospital lay on floor elbow to elbow
            - operations on POWs were performed with mess kit knives
            - only one medic out of six assigned to care for 50 sick POWs, in the hospital, was well enough to work
            - as many as 50 POWs died each day
                - each morning dead were found everywhere in the camp and stacked up under the hospital
                - ground under hospital was scrapped and cover with lime to clean it
                - the dead were moved to this area and the section where they had laid was scrapped and cover with lime
                - usually not buried for two or three days
            - work details: if a POW could walk, he was sent out on a work detail
                - POWs on burial detail often had dysentery and malaria
                    - to bury the dead, the POWs held the body down with a pole while it was covered with dirt
                    - the next day when they returned, the bodies often were sitting up in the graves or had been dug up by wild dogs
            -POWs volunteered to go out on work details to get out of camp
        - Cabanatuan
            - original name - Camp Panagaian
            - Philippine Army Base built for 91st Philippine Army Division
            - camp had been opened to lower death rate among POWs
            - three camps
                - Camp #1
                    - housed POWs captured on Bataan
                - Camp #2
                    - 2 miles from Camp 1
                    - closed because of lack of adequate water
                    - later reopened and used to house Naval POWs
                - Camp #3
                    - 6 miles from Camp 2
                    - POWs taken on Corregidor sent there
                    - POWs from Bataan hospitals also sent there
                    - later closed and the POWs were sent to Camp 1
        - Camp Administration:
            - the Japanese left POWs to run the camp on their own
                - Japanese entered camp when they had a reason
                - POWs patrolled fence to prevent escapes
                    - Note: men who attempted to escape were recaptured
                    - Japanese beat them for days
                    - executed them
            - Blood Brother Rule
                - POWs put into groups of ten
                    - if one escaped the others would be executed
                    - housed in same barracks
                    - worked on details together
            - Barracks:
                - each barracks held 50 men
                    - often held between 60 and 120 men
                    - slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, and mosquito netting
                        - diseases spread easily
                    - no showers
            - Morning Roll Call:
                - stood at attention
                    - frequently beaten over their heads for no reason
                - when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in
                  their shins with their hobnailed boots because they didn't like the way the POWs lined up
            - Work Details:
                - 7:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
                    - worked 6 days a week
                        - had Sunday off
                - work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens and plant rice
                    - they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
                - POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on
                - the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
                - if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn't doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
                - many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
            - daily POW meal
                - 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn
                - rice was main staple, few vegetables or fruits
        - Camp Hospital:
            - 30 Wards
                - each ward could hold 40 men
                    - frequently had 100 men in each
               - two tiers of bunks
                   - sickest POWs on bottom tier
               - each POW had a 2 foot by 6 foot area to lie in
            - Zero Ward
                - given name because it had been missed when counting wards
                - became ward where those who were going to die were sent
                - fenced off from other wards
                    - Japanese guards would not go near it
                    - POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving
                    - medical staff had little to no medicine to treat sick
                    - many deaths from disease caused by malnutrition
        - Burial Detail:
            - POWs worked in teams of four men to bury dead
                - carried as many as six dead POWs in slings to cemetery
                - buried in graves that contained 16 to 20 bodies

Hell Ship:
     - 5 October 1942 - POWs left Cabanatuan for Manila
         - housed in warehouse on Pier 7
    - Tottori Maru
        - 7 October 1942 - POWs boarded ship
            - 1961 POWs board ship
                - 500 POWs put in front hold
                - remainder in rear hold
        - Sailed: Manila - 8 October 1942
            - Note: 9 October 1942 - American submarine fired two torpedoes at ship
            - ship passes mine laid by American submarine
        - Arrived: Takao, Formosa - 12 October 1942
        - Sailed: 16 October 1942
            - returned to Takao
        - Sailed: 18 October 1942
        - Arrived: 18 October 1942
            - anchored off the Pescadores Islands - same day
            - remained anchor for several days
                - two POWs die - buried at sea
        - Sailed: 27 October 1942
        - Arrived: Takao - 27 October 1942
            - 28 October 1942 - POWs taken ashore and bathed
        - Sailed: 30 October 1942
        - Arrived: Makon and Pescadores Islands - same day
        - Sailed: 31 October 1942
        - Arrived: Fusan, Korea - 7 November 1942
            - 8 November 1942 - POWs disembark ship
            - sick left behind at Fuson
        - Arrived: Mukden, Manchuria - 11 November 1942

POW Camp:
    - Manchuria
    - Mukden, Manchuria
        - Hoten Camp
            - POW Number:  167
            - Barracks:
                - two story brick buildings
                - buildings had electricity and cold running water
                - heated with "petchka" stoves
                    - provided adequate heat
                - building infested with fleas, bedbugs, and lice
                - divided into ten sections
                    - five on first floor and five on second floor
                    - each section divided into four double-decked sleeping bays
                        - 8 POWs slept in a bay
                        - 48 POWs slept in a section
        - Meals:
            - Breakfast: corn meal mush, beans, bun
            - Lunch: maize and beans
            - Supper: beans and a bun
                 - POWs made snares to catch wild dogs that roamed into camp
                 - stopped catching dogs when one was saw eating the body of a dead Chinese civilian
            - Food rations were cut in half if the Japanese believed one POW was not working hard enough
        - Hospital:
            - many of POWs who died in the camp died due illnesses caused by malnutrition
                - many of those who died, died from illnesses that could be treated
                - over 200 POWs died the first winter in the camp
                - POWs who died during winter were stored in a building until the ground thawed and they could be buried
            - Japanese doctor, Jeichi Kumashima, denied Red Cross medicine to the POWs
                - overruled American doctors on who was ill
                    - sick forced to work
                - later found guilty of war crimes and hanged
            - Juro Oki, Japanese civilian doctor who smuggled medicine into the camp for POWs
                - would have been shot if he had been caught
            - is known Carl was hospitalized at some point
        - Work:
            - POWs worked in machine shop and lumber mill
            - walked 3 miles to factories
            - 7:30 A.M. until 5:30 or 6:00 P.M.
            - Japanese wanted POWs to produce guns
            - committed acts of sabotage to prevent anything useful from being made
                - Japanese blamed the Chinese workers because they believed the Americans were too stupid to commit the sabotage
            - POWs sabotaged machines by dropping sand in oiling holes
            - while poring cement, the POWs would drop pieces of machines into the cement to sabotage them
        - Punishment:
            - POWs kicked, hit with clubs, sticks, bamboo poles, shoe heals, sabers, and fists
            - any reason used to beat them
            - Collective Punishment:
                - when the Japanese suspected some POWs had smuggled cigarettes into their barracks, all the POWs were ordered outside and
                  stood at attention
                - POWs ordered to strip and stood nude in the code
                - stood in snow barefooted for hours as the barracks and the 700 POWs, who lived in it were searched
            - Eiichai Nada - guard
                - was considered the worse abuser of POWs
                - born, raised, and educated in Berkley, California
                  - frequently beat POWs at morning assembly
                     - when they fell to the ground he screamed at them
                     - "Get up, you yellow, white son of a bitch!"
            - Lt. Mikki - walked through the barracks with a 3 foot and hit the POWs with it
                - on one occasion, the POWs were ordered to remove their shoes
            - Lt. Murado, beat each man with his own shoes
        - Red Cross clothing withheld from POWs
            - Chinese told them there was a warehouse full of Red Cross clothing
        - Unit 731:
            - POWs from camp selected to be used in Japanese germ warfare experiments
                - injected with deadly diseases
                - some of these men were dissected while alive
Note: Japanese medical officer, Jeichi Kuwashima, asked the POWs, wounded from bombings, to write letters asking the Allies to stop the bombing of Mukden.  The POWs did write the letters but told the Allies that they wouldn't mind more frequent bombings.
Extermination Order:
    - Camp commander received order to march the POWs into the forest and execute them
    - 16 August 1945 - Four American OSS officers parachuted into camp and told the commander the war was over
    - the team was held as POWs for one night and sent to Sian Camp
        - this was the camp where high ranking officers were imprisoned
Liberated: 20 August 1945 - Russian Army arrives
    - B-29s appeared over area where the POWs lit oil drums to signal planes with smoke
        - lead plane came down and saw the POWs
        - circle and dropped medical supplies, food, and clothing to POWs
    - American planes dropped walkie-talkies to POWs
        - allowed POWs to talk to air crews
            - POWs told the crews what they wanted
            - planes dropped them ice cream to now fiddle strings
    - 29 August 1945 - American Recovery Team enters camp
        - POWs taken by train to Dalian, China
        - taken by ship to Okinawa
        - returned to the Philippine Islands
Died:
    - Friday - 26 February 1943 - dysentery & beriberi
        - bodies of POWs stored in warehouse until ground thawed
Buried:
    - Camp Cemetery - Plot 12. Grave 2
Remains Returned Home:
    - U.S.A.T. Cardinal O'Connell
        - February 1948
Reburied:
    - Walnut Grove Cemetery - Park, Indiana
        - headstone indicates he died in 1942
        - military records indicate he died in 1943
        - buried next to his brother who died as a teenager



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