Sgt. Walter Vaughn
Born: 1912 - Illinois
Parents: Frank Vaughn & Nellie Lowe-Vaughn
Siblings: 1 sister, 2 brothers
Hometown: Raleigh. Kentucky
    - U.S. Army
        - 9 January 1941 - Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana
    - Fort Knox, Kentucky
    - 19th Ordnance Battalion
        - trained alongside 192nd Tank Battalion at Ft. Knox
        - learned to repair the 57 different vehicles used by the Army
        - August 1941 - maneuvers in Arkansas
            - A Company ordered to Ft. Knox
    - 17th Ordnance Company
        - 17 August 1941  A Company designated 17th Ordnance Company
             - received overseas orders the same day
Note: The decision for this move - which had been made in August 1941 - was the result of an event that took place in the summer of 1941.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island which was hundred of miles away.  The island had a large radio transmitter.  The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
    When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.  The next day, when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its deck - which was seen making its way to shore.   Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult, the boat escaped.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
Overseas Duty:
    - rode train to Ft. Mason, San Francisco, California
        - Arrived: 7:30 A.M. - 6 September 1941
    - ferried on U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe to Angel Island
        - given physicals and inoculated by battalion's medical detachment
        - men with medical conditions replaced
    - Ship: S.S. President Calvin Coolidge
        - Boarded: Monday - 8 September 1941 - 3:00 P.M.
        - Sailed: 9:00 P.M. - same day
        - Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii - Saturday - 13 September 1941 - 7:00 A.M.
        - Sailed: 5:00 P.M. - same day
            - escorted by the heavy cruiser, U.S.S. Astoria, and unknown destroyer
                - smoke seen on horizon several times
                -  cruiser intercepted ships which turned out to be from neutral countries
        - Arrived: Manila - Friday - 26 September 1941
            - disembark ship - 3:00 P.M.
            - taken by bus to Fort Stostenburg
            - maintenance section with 17th ordnance remained behind to unload the tanks and attached turrets
                -27 September 1941 - job completed at 9:00 A.M.
    - Stationed:
        - Ft. Stotsenburg, Philippine Islands
            - lived in tents until barracks completed - 15 November 1941

      - Rank: Corporal
    - Battle of Luzon
        - 8 December 1941 - 6 January 1942
            - lived through attack on Clark Field
            - HQ Company remained in battalion bivouac
                - members took cover in dry latrine
            - lived through two more heavy attacks on December 10 and 13
        - 15 December 1941
            - each battalion received 15 Bren Gun Carriers
            - used to see if ground could support tanks
        - 21 December 1941
            - 192nd ordered to support 26th Cavalry, Philippine Scouts at Lingayen Gulf
            - Japanese landing troops
            - HQ Company went north to support tank companies wherever they were
        - 22 December 1941 - first tank battle
        - tanks make run to Damortis
            - tanks supported 26th Cavalry
            - 26th Cavalry did not want tank support
            - 71st Division Commander said that they would clutter up their action
        - 23/24 December 1941
            - operated north of the Agno River
            - main bridge at Carmen blown
            - tank battalions made end runs to get south of Agno River
        - 24 December 1941
            - tank battalions held line along south bank of Agno River
                - 192nd held left side of line from west of Carmen (on Route 3)
                - critical points - held position for 24 hours
        - 25/26 December 1941 - tank battalions organized tank defenses
            - 192nd held line from Carmen (Route 3) to Tayug - northeast of San Quentin
                - critical points held by tanks
                - some tanks only in radio contact with each other
                - ordered to hold position until 5:00 A.M. - 27 December 1941
        - 26/27 December 1941
            - 192nd tanks ordered to form new defensive line from Carmen to Umigan
            - destroyed most of 44,000 gallons of 100-octane gas
        - 27 December 1941 - withdrew from line that night
            - formed new line: Santa Ignacia - Gerona - Santo Tomas - San Jose
        - 27/28 December 1941 - withdrew
            - formed new line: Tarlac - Cabanatuan
        - 28/29 December 1941
         - dropped back and formed: Bamban Gapan Line
        - 29/30 December 1941
            - new line behind Bamban River
                - ordered to hold until they received further orders
        - 31 December 1941/1 January 1942
            - tanks covering area north of Calumpit
        - 2 January 1942 - tanks ordered to Lyac Junction to covering position
            - cover withdrawal toward Bataan
            - 192nd covered northwest flanks
            - 194th withdrew covered by 192nd
        - 6 January 1942
            - tank battalions held line between Culis and Hermosa
        - 6/7 January 1942
            - 192nd covered withdrawal of 194th
            - 192nd last American unit to enter Bataan
                - bridge blown after it crossed
    - Battle of Bataan
        - 7 January 1942 - 9 April 1942
        - 8 January 1942 - composite tank company created
            - held East Coast Road open
            - under constant enemy fire
            - tank battalions bivouac just south of Pilar-Bagac Road
                - tank companies reduced to 10 tanks
                - HQ Company and 17th Ordnance do needed maintenance on tanks
        - 13 January 1942 - tanks dropped back to battalion bivouac
        - 20 January 1942 - withdrawal from Abucay-Hacienda Line
            - 192nd covered East Coast Road
        - 25 January 1942 - Balanga-the Cadre Road-Bani Bani Road
Note:  It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver, "Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal.  If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay."
        - 25/26 January 1942
            - Balanga - bridge battalion was to use destroyed by artillery fire
            - battalion had to use alternate roads west of Balanga
        - 28 January 1942 - beach duty
            - 192nd from Pandan Point to Limay
            - also was suppose to support sub-sectors A and B
            - during day tanks remained under jungle canopy
            - at night the tanks were moved onto beaches
        - 31 January 1942
            - half-tracks patrolled roads
        - 1 February 1942
            - tanks and half-tracks take on protecting three airfields
    - Battle of the Pockets
        - Japanese attacked and were pushed back creating two pockets behind the main defensive line
            - tanks sent in to wipe out pockets
            - tanks would enter pocket one at a time
            - another tank would not enter until tank that was relieved left the pocket
            - first method used against Japanese
                - three Filipinos soldiers rode on back of tanks
               - as tank passed over Japanese foxhole, Filipinos dropped three hand grenades into foxhole
                   - one of the three hand grenades usually exploded
            - second method used against Japanese
                - tank would park with one track over foxhole
                - tank driver gave power to other track causing the tank to spin
                - tank ground its way into ground
        - March 1942
            - Japanese had been fought to a standstill
            - suffered from same illnesses affecting Americans
        - 3 April 1942
            - fresh troops brought in from Singapore
            - lunch major offense
        - 6 April 1942
            - tanks sent to various areas in attempt to plug holes in defensive line
        - 8 April 1942
            - Gen. Edward P. King
                - determined only 25% of his troops were healthy enough to fight
                    - would last one more day
                - feared that the 6000 troops who were hospitalized and 40000 Filipino civilians would be slaughtered
                - 10:30 P.M. - sent staff officers to meet with Japanese and negotiate surrender terms
Note:  Tank battalion commanders received this order, "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished." 
        - 11:40 P.M. - ammunition dumps blown up
Promoted: Sergeant
Prisoner of War
    - 9 April 1942
        - Death March
            - POWs started march at Mariveles on the southern tip of Bataan
            - ran past Japanese artillery firing on Corregidor
                - American artillery returned fire
            - San Fernando - POWs packed into small wooden boxcars

                - each boxcar could hold eight horses or forty men
                - Japanese packed 100 POWs into each boxcar
                - POWs who died remained standing  in cars.
            - Capas - POWs leave boxcars - dead fall out of cars
            - POWs walked last ten miles to Camp O'Donnell
POW Camps:
    - Philippines:
        - Camp O'Donnell
            - unfinished Filipino Army training base
            - Japanese put it into use as a POW camp
            - one water spigot for the entire camp
            - as many as fifty POWs died each day
        - Cabanatuan
            - hospitalized - Saturday - 24 October 1942 - amoebic  dysentery
    - Wednesday - 25 November 1942 - dysentery
    - approximate time of death - 3:40 AM
    - Cabanatuan Camp Cemetery
        - remains could not be positively identified
        - buried as an "Unknown" at the new American cemetery
    - Tablets of the Missing - American Military Cemetery - Manila, Philippine Islands
Posthumously Promoted: Sergeant



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