Pfc. Herman Talley
    Pfc. Herman Talley was born on June 26, 1922, in Fordsville, Kentucky.  He was one of five children born to Lawrence O. Talley & Zuma Mosley-Talley.  Besides Herman, only one sister and brother would reach adulthood.  He was living in Whitesville, Daviess County, Kentucky, working as a farmer, when he enlisted in the U.S. Army at Fort Knox, Kentucky, on September 30, 1940.
    Herman was sent to Fort Knox, Kentucky, and became a member of the 19th Ordnance Battalion and learned how to do maintenance on 57 different vehicles used by the Army.  He also received training in repairing and maintaining guns.   The 19th trained alongside the 192nd Tank Battalion at Ft. Knox.  On August 17, 1941, A Company of the battalion was designated the 17th Ordnance Company and received orders to go overseas.
    The decision for this move - which had been made on August 15, 1941 - was the result of an event that took place in the summer of 1941.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island which was hundred of miles away.  The island had a large radio transmitter.  The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
     When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.  The next day, when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its deck - which was seen making its way to shore.  Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult, the boat escaped.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
    While traveling west by train, the company learned they were being sent to the Philippines.  They arrived at Ft. Mason in San Francisco, California, on September 5 and were ferried by the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island.  There, they received physicals and inoculated.  Men found to have medical conditions were replaced.
     On the island, the company went to work removing the turrets from the tanks.  They spray painted the tank's serial number on the turret so they would be reattached to the turrets to right tanks.  The reason this was done was the hold's ceiling was too low for the tanks to fit with their turrets on them.  They also cosmolined weapons to prevent them from rusting.
    On Monday, September 8, 1941, they boarded the S.S. Calvin Coolidge.  At 9:00 P.M. the same day, the ship sailed for the Philippines.  A 7:00 A.M. on Saturday, September 13th, the ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, at 7:00 A.M.  It sailed the same day at 5:00 P.M.  The ship took a southerly route and was joined by the U.S.S. Astoria, and an unknown destroyer, which were its escorts.
    On several occasions, smoke was seen on the horizon and the Astoria took off to intercept the unknown ship.  Each time the ship was from a neutral country.
    The ships crossed the International Date Line on Tuesday, September 16, and suddenly, it was Thursday, September 18.  The morning of September 26th at 7:00 A.M., the ship entered Manila Bay.  The soldiers disembarked at 3:00 P.M. later that day, and 17th Ordnance, with the maintenance section of the 194th Tank Battalion, remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks of the 194th and reattach the turrets.  The men took turns sleeping on the ship that night and completed the work by 7:00 A.M. the next day.
    For the next few months, the company members familiarized themselves with the M3 Stuart tank and the other vehicles of the tank battalion.  The 192nd Tank Battalion, which 19th Ordnance trained with at Ft. Knox, arrived in the Philippines in November.
   The morning of December 8, 1941, the members of the company were told of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor just hours earlier.  The company moved to a bamboo thicket and set up their machine shop trucks and other vehicles.  Later in the day, they were ordered to return to Ft. Stotsenburg.
    At 12:45, planes appeared over Clark Airfield and bombed the airfield.  Japanese Zeros followed and strafed the buildings.  The company lost one half-track during the attack.  When the attack was over, there were wounded and dead everywhere.
    For the next four months, the members of 17th Ordnance worked to keep the tanks of the tank group supplied with ammunition and running.  On Bataan, the company set up its operations in the ordnance deport building which had been abandoned since it was empty.
    Herman became a Prisoner of War when Bataan was surrendered to the Japanese on April 9, 1942.  He took part in the death march from Mariveles to San Fernando.  He, like the other POWs, received little food and water.  At San Fernando, the POWs were packed into small wooden
boxcars that could hold eight horses or forty men.  Each boxcar was packed with 100 men.  Those who died remained standing until the living climbed out at Capas.  They then walked the last ten miles to Camp O'Donnell.
    Camp O'Donnell was an unfinished Filipino Army Base that the Japanese put into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942, and they believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs.  When the POWs arrived at the camp, the they were searched and anyone found with Japanese money were separated from the other POWs and sent to the guardhouse.  These POWs were accused of looting the bodies of dead Japanese soldiers.  Over several days, gunshots were heard coming from southeast of the camp as they were executed.
    The Japanese also took away any extra clothing that the POWs carried with them and refused to return it.  Since there was no water to wash their clothing, the POWs threw away soiled clothing and stripped the dead of their clothing.  Few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing.
    There was only one water faucet for the entire camp and men stood in line from 2 to 8 hours waiting for a drink.  The Japanese guard in charge of the spigot would turn it off, for no reason, and the next man in line would have to wait up to four hours for it to be turned on again. Water for cooking food had to be hauled three miles to the camp. Mess kits could not be cleaned.
    Since most of the POWs had dysentery, the slit trenches overflowed which resulted in flies being everywhere in the camp including the camp kitchen and in the food.  The camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant which also caused diseases to spread.  When the ranking American doctor presented a letter with the medicines and medical supplies they needed to treat the sick, the camp commander, Captain Yoshio Tsuneyoshi, told him never to write another letter.  He also said that the only thing he wanted to know about the POWs were their names and serial numbers after they died.
    The  Archbishop of Manila sent a truck full of medical supplies to the camp, but the Japanese refused to let it into the camp.  When a representative of the Philippine Red Cross told a Japanese lieutenant that they could set up an 150 bed hospital for the POWs, he was slapped in the face by the lieutenant.  Medicines sent to the camp by the Red Cross were confiscated by the Japanese for their own use.
    The POWs called the hospital "Zero Ward" because most of the men who entered it never came out alive.  The Japanese were so afarid of contracting an illness that they put a barbed wire fence up around it.  The POWs in the hospital lay elbow to elbow on the floor and operations were performed with knives from mess kits.  Only one medic, out of every six assigned to treat the sick, was healthy enough to perform his duties.
    Each morning, the POWs walked around the camp and collected the bodies of the dead and placed them under the hospital building.  To clean the ground, the POWs moved the bodies, scrapped the ground,  put down lime to sterilize the ground, moved the bodies back, and repeated the process where the bodies had been.  It took two to three days to bury a man after he died.
    Any POW, if he could walk, went out on a work detail for the day such as the one collected wood for the POW kitchen.  Some POWs went out on work details which lasted for months to get out of the camp.  The worse detail a man could be put on was the burial detail.  On this detail, two POWs carried a dead man to the camp cemetery.  Once there, they put the body in a grave and held the body down with a pole, since the water table was high, and covered it with dirt.  The next morning, when the burials resumed, the dead were often sitting up or had been dug up by wild dogs. The Japanese finally acknowledged that they had to do something to lower the death rate, so they opened a new POW camp.
    On June 1, the POWs formed detachments of 100 men and were marched to Capas, where they were put into steel boxcars.  Each car had two Japanese guards.  During the trip at Calumpit, the train was switched onto a track that took it to Cabanatuan.  When the POWs left the cars, they were herded into a schoolyard where they were fed cooked rice and onions soup.  They were marched to the new camp which was a former Philippine Army Base, Camp Panagaian, and had been the home of the 91st Philippine Army Division's home.  It is known he was assigned to Barracks 2, Group 2.
    In the camp the Japanese instituted the "Blood Brother" rule.  If one man escaped the other nine men in his group would be executed.  POWs caught trying to escape were beaten.  Those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed.  It is not known if any POW successfully escaped from the camp.  At this time, it is not known if he went out on any work details.
    The POWs were sent out on work details to cut wood for the POW kitchens.  While on these details they bought or were given medicine, food, and tobacco, which they somehow managed to get into the camp even though they were searched when they returned.  Meals on a daily basis consisted of 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, and sweet potato or corn.
    On October 10, 1944, Herman, with other approximately 1775 other POWs, was taken to the Port Area of Manila.  His detachment of POWs were scheduled to sail on the Hokusen Maru, but since the ship was ready to sail and not all of his POW detachment had arrived, the Japanese put another detachment of POWs on the ship.  Herman's POW detachment was put on the Arisan Maru which was the ship the second group of POWs had been scheduled to sail on.

    On October 11, the ship set sail but took a southerly route away from Formosa.  Within the first 48 hours, five POWs had died.  The ship anchored in a cove off Palawan Island where it remained for ten days.  The Japanese covered the hatch with a tarp. During the night, the POWs were in total darkness.  Being sent to Palawan resulted in the ship missing an air attack on Manila by American planes, but the ship was later attacked by American planes during a raid on Palawan.

     Each day, each POW was given three ounces of water and two half mess kits of raw rice.  Conditions in the hold were so bad, that the POWs began to develop heat blisters.  Although the Japanese had removed the lights in the hold, they had not cutoff the power.  Some of the prisoners were able to wire the ship's blowers into the power lines.  This allowed fresh air into the hold.  The blowers were disconnected two days later when the Japanese discovered what had been done.  

    The Japanese realized that if they did not do something many of the POWs would die.  To prevent this, they opened the ship's number two hold and transferred 600 POWs into it.  At some point, one POW was shot while attempting to escape.
    The Arisan Maru returned to Manila on October 20, where it joined a twelve ship convoy.  On October 21, the convoy left Manila and entered the South China Sea.  The Japanese refused to mark POW ships with red crosses to indicate they were carrying POWs making them targets for American submarines.  In addition, U.S. military intelligence was reading the Japanese messages as fast as the Japanese.  To protect this secret, they did not tell the submarine crews that ships were carrying POWs which made the ships targets for the submarines.  The POWs in the hold became so desperate that they prayed for the ship to be hit by torpedoes.
    According to the survivors of the Arisan Maru, on Tuesday, October 24, 1944, about 5:00 pm, some of the POWs were on deck preparing dinner for the POWs in the ship's two holds.  The ship was, off the coast of China, in the Bashi Channel.  Suddenly, sirens and other alarms were heard.  The men inside the holds knew this meant that American submarines had been spotted and began to chant for the submarines to sink the ship.
    The waves were high since a storm had just passed.  At about 5:50 P.M., as the POWs watched, the Japanese ran to the bow of the ship and a torpedo passed in front of the ship.  Moments later, the Japanese ran to the ship's stern and watched as a second torpedo passed behind the ship.  There was a sudden jar and the ship stopped dead in the water.  It had been hit by two torpedoes amidships in its third hold where there were no POWs, but it still killed some POWs.  It is believed that the submarine that fired the torpedoes was the U.S.S. Snook.
    The Japanese guards took their guns and used them as clubs on the POWs who were on deck.  To escape, the POWs dove back into the holds.  After they were in the holds, the Japanese cut the rope ladders and put the hatch covers on the holds, but they did not tie them down.  They then abandoned the ship.
    Some of the POWs from the first hold climbed out and reattached the ladders and dropped them to the men in the holds.  The POWs left the holds but made no attempt to abandon ship.  On the ship's deck an American major spoke to the POWs, he said, "Boys, we're in a hellva a jam - but we've been in jams before.  Remember just one thing: We're American soldiers.  Let's play it that way to the very end of the script."  Right after he spoke, a chaplain said to them, "Oh Lord, if it be thy will to take us now, give us the strength to be men."  The ship sank lower into the water.
    According to surviving POWs, the ship stayed afloat for hours but got lower in the water.  At one point, the stern of the ship began going under which caused the ship to split in half but the halves remained afloat.  It was about this time that about 35 POWs swam to the nearest Japanese ship.  When the Japanese realized that they were POWs, they pushed them underwater with poles and drowned them or hit them with clubs.  Those POWs who could not swim raided the food lockers for a last meal, because they wanted to die with full stomachs.  Other POWs took to the water with anything that would float.  
    Three POWs found an abandoned life boat and managed to climb in but found it had no oars.  With the rough seas, they could not maneuver it to help other POWs.  According to the survivors, the Arisan Maru and sank sometime after dark on Tuesday, October 24, 1944.  The men in the boat heard cries for help, which became fewer and fewer, until there was silence.  The next day they picked up two more survivors.  Four other men were picked up by a Japanese ship and taken to Formosa.  Only eight of the POWs would survive the war.  Pfc Herman Talley was not one of them.

    Since Pfc. Herman Talley was lost at sea, his name appears on the Tablets of the Missing at the American Military Cemetery outside of Manila.   His mother also had his name placed on her husband's at Haynes Cemertery #2, Ohio County, Kentucky.


 










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