Cpl. Robert J. Stewart
Cpl. Robert J. Stewart
was the son of Robert and Edna Stewart andwas born
on October 8, 1918, in Gettysburg, South
Dakota. As a child, he grew up on a farm
west of Baraboo, Wisconsin. While he was in
high school, he played football and the team he
played on went undefeated. It was the first
Wisconsin high school team to finish a season
never having been scored on by their
Bob attended college for one year at the University of Wisconsin at Lacrosse. He was forced to leave school when he ran out of money, so he moved to Janesville, Wisconsin, looking for a job.
In 1940, Bob joined the Wisconsin National Guard's 32nd Tank Company headquartered in Janesville. His reason for doing this was because his good friend, Owen Sandmire, had told him about the tank company, and Owen and Bob were looking for work but not having much luck. This would give both of them the opportunity to earn some extra money. Owen also explained to Bob that if he joined the tank company, he would fulfill his year of military service.
Since a draft act had been passed by Congress, Bob knew that he was most likely going to be drafted into the army. He decided that riding in a tank was better than walking. On either September 14th or 16th, Bob enlisted into the National Guard.
On November 28, 1940, the tank company was sent to Fort Knox for training as A Company, 192nd Tank Battalion. It was there that Bob learned the necessary skills of a company clerk and became one of the clerks for A Company. It was his job to distribute the company's mail each day. Almost a year after arriving in Kentucky, his battalion, the 192nd Tank Battalion, was sent to Louisiana to take part in maneuvers from September 1 trough the 30.
It was after these maneuvers that Bob and the
other members of the battalion received the
surprise of their lives. Instead of
returning to Ft. Knox, the battalion was ordered
to Camp Polk, Louisiana. On the side of a
hill, the entire battalion learned that they
were being sent overseas for further
training. Their time in the regular army
had been extended from one to six years.
Those men 29 or older were given the opportunity
to resign from federal service and replaced with
men from the 753rd Tank Battalion. The
battalion also got the 753rd's tanks.
At the same time, two tank crew members were allowed to go to a food truck to get meals for their tank crews. The tankers, who manning their tanks, watched as two formations of planes approached the airfield from the north. They counted the formations were made up of 54 planes. Many believed the planes were American until they saw what looked like raindrops falling from the planes. When the raindrops began exploding on the runways, the soldiers knew the planes were Japanese. In Bob's opinion, there was not very much left of use at Clark Field when the attack ended.
Being a clerk, Bob was not involved in action against the Japanese. But, Bob lived through the daily strafing and bombing by Japanese planes. He and the other soldiers would listen to Tokyo Rose on the radio. She told them to surrender and they would be treated well. She also told them that they would be sent home. By what she said, Bob was sure she knew of the food situation. By this time, they were eating anything that moved.
Everyday, "Photo Joe" would fly over in a Piper Cub. When Bob and the other men saw him, they would head for air raid trenches. They knew that it would be just a matter of time until they were hit by enemy planes. Bob believed that the reason the rear area was hit so hard and so often was because the Japanese were attempting to cut the supply lines.
In spite of how hopeless the situation seemed,
Bob and the other soldiers always kept their
hope that reinforcements were on the way.
This was such a strong belief that American
soldiers would climb trees to look for American
On April 9, 1942, the word came down of the surrender. The tankers destroyed their tanks, but remained at their bivouac. When the Japanese arrived the next day, they took whatever they wanted from the Prisoners of War. Afterwards, A Company made its way down to Mariveles. There, they were searched again. Bob recalled that the Japanese took what they wanted from what the Americans still had.
It was at Mariveles that Bob and the other members of A Company began the death march. A Company was broken up into different groups. Some men finished the march in days, while others took weeks. Bob and the rest of the company marched up the eastern road. Bob attempted to keep his distance from the guards so he stayed in the center or front of the group.
The Filipino people attempted to help the Americans and dropped sugar cane off trucks as they passed them. When the column of men rushed one truck, the guards stopped them. The result was that no one received any food.
Bob also stated that the Japanese intentionally kept the prisoners from "good" water. They could take all the water they wanted from the ditches along the road. The problem was that floating in the water were the bodies of dead POWs. Those prisoners who refused to drink this water and attempted to get water from the artesian wells that flowed beside the road were bayoneted.
On the march, Bob was with Carl Nickols. The two men had become best friends at Ft. Knox. During the march Bob fell which was the first of the three times that he fell on the march. As he lay on the ground, he remembered what he had been taught by his high school football coach. His coach had told him what to do when he felt faint. Bob got up on his hands and knees and hung his head down. The blood flowed to his head which allowed him to get on his feet just as a guard was coming up to him to bayonet him.
The second time Bob fell he did the same thing again. Once again the trick of getting on all fours and dropping his head down saved his life. The third time Bob fell he could not get up, but this time Carl Nickols fell with him. The Japanese had guards marching behind the column of prisoners. Their job was to bayonet the prisoners who had fallen out of the column. Bob recalled thinking that Jesus had fallen three times on his way to be crucified. The guard came up to Bob to bayonet him. To Bob's surprise, the guard stuck his bayonet into the ground beside Bob's head just inches from his nose. The guard did this so that the men could lie on the ground until they were strong enough to get up and go on again.
After Bob and Carl regained their strength, they rejoined the column of POWs. The two men came to an artesian well and took water from the well. As they were drinking, a truck loaded with Japanese soldiers pulled up to the well. The Japanese soldiers motioned to them to come to the truck. The Japanese soldiers handed their canteens to Bob and Carl and had them fill the canteens with water. When they returned the canteens, the Japanese gave them hard candy and the truck drove off.
Bob and Carl ate the candy. Bob said that it was the strangest thing that he ever experienced in his life, since the sugar was like receiving a shot. Strength came into their bodies and both soldiers were able to complete the march.
Bob and Carl reached San Fernando. It was there that the two POWs were packed into boxcars with other men. The prisoners were packed in so tightly that those who died remained standing. After disembarking from the cars, the POWs who survived the heat of the boxcars walked the last few miles to Camp O'Donnell.
When he arrived at the camp, Bob and the other prisoners were made to stand at attention and listen to a speech by the camp commandant. He told them that they would not be treated like guests of the emperor, and that those who died on the march were the lucky ones. After the speech, they were shown their quarters.
The camp was an unfinished Filipino training
base that was pressed into use as a POW camp on
April 1, 1942. When they arrived at the
camp, the Japanese confiscated any extra
clothing that the POWs had and refused to return
it to them. They searched the POWs and if
a man was found to have Japanese money on them,
they were taken to the guardhouse. Over
the next several days, gunshots were heard to
the southeast of the camp. These POWs had
been executed for looting.
When Bob first arrived at the camp, twenty Americans died each day. This number was nothing when compared to the 150 Filipinos dying each day. In the coming weeks, the number of Americans dying rose to 50 a day, while the number of Filipinos dying rose to almost 500 a day.
During his time at Camp O'Donnell, Bob was selected by the Japanese to be on the burial detail. He and the other POWs would dig twelve foot by twelve foot holes that were four feet deep. Surrounded by death, Bob's memories of home kept him going
While Bob was a prisoner in the camp, three men tried to escape. When they were recaptured, they were "crucified" at the front gate to the camp. Filipinos who passed them were required to hit them. Even the other POWs were expected to defecate on them as they went out on or returned from work details. After days of suffering the three men were loaded into a truck and shot.
Wanting to get out of Camp O'Donnell, Bob volunteered to go out on a work detail to rebuild bridges. Food was scarce on the detail, but each man received more food than if they were still in the camp. The food was mostly a watery rice soup with some greens. If a man became sick, his rations were caught in half. These men would almost always die because there was no medicine to treat their illnesses.
Since they were always hungry, the prisoners attempted to supplement their diets. One POW caught a rat and barbecued it. If he hadn't known what it was, Bob probably would have eaten some of it. One night Bob smuggled a bag of rice to his fellow POWs. If he had been caught, he would have been killed by the Japanese.
The detail Bob was on rebuilt bridges that had been destroyed during the withdraw into the Bataan Peninsula by the Filipino and American forces. The work was hard. One of the hardest jobs Bob had on the detail was driving pilings into the river banks. This the men did by hand.
While working with Bernard Fitzpatrick, of the 194th Tank Battalion, driving pilings, the two men were having a hard time using a Japanese saw and understanding the Japanese officer and interpreter. Fitzpatrick said to Bob, "I wish the bastards would use English." In perfect English they heard a voice say, "It would be much better, wouldn't it." The response came from Lieutenant Miyosato who the POWs liked.
On another occasion on the detail, Bob became friends with Sgt. Jim Bashlenben of B Company. One day, the two men were on their break having a cigarette. As they sat on the log a Japanese Naval Officer pulled up in a jeep. The Japanese officer got out of the jeep and sat down on the log. Bob asked Jim if they should offer the officer a cigarette. Jim told him no. Jim also said that if the officer wanted a cigarette he should smoke one of his own.
Right after Jim said this, the officer pulled out a cigarette and lit it. He looked at Bob and Jim and said in perfect English, " If I were you, I'd be angry too. I returned to Japan to see my mother because she was dying. After she died, I tried to leave the country and couldn't. I have a wife and son in the United States who I'll probably never see again. I lived in the United States and know that the U. S. is going to win this war. When it's over, I just hope that I'm alive."
The officer got up and looked at Bob and Jim. He reached into his pocket and pulled out a pack of Camels. He threw the cigarettes to the POWs and said, "Smoke something good." With that, he got back into the jeep and drove away.
When this detail ended, Bob was sent to
Cabanatuan which was actually three camps.
Camp 1 was where the men who captured on Bataan
and taken part in the death march where
held. Camp 2 did not have an adequate
water supply and was closed. It later
reopened and housed Naval POWs. Camp 3 was
where those men captured when Corregidor
surrender were taken. In addition, men
from Bataan who had been hospitalized when the
surrender came were sent to the camp. Camp
3 was later consolidated into Camp 1.Many things
about the camp were similar to Camp O'Donnell,
but the one improvement was the availability of
water. It was at this camp that the
Japanese began to use the POWs as slave labor
for their war effort.
In September 1943, Bob was selected to go out on a work detail to Las Pinas. On this detail the POWs built runways for an airfield with picks and shovels. Bob remained on the detail until July 1944, when he was sent to Cabanatuan. One reason he was transferred was that the Japanese considered him too ill to continue working. He remained at Cabanatuan until he was sent to Bilibid Prison August 17, 1944.
Bob remained at Bilibid until August 23rd or 24th, when he and the other prisoners received physicals to determine if they were healthy enough to go to Japan or another occupied country. On August 25, 1944, Bob was boarded onto the hell ship the Noto Maru which was carrying POWs to Japan. He and 1,033 POWs were packed into the ship's hold which was forty feet long by forty feet wide. The men were placed shoulder to shoulder and back to back so they could not move. As the hatch was closed, the Japanese guard said in perfect English, "Make yourself comfortable."
sailed, as part of a four ship convoy, on
the 27th but dropped anchor off
Bataan. On its trip to Formosa depth
charges were dropped since American
submarines were believed to be in the area
of the ships. The ships arrived at
Takao, Formosa, on August 30th. The
convoy sailed again on August 30th and
arrived at Moji, Japan, September 4th.
As the ship made its way to Japan men died of sickness and starvation. With each death, there was more room in the ship's hold. The bodies of the dead were hosted out of the hold by ropes and dumped in the sea. The suction of the ship's propellers pulled the bodies into them and resulted in the bodies being cut up.
POWs disembarked the ship, formed detachments of
100 men, marched to the train station, and rode
a train which stopped at towns near the POW
camps. Bob was sent to
Sendai #6 near Hanawa, Japan, where the
in a large copper mine. The POWs would
wake up at 5 a.m.and eat a breakfast of a small
bowl They would arrive at ready at 7 A.M. The
POWs worked under Mitsubishi supervision.
The POWs believed these supervisors wanted to
work them to death. They had a 30 minute
lunch break and worked to 5:00 P.M. The
POWs returned to camp, usually after dark, had
supper, then went to bed.
It was at Sendai #6 that Bob contracted wet
beriberi. He recalled that his arm was so
full of fluid that he could see through the
skin. His condition worsened until he was
sent to a hospital. The hospital he was in was
known among the POWs as a place where the
Japanese performed experiments on American POWs.
It was also at this hospital that Bob saw his first B-29. One day the sky was perfectly blue, Bob saw a large plane being attacked by three Japanese Zeros. The first Zero was hit and a black trail of smoke came out of the plane. He next saw a flash of light, and the second Zero disintegrated. With this, the last Japanese plane took off in the opposite direction.
After seeing this, Bob told the other prisoners that he believed that they would be home by Thanksgiving. Within a matter of months, his statement became a reality with Japan's surrender.
Bob was sent back to Manila for medical treatment and remained there for a month. When he was declared healthy, he returned to the United States on the Dutch ship, S.S. Klipfonstein, which arrived at Seattle, Washington, on October 28, 1945. He was sent to Madigan General Hospital at Ft. Lewis, Washington, and later returned to Janesville. He was discharged, from the army, on May 19, 1946.
On November 11, 1950, Bob married Dorothy Jones in Madison, Wisconsin. He worked for the U.S. Post Office. His wife and he would raise three children, Katherine, Gary and Sandra. On June 6, 1999, Dorothy passed away.
Robert J. Stewart passed away on January 27, 2003. He is remembered as a kind man who treated people the way he wanted them to treat others. He was buried next to his wife at Milton Lawns Cemetery in Janesville, Wisconsin.