Cpl. Robert J. Stewart

    Cpl. Robert J. Stewart was the son of Robert and Edna Stewart andwas born on October 8, 1918, in Gettysburg, South Dakota.  As a child, he grew up on a farm west of Baraboo, Wisconsin.  While he was in high school, he played football and the team he played on went undefeated.  It was the first Wisconsin high school team to finish a season never having been scored on by their opponent.  

    Bob attended college for one year at the University of Wisconsin at Lacrosse.  He was forced to leave school when he ran out of money, so he moved to Janesville, Wisconsin, looking for a job.

    In 1940, Bob joined the Wisconsin National Guard's 32nd Tank Company headquartered in Janesville.  His reason for doing this was because his good friend, Owen Sandmire, had told him about the tank company, and Owen and Bob were looking for work but not having much luck.  This would give both of them the opportunity to earn some extra money.  Owen also explained to Bob that if he joined the tank company, he would fulfill his year of military service. 

    Since a draft act had been passed by Congress, Bob knew that he was most likely going to be drafted into the army.  He decided that riding in a tank was better than walking.  On either September 14th or 16th, Bob enlisted into the National Guard.

    On November 28, 1940, the tank company was sent to Fort Knox for training as A Company, 192nd Tank Battalion.  It was there that Bob learned the necessary skills of a company clerk and became one of the clerks for A Company.  It was his job to distribute the company's mail each day.  Almost a year after arriving in Kentucky, his battalion, the 192nd Tank Battalion, was sent to Louisiana to take part in maneuvers from September 1st trough the 30th.

     It was after these maneuvers that Bob and the other members of the battalion received the surprise of their lives.  Instead of returning to Ft. Knox, the battalion was ordered to Camp Polk, Louisiana.  On the side of a hill, the entire battalion learned that they were being sent overseas for further training.  Their time in the regular army had been extended from one to six years.  Those men 29 or older were given the opportunity to resign from federal service and replaced with men from the 753rd Tank Battalion.  The battalion also got the 753rd's tanks.
    A Company traveled by train to San Francisco, California, and ferried to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island, where they received inoculations and physicals from the battalion's medical detachment.  Those men who were found to have treatable medical conditions remained behind on the island]and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date.  SOme men were simply replaced.
    The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S. A. T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27th.  During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP.   They arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2nd and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
    On Wednesday, November 5th, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes.  It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and the S. S. Calvin Coolidge.  Sunday night, November 9th, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11th.  During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Date Line.  On Saturday, November 15th, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon.  The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke.  It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
    When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16th on Sunday, November 16th, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day.  At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20th, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning.  At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.  Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks. Du    
    At the fort, they were greeted by Colonel Edward P. King, who apologized that they had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Field.  He made sure that had what they needed and that they received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own dinner. 
Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
    The members of the battalion pitched the tents in an open field halfway between the Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg.  The tents were set up in two rows and five men were assigned to each tent.  There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at the end of the rows of tents.  
For the next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their weapons.  The grease was put on the weapons to protect them from rust while at sea.  They also loaded ammunition belts and did tank maintenance as they readied their tanks to take part in maneuvers.

    On December 1st, the tankers were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Airfield to guard against Japanese paratroopers.  They remained there off and on for several days.  At all times, two crew members remained with the tanks. 
Ten hours after Pearl Harbor was attacked, December 8th in the Philippines, the tankers lived through the Japanese attack on Clark Field.  At 8:30 AM, American planes took off and patrolled the skies.  At noon, the planes landed and the pilots parked them in a straight line outside their mess hall.

    At the same time, two tank crew members were allowed to go to a food truck to get meals for their tank crews.  The tankers, who manning their tanks, watched as two formations of planes approached the airfield from the north.  They counted the formations were made up of 54 planes.  Many believed the planes were American until they saw what looked like raindrops falling from the planes.  When the raindrops began exploding on the runways, the soldiers knew the planes were Japanese.  In Bob's opinion, there was not very much left of use at Clark Field when the attack ended.

    Being a clerk, Bob was not involved in action against the Japanese.  But, Bob lived through the daily strafing and bombing by Japanese planes.  He and the other soldiers would listen to Tokyo Rose on the radio.  She told them to surrender and they would be treated well.  She also told them that they would be sent home.  By what she said, Bob was sure she knew of the food situation.  By this time, they were eating anything that moved.

    Everyday, "Photo Joe" would fly over in a Piper Cub.  When Bob and the other men saw him, they would head for air raid trenches.  They knew that it would be just a matter of time until they were hit by enemy planes.  Bob believed that the reason the rear area was hit so hard and so often was because the Japanese were attempting to cut the supply lines.

    In spite of how hopeless the situation seemed, Bob and the other soldiers always kept their hope that reinforcements were on the way.  This was such a strong belief that American soldiers would climb trees to look for American ships.
    The company's last bivouac area was about twelve kilometers north of Marivales and looking out on the China Sea.  By this point, the tankers knew that there was no help on the way.  Many had listened to Secretary of War Harry L. Stimson on short wave.  When asked about the Philippines, he said, "There are times when men must die."  The soldiers cursed in response because they knew that the Philippines had already been lost.  
    On April 4, 1942, the Japanese launched an attack supported by artillery and aircraft.  A large force of Japanese troops came over Mount Samat and descended down the south face of the volcano.  This attack wiped out two divisions of defenders and a left large area of the defensive line open to the Japanese.  When General King saw that the situation was hopeless, he initiated surrender talks with the Japanese.

    On April 9, 1942, the word came down of the surrender.  The tankers destroyed their tanks, but remained at their bivouac.  When the Japanese arrived the next day, they took whatever they wanted from the Prisoners of War.  Afterwards, A Company made its way down to Mariveles.  There, they were searched again. Bob recalled that the Japanese took what they wanted from what the Americans still had.

    It was at Mariveles that Bob and the other members of A Company began the death march.  A Company was broken up into different groups.  Some men finished the march in days, while others took weeks.  Bob and the rest of the company marched up the eastern road.  Bob attempted to keep his distance from the guards so he stayed in the center or front of the group. 

    The Filipino people attempted to help the Americans and dropped sugar cane off trucks as they passed them.  When the column of men rushed one truck, the guards stopped them.  The result was that no one received any food.

    Bob also stated that the Japanese intentionally kept the prisoners from "good" water.  They could take all the water they wanted from the ditches along the road.  The problem was that floating in the water were the bodies of dead POWs.   Those prisoners who refused to drink this water and attempted to get water from  the artesian wells that flowed beside the road were bayoneted.

    On the march, Bob was with Carl Nickols.  The two men had become best friends at Ft. Knox.  During the march Bob fell which was the first of the three times that he fell on the march.  As he lay on the ground, he remembered what he had been taught by his high school football coach.  His coach had told him what to do when he felt faint.  Bob got up on his hands and knees and hung his head down.  The blood flowed to his head which allowed him to get on his feet just as a guard was coming up to him to bayonet him.

     The second time Bob fell he did the same thing again.  Once again the trick of getting on all fours and dropping his head down saved his life.

    The third time Bob fell he could not get up.  This time Carl Nickols fell with him.  The Japanese had guards marching behind the column of prisoners.  Their job was to bayonet the prisoners who had fallen out of the column.  Bob recalled thinking that Jesus had fallen three times on his way to be crucified.  The guard came up to Bob to bayonet him.  To Bob's surprise, the guard stuck his bayonet into the ground beside Bob's head just inches from his nose.  The guard did this so that the men could lie on the ground until they were strong enough to get up and go on again.

    After Bob and Carl regained their strength, they rejoined the column of POWs.  The two men came to an artesian well and took water from the well.  As they were drinking, a truck loaded with Japanese soldiers pulled up to the well.  The Japanese soldiers motioned to them to come to the truck.  The Japanese soldiers handed their canteens to Bob and Carl and had them fill the canteens with water.  When they returned the canteens, the Japanese gave them hard candy and the truck drove off.

    Bob and Carl ate the candy.  Bob said that it was the strangest thing that he ever experienced in his life, since the sugar was like receiving a shot.  Strength came into their bodies and both soldiers were able to complete the march.

    Bob and Carl reached San Fernando.  It was there that the two POWs were packed into boxcars with other men.  The prisoners were packed in so tightly that those who died  remained standing.  After disembarking from the cars, the POWs who survived the heat of the boxcars walked the last few miles to Camp O'Donnell. 

    When he arrived at the camp, Bob and the other prisoners were made to stand at attention and listen to a speech by the camp commandant.  He told them that they would not be treated like guests of the emperor, and that those who died on the march were the lucky ones.  After the speech, they were shown their quarters.

    One of the worse things about Camp O'Donnell was that there was only one water faucet in the entire camp.  Bob stated that the water came out of the faucet the thickness of a pencil.  Prisoners stood in line for ten hours to get a drink of water.  In Bob's own words, "Men would literally die of thirst."

    When Bob first arrived at the camp, twenty Americans died each day.  This number was nothing when compared to the 150 Filipinos dying each day.  In the coming weeks, the number of Americans dying rose to 50 a day, while the number of Filipinos dying rose to almost 500 a day.

    During his time at Camp O'Donnell, Bob was selected by the Japanese to be on the burial detail.  He and the other POWs would dig twelve foot by twelve foot holes that were four feet deep.  Surrounded by death, Bob's memories of home kept him going

    While Bob was a prisoner in the camp, three men tried to escape.  When they were recaptured, they were "crucified" at the front gate to the camp.  Filipinos who passed them were required to hit them.  Even the other POWs were expected to defecate on them as they went out on or returned from work details.  After days of suffering the three men were loaded into a truck and shot.

    Wanting to get out of Camp O'Donnell, Bob volunteered to go out on a work detail to rebuild bridges.  Food was scarce on the detail, but each man received more food than if they were still in the camp.  The food was mostly a watery rice soup with some greens.  If a man became sick, his rations were caught in half.  These men would almost always die because there was no medicine to treat their illnesses.

    Since they were always hungry, the prisoners attempted to supplement their diets.  One POW caught a rat and barbecued it.  If he hadn't known what it was, Bob probably would have eaten some of it.  One night Bob smuggled a bag of rice to his fellow POWs.  If he had been caught, he would have been killed by the Japanese.

    The detail Bob was on rebuilt bridges that had been destroyed during the withdraw into the Bataan Peninsula by the Filipino and American forces.  The work was hard.  One of the hardest jobs Bob had on the detail was driving pilings into the river banks.  This the men did by hand.

     While working with Bernard Fitzpatrick, of the 194th Tank Battalion, driving pilings, the two men were having a hard time using a Japanese saw and understanding the Japanese officer and interpreter.  Fitzpatrick said to Bob, "I wish the bastards would use English."  In perfect English they heard a voice say, "It would be much better, wouldn't it."  The response came from Lieutenant Miyosato who the POWs liked.

    On another occasion on the detail, Bob became friends with Sgt. Jim Bashlenben of B Company.  One day, the two men were on their break having a cigarette.  As they sat on the log a Japanese Naval Officer pulled up in a jeep.  The Japanese officer got out of the jeep and sat down on the log.  Bob asked Jim if they should offer the officer a cigarette.  Jim told him no.  Jim also said that if the officer wanted a cigarette he should smoke one of his own.

    Right after Jim said this, the officer pulled out a cigarette and lit it.  He looked at Bob and Jim and said in perfect English, " If I were you, I'd be angry too.  I returned to Japan to see my mother because she was dying.  After she died, I tried to leave the country and couldn't.  I have a wife and son in the United States who I'll probably never see again.  I lived in the United States and know that the U. S. is going to win this war.  When it's over, I just hope that I'm alive."

     The officer got up and looked at Bob and Jim.  He reached into his pocket and pulled out a pack of Camels.  He threw the cigarettes to the POWs and said, "Smoke something good."  With that, he got back into the jeep and drove away.

    When this detail ended, Bob was sent to Cabanatuan.  Many things about the camp were similar to Camp O'Donnell, but the one improvement was the availability of water.  It was at this camp that the Japanese began to use the POWs as slave labor for their war effort.  Medical records from the camp hospital show that Bob was hospitalized on April 21, 1943.  The records do not indicate why he was hospitalized or when he was released from the hospital. 

    In September 1943, Bob was selected to go out on a work detail to Las Pinas.  On this detail the POWs built runways for an airfield with picks and shovels.  Bob remained on the detail until July 1944, when he was sent to Cabanatuan.  One reason he was transferred was that the Japanese considered him too ill to continue working.  He remained at Cabanatuan until he was sent to Bilibid Prison August 17, 1944.

    Bob remained at Bilibid until August 23rd or 24th, when he and the other prisoners received physicals to determine if they were healthy enough to go to Japan or another occupied country.  On August 25, 1944, Bob was boarded onto the hell ship the Noto Maru which was carrying POWs to Japan.  He and 1,033 POWs were packed into the ship's hold which was forty feet long by forty feet wide.  The men were placed shoulder to shoulder and back to back so they could not move.  As the hatch was closed, the Japanese guard said in perfect English, "Make yourself comfortable."         

   The ship sailed, as part of a four ship convoy, on the 27th but dropped anchor off Bataan.  On its trip to Formosa depth charges were dropped since American submarines were believed to be in the area of the ships.  The ships arrived at Takao, Formosa, on August 30th.  The convoy sailed again on August 30th and arrived at Moji, Japan, September 4th. 
    During the trip to Japan, the POWs were packed into the ship's hold so tightly that they could not use the the half barrel that was suppose to be the toilet.  The floor of the hold was covered in human waste since most of the men were suffering from dysentery.  The smell got so bad that the Japanese covered the hatch of the hold.  The POWs received water twice a day and were fed once a day. 
    The Japanese finally decided that the only way to deal with the smell coming from the hold was to bring the POWs on deck and wash them down with seawater.  They also washed down the floor of the hold at the same time.

     As the ship made its way to Japan men died of sickness and starvation.  With each death, there was more room in the ship's hold.  The bodies of the dead were hosted out of the hold by ropes and dumped in the sea.  The suction of the ship's propellers pulled the bodies into them and resulted in the bodies being cut up.

    The POWs disembarked the ship, formed detachments of 100 men, marched to the train station, and rode a train which stopped at towns near the POW camps.  Bob was sent to Sendai #6 near Hanawa, Japan, where the POWs worked in a large copper mine.  The POWs would wake up at 5 a.m.and eat a breakfast of a small bowl They would arrive at ready at 7 A.M. The POWs worked under Mitsubishi supervision.  The POWs believed these supervisors wanted to work them to death.  They had a 30 minute lunch break and worked to 5:00 P.M.  The POWs returned to camp, usually after dark, had supper, then went to bed.
    The miners had the worst job. The work in the mine was dirty, dangerous, and difficult. Each miner was furnished a carbide headlamp as his only lighting. A quota was set but the Japanese and the Japanese were always raising the quota. The number of carloads mined by the men were never enough.  The POWs were beaten for not working hard enough or fast enough. Many shafts of the mine were so low that the miners had to crawl through to get to the ore. Some shafts had standing water with threats of sudden flooding. Lighting was poor and most areas were not even shored up to prevent cave-ins. Accidents were frequent and many POWs were hurt. There was no gas detecting equipment and there was always the danger of setting off an explosion from the open burning carbide headlamps.

    It was at Sendai #6 that Bob contracted wet beriberi.  He recalled that his arm was so full of fluid that he could see through the skin.  His condition worsened until he was sent to a hospital.  The hospital he was in was known among the POWs as a place where the Japanese performed experiments on American POWs.
    The shafts ceilings were so low that the POWs had to work bent over.  The mine shafts did not have any supports so cave-ins happened on regular basis.  When one happened, the POWs stopped working and rescued the men who had been buried.

    It was also at this hospital that Bob saw his first B-29.  One day the sky was perfectly blue, Bob saw a large plane being attacked by three Japanese Zeros.  The first Zero was hit and a black trail of smoke came out of the plane.  He next saw a flash of light, and the second Zero disintegrated.  With this, the last Japanese plane took off in the opposite direction.

    After seeing this, Bob told the other prisoners that he believed that they would be home by Thanksgiving.  Within a matter of months, his statement became a reality with Japan's surrender.

    Bob was sent back to Manila for medical treatment and remained there for a month.  When he was declared healthy, he returned to the United States on the Dutch ship, S.S. Klipfonstein, which arrived at Seattle, Washington, on October 28, 1945.  He was sent to Madigan General Hospital at Ft. Lewis, Washington, and later returned to Janesville.  He was discharged, from the army, on May 19, 1946.

    On November 11, 1950, Bob married Dorothy Jones in Madison, Wisconsin.  He worked for the U.S. Post Office.  His wife and he would raise three children, Katherine, Gary and Sandra.  On June 6, 1999, Dorothy passed away.

    Robert J. Stewart passed away on January 27, 2003.  He is remembered as a kind man who treated people the way he wanted them to treat others.  He was buried next to his wife at Milton Lawns Cemetery in Janesville, Wisconsin.


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