Pvt. John C. Spencer
    Pvt. John C. Spencer was the son of of Cecil and Rose Spencer and was born on December 8, 1916, in Zenda Township in Walworth County, Wisconsin.  When John was a child, his family moved to 385 Western Avenue in Janesville.  He attended grade school, in Janesville, and was a 1935 graduate of Janesville High School.  After high school, he worked as a truck driver for a storage company.
    In late 1940, John knowing that with the start of a draft that it would just be a matter of time before he would be inducted into the army, decided to join the Wisconsin National Guard.  He was the third man to join before the 32nd Tank Company was called to federal service on November 25, 1940.  The company was now A Company, 192nd Tank Battalion.   On November 28th, the company boarded a train for Fort Knox, Kentucky.
    At Ft. Knox, John trained for nearly a year.  A typical day for the soldiers started in 6:15 with reveille, but most of the soldiers were up before this since they wanted to wash and dress.  Breakfast was from 7:00 to 8:00 A.M., followed by calisthenics at 8:00 to 8:30.  Afterwards, the tankers went to various schools within the company.  The classes consisted of .30 and .50 caliber machine guns, pistol, map reading, care of personal equipment, military courtesy, and training in tactics.  He attended radio school and qualified as a tank radio operator.
    At 11:30 the soldiers stopped what they were doing and cleaned up for mess which was from noon to 1:00 P.M.  Afterwards, they attended the various schools which they had been assigned to on January 13th, such as: mechanics, tank driving, radio operating.   At 4:30, the soldiers called it a day and returned to their barracks and put on dress uniforms and at five held retreat and followed by dinner at 5:30.  After dinner, they were off duty and lights were out at 9:00 P.M., but they did not have to turn in until 10:00 when Taps was played.  During Paul's time at Ft. Knox, he qualified as a tank driver.    
    In the late summer of 1941, he took part in maneuvers in Louisiana from September 1st through 30th.  It was during the maneuvers that John was bitten by a rattlesnake, but he had no bad effects from the bite.  It turned out the area that the 192nd had been assigned for its bivouac was infested with snakes.  The good things that the battalion learned from the maneuvers were how to load and unload their equipment and how to drive their vehicles over rough terrain.  After the maneuvers, he and the other members of his tank battalion learned they were being sent overseas. 
    The decision for this move - which had been made in August 1941 - was the result of an event that took place in the summer of 1941.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island which was hundred of miles away.  The island had a large radio transmitter.  The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
    When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.  The next day, when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its deck - which was seen making its way to shore.   Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult, the boat escaped.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
    John went home to Janesville to say goodbye to family and friend.  Afterwards, he returned to Camp Polk, Louisiana, where the company traveled by train to Ft.Mason in San Francisco, California, and were ferried, on the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe, to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island.  They received inoculations and physicals from the battalion's medical detachment.  Those members of the battalion who were found to have treatable medical conditions remained behind on the island and were scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date. Some men were simply replaced.
    The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Gen. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27.  During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP.   They arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2 and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
    On Wednesday, November 5, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes.  It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and the S.S. President Calvin Coolidge.  Sunday night, November 9, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11.  During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Date Line.  On Saturday, November 15, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon.  The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke.  It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
    When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day.  At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning.  At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.  Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.    
    At the fort, they were greeted by Colonel Edward P.  King, who apologized that they had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Airfield.  He made sure that they all received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own.  Ironically, November 20 was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
    The members of the battalion pitched the tents in an open field halfway between the Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg.  The tents were set up in two rows and five men were assigned to each tent.  There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at the end of the rows of tents.
    For the next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their weapons.  The grease was put on the weapons to protect them from rust while at sea.  They also loaded ammunition belts and did tank maintenance as they readied their tanks to take part in maneuvers.
    On December 1st, the tankers were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Airfield to guard against Japanese paratroopers.  Two tank crew members had to remain with each tank at all hours.
    The morning of December 8, 1941, Capt. Walter Write informed his company that Pearl Harbor had been bombed by the Japanese.  The tanks were put on alert and took their positions around the airfield.   At 8:30 A.M., American planes took off to intercept any Japanese planes.  Sometime before noon, the planes landed and were lined up, in a straight line, near the pilots' mess hall.  The pilots went to lunch.
    The tankers were eating lunch when planes were seen approaching the airfield from the north at about 12:45.  Many of the tankers had enough time to count 54 planes in formation.  As the planes approached the airfield and watched what was described as "raindrops" falling from the planes.  When the raindrops began exploding on the runways, the tankers knew the planes were Japanese.     During the attack, they could do little since their only their machine guns were of use against the planes.  For some reason, not known to the tankers, most of the Japanese did not attack the tanks.  Those planes that did dropped their bombs between the tanks.
    When the Japanese were finished, there was not much left of the airfield.  The soldiers watched as the dead, dying, and wounded were hauled to the hospital on bomb racks, trucks, and anything that could carry the wounded was in use.  When the hospital filled, they watched the medics place the wounded under the building.  Many of these men had their arms and legs missing.    
    That night, the tankers lived through several more air raids.  Most slept under their tanks since it was safer than sleeping in their tents.  They had no idea that they had slept their last night in a bed for the next three and one half years. 
    The company was sent to the Barrio of Dau, on December 12, so it could protect a road and railroad from sabotage.  From there, the company was ordered to rejoin the rest of the 19nd which had been sent to the Lingayen Gulf where the Japanese were landing troops.
    On December 23 and 24, the company was in the area of Urdaneta.  It was there, that the tankers lost the company commander, Capt. Walter Write.  After he was buried, the tankers made an end run to get south of Agno River after the main bridge had been destroyed.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening. They successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27.
    The 192nd and part of the 194th fell back to a line from on the night of December 27th and 28.  From there they fell back to the south bank of the BamBan River which they were suppose to hold for as long as possible.
    A Company was sent, in support of the 194th, to an area east of Pampanga on December 30th.  It was there that they lost a tank platoon commander, Lt. William Read.  On a road east of Zaragoza, the company was bivouacked for the night and posted sentries.  The sentries heard a noise on the road and woke the other tankers who grabbed Tommy-guns and manned the tanks' machine guns.  As they watched, a Japanese bicycle battalion rode into their bivouac.  When the last bicycle passed the tanks, the tankers opened up on them.  When they stopped firing, they had completely wiped out the bicycle battalion.  To leave the area, the tankers drove their tanks over the bodies.
    At the Gumain River, the night of December 31 to the morning of January 1, the tank companies formed a defensive line along the south bank of the river.  When the Japanese attacked the position at night, they were easy to see since they were wearing white t-shirts.  The Japanese were taking heavy casualties, so they attempted to use smoke to cover their advance, but the wind blew the smoke into the Japanese.  When the Japanese broke off the attack, they had suffered fifty percent casualties.
    At Guagua, A Company, with units from the 11th Division, Philippine Army, attempted to make a counterattack against the Japanese.  Somehow, the tanks were mistaken, by the Filipinos to be Japanese.  The 11th Division accurately used mortars on them.  The result was the loss of three tanks.    
    On January 1, the tanks of the 194th were holding the Calumpit Bridge allowing the Southern Luzon Forces to cross the bridge toward Bataan.  General Wainwright was attempting to hold the main Japanese force coming down Route 5 to prevent the troops from being cut off.  General MacArthur's chief of staff gave conflicting orders involving whose command the defenders were under which caused confusion.  Gen. Wainwright was not aware these orders had been given.
    Because of the orders, there was confusion among the Filipinos and American forces defending the bridges over the Pampanga River.  Due to the efforts of the Self-Propelled Mounts, the 71st Field Artillery, and a frenzied attack by the 192nd Tank Battalion, the Japanese were halted.  From January 2 to 4, the 192nd held the road open from San Fernando to Dinalupihan so the southern forces could escape.  The company returned to the command of the 192nd on January 8, 1942.
    While American and Filipino forces were withdrawing from the Pilar-Bigac Line, the battalion prevented the Japanese from overrunning the position and cutting off the withdrawing troops.  The morning of January 27, a new battle line had been formed and all units were suppose to be beyond it.  That morning, the tanks were still holding their position six hours after they were suppose to have withdrawn.  While holding the position, the tanks, with self-propelled mounts, ambushed, at point blank range, three Japanese units causing 50 percent casualties.from the Pilar-Bigac Line, the battalion prevented the Japanese from overrunning the position and cutting off the retreating forces.  While holding the position, the tanks, with self-propelled mounts, ambushed, at point blank range, three Japanese units causing 50 percent casualti
    On January 28, the tank battalions were given the job of protecting the beaches.  The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast.  The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.    
    It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver , "Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal.  If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay."
    The company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets - from January 23 to February 17 - to wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind the main defensive line after a Japanese offensive was stopped and pushed pack to the original line of defense.  The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket.  Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the pocket.  Doing this was so stressful that each tank company was rotated out and replaced by one that was being held in reserve.
    To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used.  The first was to have three Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank.  As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole.  Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually exploded.
    The other method to use to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over the foxhole.  The driver gave the other track power resulting with the tank spinning around and grinding its way down into the foxhole.  The tankers slept upwind of their tanks.
    While the tanks were doing this job, the Japanese sent soldiers, with cans of gasoline, against the tanks.  These Japanese attempted to jump onto the tanks, pour gasoline into the vents on the back of the tanks, and set the tanks on fire.  If the tankers could not machine gun the Japanese before they got to a tank, the other tanks would shoot them as they stood on a tank.  The tankers did not like to do this because of what it did to the crew inside the tank.  When the bullets hit the tank, its rivets would pop and wound the men inside the tank.  It was for their performance during this battle that the 192nd Tank Battalion would receive one of its Distinguished Unit Citations.
    Since the stress on the crews was tremendous, the tanks rotated into the pocket one at a time.  A tank entered the pocket and the next tank waited for the tank that had been relieved to exit the pocket before it would enter.  This was repeated until all the tanks in the pocket were relieved.
    What made this job so hard was that the Japanese dug "spider holes" among the roots the trees.  Because of this situation, the Americans could not get a good shot at the Japanese.   
    The tankers, from A, B, and C Companies, were able to clear the pockets.  But before this was done, one C Company tank which had gone beyond the American perimeter was disabled and the tank just sat there.  When the sun came up the next day, the tank was still sitting there.  During the night, its crew was buried alive, inside the tank, by the Japanese. 
John was involved in an attempt to recover the disabled tank.  During the recovery attempt, his tank hit a landmine which resulted in S/Sgt. McAuliffe being wounded, but John was not hurt. When the Japanese had been wiped out, the tank was turned upside down to remove the dirt and recover the bodies of the crew.  The tank was put back into use.
    At the same time, the tanks were also used to clear out the Japanese in what was called "The Battle of the Points."  The Japanese had attempted to land troops behind the main defensive line and ended up with troops trapped on two different points on the peninsula.
    The Japanese Marines were driven to the cliffs and hid in the caves below the cliff lines.  They used the caves for protection and would climb down the cliffs to enter them or leave them.  The tankers fired into the caves repeatedly until the Japanese were dead or came out of the caves.
    The soldiers were hungry and began to eat everything they could get their hands on to eat.  The Carabao were tough but if they were cooked long enough they could be eaten.  They also began to eat horse meat provided by the 26th U. S. Cavalry.  To make things worse, the soldiers' rations were cut in half again on March 1, 1942.  This meant that they only ate two meals a day.  
    The Japanese also were dropping surrender leaflets with a scantly clad blond on them.  The Japanese would have been more successful at getting the Americans to surrender if the picture had been hamburger, since the men were so hungry that they most likely would have surrendered for a good meal.
    The soldiers were hungry and began to eat everything they could get their hands on to eat.  The Carabao were tough but if they were cooked long enough they could be eaten.  They also began to eat horse meat provided by the 26th U. S. Cavalry.  To make things worse, the soldiers' rations were cut in half again on March 1, 1942.  This meant that they only ate two meals a day.
    The Japanese also were dropping surrender leaflets with a scantly clad blond on them.  The Japanese would have been more successful at getting the Americans to surrender if the picture had been hamburger, since the men were so hungry that they most likely would have surrendered for a good meal.
    The company's last bivouac area was about twelve kilometers north of Marivales and looking out on the China Sea.  By this point, the tankers knew that there was no help on the way.  Many had listened to Secretary of War Harry L. Stimson on short wave.  When asked about the Philippines, he said , "There are times when men must die."  The soldiers cursed in response because they knew that the Philippines had already been lost.    
    In March, the amount of gasoline was reduced to 15 gallons a day for all vehicles except the tanks.  This would later be dropped to ten gallons a day.  At the same time, food rations were cut in half again.  Also at this time, Gen. Weaver suggested to Gen. Wainwright that a platoon of tanks be sent to Corregidor.
    The Japanese lunched an all out attack on April 3 with troops brought in from Shanghai.  On April 7, the 57th Infantry, Philippine Scouts, supported by tanks, attempted to restore the line, but Japanese infiltrators prevented this from happening.  During this action, one tank was knocked out but the remaining tanks successfully withdrew.  C Company, 194th, which was attached to the 192nd, had only seven tanks left.
    The tanks became a favorite target of the Japanese receiving fire on trails and while hidden in the jungle. and could not fight back.  The situation was so bad that other troops avoided being near the tanks, and the 26th Cavalry turned down a tank company's offer of assistance in a counter-attack.
   The evening of April 8, Gen. Edward P. King decided that further resistance was futile, since approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight, and he estimated they would last one more day.  In addition, he had over 6,000 troops who sick or wounded and 40,000 civilians who he feared would be massacred.  At 10:30 that night, he sent his staff officers to negotiate surrender terms.  At 11;40, the ammunition dumps were blown up.
    Tank battalion commanders received this order : "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished."          
    John became a Prisoner of War, on April 9, 1942, when the Filipino and American forces were surrendered to the Japanese.  The tank crews circled their tanks and fired one armor piercing round into the engine of the tank in front of theirs.  The crews opened the gasoline cocks inside the tanks and dropped grenades into the tanks.
    John took part in the death march from Mariveles to San Fernando.  There he and the other men were forced into wooden boxcars used for hauling sugarcane.  Each car could hold 40 men; the Japanese packed 100 men into each car and closed the doors.  Those who died remained standing since there was no room for them to fall to the floors.  At Capas, the POWs disembarked the cars and walked to Camp O'Donnell.
    The camp was an unfinished Filipino training base that was pressed into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942.  When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese confiscated any extra clothing that the POWs had and refused to return it to them.  They searched the POWs and if a man was found to have Japanese money on them, they were taken to the guardhouse.  Over the next several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of the camp.  These POWs had been executed for looting.
    There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two to eight hours waiting for a drink.  The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and the next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again.  This situation improved when a second faucet was added.
    There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing when it had been soiled.  In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the camp and mess kits could not be washed.  The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon overflowing since most of the POWs had dysentery.  The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp including the POW kitchens and in the food.
    The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant.  When the ranking American doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies, he was told never to write another letter.  When the Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the camp, Tsuneyoshi refused to allow the truck into the camp.  When the Japanese Red Cross sent medical supplies to the camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
    The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them.  When a representative of the Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150 bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a Japanese lieutenant.
    Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to the hospital and placed underneath it.  The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried in the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria.  To clean the ground under the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it.  The bodies of the dead were placed in the area, and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
    Work details were sent out on a daily basis.  Each day, the American doctors gave a list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work.  If the quota of POWs needed to work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick, but could walk, to work.  The death rate among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day.

    To get out of the camp, John went out on a scrap metal detail to San Fernando, where the POWs cleaned up the junk which was left over from the battle.  The POWs tied the disabled cars and trucks together with ropes and to an operating vehicle.  The POWs drove the vehicles to San Fernando where they were loaded on trucks and taken to Manila for shipment to Japan.  When the detail ended<, the POWs were sent to Cabanatuan which had opened to replace Camp O'Donnell.
    The camp was actually three camps.  Camp 1 was where the men who captured on Bataan and taken part in the death march where held.  Camp 2 did not have an adequate water supply and was closed.  It later reopened and housed Naval POWs.  Camp 3 was where those men captured when Corregidor surrender were taken.  In addition, men from Bataan who had been hospitalized when the surrender came were sent to the camp.  Camp 3 was later consolidated into Camp 1.
    Once in the camp, the POWs were allowed to run the camp.  The Japanese only entered if they had an issue they wanted to deal with.  To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a detail that patrolled the fence of the camp.  The reason this was done was that those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed, while the other POWs were made to watch.  It is believed that no POW successfully escaped from the camp.
    In the camp, the Japanese instituted the "Blood Brother" rule.  If one man escaped the other nine men in his group would be executed.  POWs caught trying to escape were beaten.  Those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed.  It is not known if any POW successfully escaped from the camp.
    The barracks in the camp were built to house 50 POWs, but most had between 60 to 120 POWs in them.  The POWs slept on bamboo slats, without mattresses, bedding, or mosquito netting.  Many quickly became ill.  The POWs were assigned to barracks which meant that the members of their group lived together, went out on work details together, and would be executed together since they were Blood Brothers.
    The POWs were sent out on work details one was to cut wood for the POW kitchens.  The two major details were the farm detail and the airfield detail which lasted for years.  A typical day on any detail lasted from 7:00 A.M. until  5:00 P.M.  The POWs on the farm detail would have to go to a shed each morning to get tools.  As they left the shed, the Japanese guards thought it was great fun to hit them over their heads.
    The detail was under the command of "Big Speedo" who spoke very little English.  When he wanted the POWs to work faster, he told the POWs "speedo."  Although he was known to have a temper, the POWs thought he was fair.  Another guard was "Little Speedo" who was smaller and also used "speedo" when he wanted the POWs to work faster.  The POWs also felt he was pretty fair in his treatment of them.  "Smiley" was another guard who always had a smile on his face but could not be trusted.  He was the meanest of the guards and beat men up for no reason.  He liked to hit the POWs with the club.  Any prisoner who he believed was not working hard enough got knocked over with it.  Any prisoner who he believed was not working hard enough got knocked over with it.  Each morning, after arriving at the farm, the POWs went into a tool shed to get their tools.  As they left the shed, the guards hit them on their heads.
    Other POWs worked in rice paddies.  While working in the fields, the favorite punishment given to the men in the rice paddies was to have their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on by a guard to drive their faces deeper into the mud.  Returning from a detail the POWs bought, or were given, medicine, food, and tobacco, which they somehow managed to get into the camp even though they were searched when they returned.
    Rice was the main food given to the POWs fed to them as "lugow" which meant "wet rice."  During their time in the camp, they received few vegetables and almost no fruit.  Once in awhile, they received bread.
    The camp hospital was known as "Zero Ward" because it was missed by the Japanese when they counted barracks.  The sickest POWs were sent there to die.  The Japanese put a fence up around the building to protect themselves, and they would not go into the building.  There were two rolls of wooden platforms around the perimeter of the building.  The sickest POWs were put on the lower platform which had holes cut into it so the they could relieve themselves.  Most of those who entered the ward died.
    It was during his time at Cabanatuan that John came down with beriberi.  He remained in the camp until he was selected for a work detail in Manila which was located at the Port Area.  The POWs on this detail worked as stevedores loading and unloading ships.  The POWs remained on the detail until July 14, 1944.  On that date, the Japanese ended the detail and sent most POWs to the Port Area of Manila for transport to Japan. It appears that John remained on the detail beyond this date.     
    On July 17, 1944, the POWs were boarded onto the Nissyo Maru at 8:00 in the morning.  The ship sailed but dropped anchor with the Manila breakwater and sat waiting for a convoy to form.  The ship sailed on July 23rd, at 8:00 AM, but again it dropped anchor at 2:00 P.M.  This time off Corregidor.  On July 24th, the ship sailed again as part of a convoy.
    The 1,033 POWs were crammed into the ship's hold back to back while standing up.  When the hold was full, the Japanese closed the hatches.  There was very little water and no sanitary facilities.  For the men in the hold, food was not as important as water.  Men began going crazy and would attack each other for the smallest reasons.
   The convoy came under attack, at 3:00 A.M., from an Wolf Pack composed of the submarines; the U.S.S. Crevale, the U.S.S. Angler, and the U.S.S. Flasher.  Several ships in the convoy were sunk. 
    During the voyage, the prisoners heard a "bang" under the ship.  They assumed that it was a torpedo from an American submarine.  Another ship, the Hakusan Maru, was hit by torpedoes resulting in the deaths of almost 707 POWs. 
    At one point, John managed to climb out of the hold of the ship, when he reached the ship's deck, he was beaten with a hose until he climbed back down the ladder into the hold. 
    On July 28, 1944, the ship arrived at Takao, Formosa, at 9:00 A.M., and remained in port until it sailed at 7:00 P.M.  From July 30th to August 2nd, the ship sailed through a storm which kept submarines away.  On August 3rd, the POWs were issued clothes, and the ship arrived at Moji, Japan, on August 4th at midnight.  The POWs were disembarked at 8:00 A.M. and formed into POW detachments of 100 men.
    The POW detachment John was in was marched to the train depot and boarded a train and sent to Kamioka Camp, also known as Nagoya #1-B, were they worked in a lead and zinc mine.  With him in the camp was Emerson Rex of A Company.  Collective punishment was standard in the camp, and the POWs were beaten and kicked if they violated a rule.  Medical supplies were also withheld from the sick.
   Sometime during his captivity, in Japan, that John was sent to Sendai #6 which was also known as Hanawa, where 500 POWs worked in the copper mine owned by Mitsubishi and under company supervision.  The camp was approximately 200 feet wide by 350 feet long and had a 12 foot high wooden fence around it and was located at 4,000 feet.  The POWs were housed in wooden barracks, with 30 foot ceilings, and two tiers of bunks, against each long wall, with straw matting and a mattress stuffed with straw for sleeping.  They also had a 4" by 4" by 8" block of wood for a pillow.
   The floors of the barracks were packed dirt with a center aisle.  There were covered walkways, without sides, that connected the barracks.  To heat the barracks, there was a small potbelly stove.   If they were lucky, the Japanese gave them enough wood for an hour's heat.  The POWs - who worked in the foundry - stole coal knowing that if they were caught they would be beaten.  The barracks were not insulated and the heavy snow - which was as deep as 10 feet - served as insulation.
    Other buildings in the camp were two buildings that served as a hospital for the POWs and a "L" shaped building that was the kitchen and POW bath.  The latrines were three low buildings, and there was one building that served as the camp office.  The POWs spent several days setting up the camp.
    In the camp, 500 POWs worked in the copper mine owned by Mitsubishi Mining Company and worked under company supervision.  The POWs woke up at 5 A.M. and ate breakfast which was small bowl of rice, barley or millet and a watery soup.  Meals for the POWs were brought to the barracks, in buckets, and the POWs ate at tables in the barracks.  After breakfast, at 5:30, roll call was taken and the POWs and the POWs left the camp.  They arrived at the mine at 7 A.M., had a half hour lunch, and worked until 5:00 P.M. before returning to camp, usually after dark, and had supper.  Afterwards, they went to bed.
   The clothing issued to the POWs was a combination of  Japanese clothing, made of thin cloth and shoes, and captured American clothing.  For the winter the POWs were issued a uniform made of burlap and long socks.  Those who needed shoes were issued Japanese canvas shoes with webbing between two toes.  They also received grass shoe covers so they could get through the snow.
    Work details were set up for POWs who were machinists, electricians, mechanics.  Those who did not have these skills were assigned to working at a foundry or mining.  The POWs worked in a copper mine owned by Mitsubishi.  Each day, the POWs were marched up the side of a mountain to the top and then down into the mine.  To their amazement, their guards always seemed to be waiting for them.  It turned out there was a tunnel into the mine which the guards used so they did not have to climb the mountain.
    Each detail had a "honcho" who was employed by Mitsubishi and supervised the POWs.  They carried a large stick which they used on the POWs when they felt they were not working hard enough.  The POWs believed these supervisors wanted to work them to death.  At the mine, the POWs were divided among drillers, car loaders, and car pushers, with the miners having the worst job.  The work in the mine was dirty, dangerous, and difficult.  Each miner was furnished a carbide headlamp as his only lighting.
    A quota was set but the Japanese and the Japanese were always raising the quota.  The number of carloads mined by the men were never enough.  The POWs were beaten for not working hard enough or fast enough.  Many shafts of the mine were so low that the miners had to crawl through to get to the ore. Some shafts had standing water with threats of sudden flooding. Lighting was poor and most areas were not even shored up to prevent cave-ins. Accidents were frequent and many POWs were hurt. There was no gas detecting equipment and there was always the danger of setting off an explosion from the open burning carbide headlamps.
    Each detail had a "honcho" who was employed by Mitsubishi and supervised the POWs.  They carried a large stick which they used on the POWs when they felt they were not working hard enough.  The mine had been abandoned because it had become to expensive to extract the copper, but Mitsubishi believed it could make it profitable with the slave labor provided by the POWs.
    To get to work, the POWs had to often walk through two feet of snow and climb up the side of a mountain and descend 472 steps into the mine.  The POWs noticed that the guards never seemed to be winded when they arrived at the mine.  They later learned that the Japanese had cut a ground level entrance to the mine which the guards used to enter it.
    The POWs believed these supervisors wanted to work them to death.  At the mine, the POWs were divided among drillers, car loaders, and car pushers, with the miners having the worst job.  The work in the mine was dirty, dangerous, and difficult. Each miner was furnished a carbide headlamp as his only lighting. A quota was set but the Japanese and the Japanese were always raising the quota. The number of carloads mined by the men were never enough.  The POWs were beaten for not working hard enough or fast enough. Many shafts of the mine were so low that the miners had to crawl through to get to the ore. Some shafts had standing water with threats of sudden flooding.
    Lighting was poor and most areas were not even shored up to prevent cave-ins.  Accidents were frequent and many POWs were hurt.  There was no gas detecting equipment and there was always the danger of setting off an explosion from the open burning carbide headlamps.
    Mitsubishi expected the Japanese Army to supply a certain number of POWs to work in the mine each day so men too sick to work were sent to work.  The sick had to be carried between two healthier POWs to the mine.  Since the Japanese found that the sick were too ill to work, the company came up with work for them to do in the camp like making nails or rope.  If a POW still could not work, his rations were cut in half.
    While working in the mine from November 1944 until August 15, 1945, the POWs were abused by the civilian foreman, Hichiro Tsuchiya, who was known to the POWs as "Patches."  Tsuchiya used any excuse to abuse the POWs.  He was known to hit the POWs for no reason in their faces and to also use a wooden club or pick axe handle.  He also used a sledge hammer to hit the POWs on their heads.   His parents received a postcard from him in January 1945.
    In the camp, the Japanese withheld the Red Cross packages from the POWs and took the canned meats, canned fruit, canned milk, and cheese for themselves.  Blankets and clothing intended for the POWs were used by the guards.  If a POW violated a rule, the grain ration, for all the POWs, was reduced by 20 percent.  At one point, 49 POWs were lined up - because one POW had broken a rule - and beaten with leather belts.
    John remained in the camp until he was liberated in September 1945.  He recalled that when the B-29's began dropping food to them, they had so much food that they shared it with Chinese POWs in a nearby camp.  The POWs were officially liberated on September 7, 1945, and taken to Yokohama and returned to the Philippines.
    John boarded the U.S.S. Rescue and arrived Guam and Hawaii before docking at San Francisco on October 10, 1945.  He returned to Janesville on October 18, 1945.  A little over six months later, he lost his left arm in a car accident.  On October 19, 1946, he married Beatrice Preston.  He and his wife later moved to Saugus, California, and he became the father of one child.
    John was awarded the Asiatic-Pacific Theater Ribbon with four battle stars, American Defense Presidential Unit citation with two oak leaf clusters, Purple Heart, and nominated for the Silver Star.    
John Spencer passed away on August 30, 1973, in Newhall, California, and was buried at Eternal Valley Memorial Park, Newhall, California.




 

Return to Company A

Next