Spencer

Sgt. Norman Frederick Spencer


    Sgt. Norman Frederick Spencer was born in Marshfield, Wisconsin, on May 31, 1920.  He was one of fourteen children born to Robert H. Spencer & Clara E. Knudsen-Spencer.  In 1937, his family moved to 5833 Electric Avenue in Berkley, Illinois.  After moving to Berkley, Norman attended Proviso Township High School in Maywood, Illinois, where he was a member of the Class of 1940.

    With his friend, Harry Jerele,  Norman enlisted in the Illinois National Guard, on June 31, 1938.  The reason they did this was that Norman lived across the street from a captain in the Illinois National Guard.  This captain convinced him that the National Guard would be a "good" experience for him.  

    Norman went to Fort Knox, Kentucky, when the 33rd Tank Company was called into federal service in November of 1940.  Upon arrival at Fort Knox, Kentucky, the Maywood Tank Company's name was changed to Company B, 192nd Tank Battalion.  

    While at Fort Knox, Norman was trained to operate the various equipment of the battalion.  In January of 1941, during his training, Norman was transferred into the Headquarters Company of the 192nd Tank Battalion and was promoted to sergeant. 
    Almost a year after arriving in Kentucky, the battalion was sent to Louisiana to take part in maneuvers.  During the maneuvers the battalion performed exceptionally well.  After the maneuvers, instead of returning to Ft. Knox, the battalion was ordered to Camp Polk, Louisiana.  None of the members had any idea why they were being kept there.
    On the side of a hill, the battalion members were informed that they were being sent overseas.  Those members of the battalion who were 29 years old or older were given the opportunity to resign from federal service.  Some of the soldiers received leaves home to say goodbye to their families and friends.

    The reason for this move was an event that took place in the summer of 1941.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude - noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island that a large radio transmitter.  The island was hundred of miles away.  The squadron continued its flight plan and flew south to Mariveles before returning to Clark Field.  When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
    The next day, another squadron was sent to the area and found that the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat that was seen making its way to shore.  Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was poor, the boat escaped.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
    The battalion traveled by train to San Francisco over different train routes.  By ferry, they were taken to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island.  On the island, they received inoculations and physicals.  Those members of the battalion who were found to have treatable medical conditions remained behind on the island.  They were scheduled to join the battalion at a later date.
    After the companies were brought up to strength with replacements, the battalion was equipped with new tanks and half-tracks with came from the 753rd Tank Battalion.  The battalion traveled over different train routes to Ft. Mason in San Francisco, California, where they were taken by the ferry, the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe to Angel Island.   At Ft. McDowell, on the island, they received physicals and inoculations.  Men found with minor medical conditions were held back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date.  Other men were simply replaced. 
    The 192nd boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Gen. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27.  During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP.   The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2 and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
    On Wednesday, November 5, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes.  It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and, another transport, the S.S. President Calvin Coolidge.  Sunday night, November 9, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11.  During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Dateline.  On Saturday, November 15, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon.  The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke.  It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
    When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day.  At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning.  At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.  Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
    At the fort, they were greeted by Gen. Edward P.  King, who apologized that the men had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Airfield.  He made sure that they all received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own dinner.  Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
    For the next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their weapons.  The grease was put on the weapons to protect them from rust while at sea.  They also loaded ammunition belts and did tank maintenance.
    The morning of December 8, 1941, the officers of the battalion were called together and informed of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor just hours earlier.  The tank companies were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Airfield to guard against Japanese paratroopers.  Headquarters Company remained in the battalion's bivouac.
   That morning the sky was filled with American planes. At noon, all the planes landed and the pilots went to lunch.  At 12:45 a formation of planes approached the airfield from the north.  When bombs began exploding on the runways, the tankers knew the planes were Japanese.
    After about a two weeks, the tanks were sent north to Lingayen Gulf to engage the Japanese.  Norman's job was to carry messages between the companies.  He would do this job during the Battle of the Pockets, during the Battle of the Points, and through numerous other battles.  At one point, a photographer took a picture of Norman attempting to catch some sleep beside his motorcycle.  The picture was published in many American papers.
    On April 9, 1942, Norman became a Prisoner of War.  Being that he was with the Provisional Tank Group, he did not start the march at Mariveles.  The members of the group were marched out to the main road the morning of April 10th.  There, the enlisted men were separated from the officers.  When they reached the road, they spent the rest of the day sitting and guessing what was going to happen.
    After dark, they were ordered to move.  They made their way north while Japanese troops attempted to go south.  Marching on the stony road was hard.  At midnight, they were allowed to rest for an hour.  They marched again until dawn when they were given another break.

    When they reached the Lamao River, they could smell the corpses of those who had died two days earlier in the Japanese final push.  In front of the members of the Provisional Tank Group were a group of Army Air Corps members.  They broke from the ranks and drank from the river and filled their canteens with water.  This would later be the reason so many POWs died at Camp O'Donnell.

    The POWs made their way north through Limay.  At Orani, the POWs were put into a bull pen.  In one corner was slit trench that was suppose to be used as a washroom.  The surface of the pit was alive with maggots.  It was also there that they received their first food.
     At 6:00 P.M. the POWs were formed into detachments, they began to march north again.  When they were given a break, they were allowed to sit but they had stay in ranks. When they got north of Hermosa, they were on paved road which made it easier to walk.  It began to rain which was refreshing for the prisoners. 
    The POWs continued north through Layac before daylight.  They passed through Lurao in the morning and Guagua at midday.  Many POWs fell out at this point.  The guards beat the man, but if he refused to get up, they let me lay on the ground until he could continue or was taken by truck to San Fernando.
    At San Fernando, the men were forced into another bull pen.  This one was already filled with Filipino soldiers.  The POWs were put into groups of 200 men to be fed.  A couple of the POWs would get the food which was distributed to each member of the group.  Water was given out in a similar fashion.  That night not all the POWs could lie down to sleep.  At 4:00 A.M., the Japanese woke the POWs, formed detachments of 100 men, and marched them to the train station.
    At the train station, they were packed into small wooden boxcars used to haul sugarcane.  The cars were known as "Forty or Eights" because the cars could hold forty men or eight horses.  The Japanese packed 100 POWs into each car and closed the doors.  Those who died remained standing until the living left the cars at Capas at 9:00 A.M.
    The POWs marched the last few miles to Camp O'Donnell which was an unfinished Filipino training base that was pressed into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942.  When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese confiscated any extra clothing that the POWs had and refused to return it to them.  They searched the POWs and if a man was found to have Japanese money on them, they were taken to the guardhouse.  Over the next several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of the camp.  These POWs had been executed for looting.
    There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two to eight hours waiting for a drink.  The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and the next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again.  This situation improved when a second faucet was added.
    There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing when it had been soiled.  In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the camp and mess kits could not be washed.  The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon overflowing since most of the POWs had dysentery.  The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp including the POW kitchens and in the food.
    The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant.  When the ranking American doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies, he was told never to write another letter.  When the Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the camp, Tsuneyoshi refused to allow the truck into the camp.  When the Japanese Red Cross sent medical supplies to the camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
    The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them.  When a representative of the Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150 bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a Japanese lieutenant.
    Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to the hospital and placed underneath it.  The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried in the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria.  To clean the ground under the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it.  The bodies of the dead were placed in the area, and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
    Work details were sent out on a daily basis.  Each day, the American doctors gave a list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work.  If the quota of POWs needed to work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick, but could walk, to work.  The death rate among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day.  The Japanese finally acknowledge that they had to do something, so the opened a new POW camp at Cabanatuan.
    On June 1, 1942, the POWs formed detachments of 100 men each and were marched to Capas.  There, the were put in steel boxcars with two Japanese guards.  At Calumpit, the train was switched onto another line which took it to Cabanatuan.  The POWs disembarked and were taken to a schoolyard where they were fed cooked rice and onion soup.  From there, they were marched to Cabanatuan which had been the headquarters of the 91st Philippine Army Division and was known as Camp Panagaian.  The transfer of POWs was completed on June 4.
    The camp was actually three camps.  Camp 1 was where the men who captured on Bataan and taken part in the death march where held.  Camp 2 did not have an adequate water supply and was closed.  It later reopened and housed Naval POWs.  Camp 3 was where those men captured when Corregidor surrender were taken.  In addition, men from Bataan who had been hospitalized when the surrender came were sent to the camp.  Camp 3 was later consolidated into Camp 1.
    Once in the camp, the POWs were allowed to run the camp.  The Japanese only entered if they had an issue they wanted to deal with.  To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a detail that patrolled the fence of the camp.  The reason this was done was that those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed, while the other POWs were made to watch.  It is believed that no POW successfully escaped from the camp.
    In the camp, the Japanese instituted the "Blood Brother" rule.  If one man escaped the other nine men in his group would be executed.  POWs caught trying to escape were beaten.  Those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed.  It is not known if any POW successfully escaped from the camp.
    The barracks in the camp were built to house 50 POWs, but most had between 60 to 120 POWs in them.  The POWs slept on bamboo slats, without mattresses, bedding, or mosquito netting.  Many quickly became ill.  The POWs were assigned to barracks which meant that the members of their group lived together, went out on work details together, and would be executed together since they were Blood Brothers.
    The POWs were sent out on work details one was to cut wood for the POW kitchens.  The two major details were the farm detail and the airfield detail which lasted for years.  A typical day on any detail lasted from 7:00 A.M. until  5:00 P.M.  The POWs on the farm detail would have to go to a shed each morning to get tools.  As they left the shed, the Japanese guards thought it was great fun to hit them over their heads.
    The detail was under the command of "Big Speedo" who spoke very little English.  When he wanted the POWs to work faster, he told the POWs "speedo."  Although he was known to have a temper, the POWs thought he was fair.  Another guard was "Little Speedo" who was smaller and also used "speedo" when he wanted the POWs to work faster.  The POWs also felt he was pretty fair in his treatment of them.  "Smiley" was another guard who always had a smile on his face but could not be trusted.  He was the meanest of the guards and beat men up for no reason.  He liked to hit the POWs with the club.  Any prisoner who he believed was not working hard enough got knocked over with it.  Any prisoner who he believed was not working hard enough got knocked over with it.  Each morning, after arriving at the farm, the POWs went into a tool shed to get their tools.  As they left the shed, the guards hit them on their heads.
    Other POWs worked in rice paddies.  While working in the fields, the favorite punishment given to the men in the rice paddies was to have their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on by a guard to drive their faces deeper into the mud.  Returning from a detail the POWs bought, or were given, medicine, food, and tobacco, which they somehow managed to get into the camp even though they were searched when they returned.
    Rice was the main food given to the POWs fed to them as "lugow" which meant "wet rice."  During their time in the camp, they received few vegetables and almost no fruit.  Once in awhile, they received bread.
    The camp hospital was known as "Zero Ward" because it was missed by the Japanese when they counted barracks.  The sickest POWs were sent there to die.  The Japanese put a fence up around the building to protect themselves, and they would not go into the building.  There were two rolls of wooden platforms around the perimeter of the building.  The sickest POWs were put on the lower platform which had holes cut into it so the they could relieve themselves.  Most of those who entered the ward died.  According to records kept by the camp medical staff, Norman was admitted to the camp hospital on Monday, August 10, 1942, suffering from pellagra.
    On several occasions the Philippine Red Cross came to the camp with medical supplies for the POWs.  Each time they came, the Japanese refused to allow the medicine to be given to the POWs.  Since the medical staff had very little medicine, there was little that they could for the sick.
    According to records kept by the medical staff at the hospital, Sgt. Norman F. Spencer died from malaria and pellagra on Wednesday, December 2, 1942, at approximately 8:00 P.M.  He was 20 years old. 
    Sgt. Norman F. Spencer was buried in Plot 2, Row 16, Grave 2042 in the Cabanatuan Camp Cemetery.  After the war, his remains were positively identified.  He was reburied, at his family's request, at the new American Military cemetery at Manila in Plot F, Row 10, Grave 1. 
His friend, Harry Jerele, who joined the National Guard with him, also died while a POW.



 


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