Speckens

 


Cpl. James Victor Speckens


Born: 20 July 1922 - California
Married: Maralyn Mays
Children: 1 son

Home: Salinas, California

Education:

    - Salinas High School

        - Class of 1940 

Enlisted:

    - California National Guard

Inducted:

    - U.S. Army

        - 10 February 1941 - Salinas Army Airfield

Training: 

    - Fort Lewis, Washington
        - C Company, 194th Tank Battalion

            - received orders to go oveseas
Note: On August 15, 1941, the 194th received orders, from Ft. Knox, Kentucky, for duty in the Philippines because of an event that happened during the summer.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a buoy in the water.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island, with a large radio transmitter, hundred of miles away.  The squadron continued its flight plane and flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field.  By the time the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
    The next morning, another squadron was sent to the area and found that the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat which was seen making its way toward shore.  Since communication between and Air Corps and Navy was poor, the boat was not intercepted.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
Overseas Duty:
    - 4 September  1941
        - battalion traveled by train to Ft. Mason in San Francisco, California
    - Arrived: 7:30 A.M. - 5 September 1941
        - ferried to Ft. McDowell, Angel Island on U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
        - given physicals and inoculations
        - men with medical conditions replaced
    - Ship: S.S. President Calvin Coolidge
        - Boarded: Monday - 8 September 1941 - 3:00 P.M.
        - Sailed: 9:00 P.M. - same day
        - Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii - Saturday - 13 September 1941 - 7:00 A.M.
        - Sailed: 5:00 P.M. - same day
            - escorted by the heavy cruiser, U.S.S. Astoria, and an unknown destroyer
                - smoke seen on horizon several times
                -  cruiser intercepted ships

        - Tuesday - 16 September 1941 - crossed International Dateline
            - date changed to - Thursday - 18 September 1941
        - Arrived: Manila - Friday - 26 September 1941
            - disembark ship - 3:00 P.M.
            - taken by bus to Fort Stostenburg
            - maintenance section with 17th ordnance remained behind to unload the tanks and attached turrets
                -27 September 1941 - job completed at 9:00 A.M.
Stationed:
    - Ft. Stotsenburg, Philippine Islands
        - lived in tents until barracks completed - 15 November 1941
        - 1 December 1941
            - tanks ordered to perimeter of Clark Field
            - 194th guarded north end of airfield with 192nd guarding south portion
            - two crew members of each tank and half-track remained with vehicle at all times
                - meals served by food trucks
            - those not assigned to a tank or half-track remained at command post

Engagements: 

    - Battle of Luzon

        - 8 December 1941 - 6 January 1942

            - Clark Field - lived through Japanese attack on airfield

        - 12 December 1941
            - moved to new bivouac south to San Fernando near Calumpit Bridge
                - arrived 6:00 A.M.
            - C Company ordered to Southern Luzon
        - 15 December 1941
            - C Company holding Tagaytay Bridge - South Luzon
            - spent most of time chasing down Fifth Columnists

        - 24 December 1941
            - company moved over Taal Road to Santo Tomas
                - bivouacked near San Paolo
        - 25 December 1941
            - sent to assist in operations around Lucena, Paglibo, and Lucban
        - 26/27 December 1941
            - defended in Southern Luzon near Lucban
            - supported Philippine Army
        - 29/30 December 1941
            - new line at Bamban River established
            - tank battalions held line until ordered to withdraw
        - 30 December 1941
            - covered withdraw of Philippine Divisions
            - it was around this time that the company rejoined the battalion
        - 2 January 1942
            - both tank battalions ordered to withdrawal to Lyac Junction
            - 194th withdrew there on Highway 7

        - 5 January 1942
            - rejoined rest of 194th at Guagua

            - ambushed a Japanese force of 750 to 800 soldiers attempting to cut the highway

            - Japanese lost half their force
            - Labao was burning when tanks left area
         - 6/7 January 1942 - that night the 194th crosses bridge into Bataan
            - withdraw covered by 192nd Tank Battalion
 

    - Battle of Bataan

        - 7 January 1942 - 9 April 1942
            - January 1942
                - tank companies reduced to three tanks per platoon
        - 8 January 1942
            - composite tank company made up of tanks from the 192nd and 194th sent to protect East Coast Road north of Hermosa
                - their job was to keep the East Road open  north of Hermosa and prevent the Japanese from driving into Bataan before the main
                  battle line had been formed
            - remainder of tanks ordered to bivouac for night south of Aubucay-Hacienda Road
                - tankers had been fighting for a month without a rest
                - tanks also needed overdue maintenance
                - 17th Ordnance
            - all tank companies reduced to ten tanks
            - three per tank platoon
            - sent to reopen Moron Road so General Segunda's forces could withdraw
            - tanks knock out an anti-tank gun
            - two tanks disabled by landmines but recovered
            - mission abandoned
            - Gen. Segunda's troops escaped using beach but lost their heavy equipment
        - 12 January 1942
            - C Company, with D Company, 192nd, sent to Cadre Road
                - forward position with little alert time
        - 13 January 1942
            - mines planted by ordnance prevented them from reaching Cadre Road
            - returned to battalion

        - 16 January 1942 - Bagac

            - sent to reopen Moron Road so General Segunda's forces could withdraw

            - tanks knock out an anti-tank gun

            - two tanks disabled by landmines but recovered

            - mission abandoned

            - Gen. Segunda's troops escaped using beach but lost their heavy equipment
        - 20 January 1942

            - Bani Bani Road -tanks sent in to save 31st Infantry command post

        - 25/26 January 1942
            - the battalion held a position a kilometer north of the Pilar-Bagac Road
               - four SPMs with the battalion
            - warned by Filipino a large Japanese force was coming

            - when the enemy appeared they opened up with all the battalion had   

                - Japanese withdrew after losing 500 of 1800 men

        - 28 January 1942
            - 194th tanks given beach duty protecting southern beaches of Bataan

It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver, "Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal.  If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay."
        - March 1942
            - two tanks were bogged down in mud
            - the tankers were working to get them out
            - Japanese Regiment entered the area
            - Lt. Col. Miller ordered tanks and artillery to fire at point blank range
                - Miller ran from tank to tank directing fire
            - wiped out Japanese regiment
            - gasoline rations cut to 15 gallons a day for all vehicles except the tanks
           - Weaver suggested to Gen. Wainwright that one platoon of tanks be sent to Corregidor
                - Wainwright rejected idea
        - April 1942
                - tanks sent into various sectors in attempt to stop Japanese advance
        - 4 April 1942
            - Japanese launched major offensive
            - tanks sent into various sectors to stop Japanese advance
        - 6 April 1942
            - four tanks sent to support 45th Philippine Infantry and 75th Infantry, Philippine Scouts
                - one tank knocked out by anti-tank fire at junction of Trails 8 & 6
                - other tanks covered withdraw
            - 3rd Platoon sent up west coast road
                - near Mount Samat ran into heavy Japanese force
                - the tanks withdrew to Marivales
        - 8 April 1942
            - fighting on East Coast Road at Cabcaban
It was at this time that the tank battalion commanders received this order
, "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished."
            - 10:30 P.M. - Gen. King announced that further resistance would result the massacre of 6000 sick or wounded and 40000 civilians
            - less than 25% of his troops were healthy enough to continue fighting
            - he estimated they could hold out one more day
            - sent his staff officers to negotiate the surrender of Bataan

Prisoner of War: 

    - 9 April 1942
        - received order to destroy equipment and report to kilometer marker 168.2.
            - Provisional Tank Group Headquarters
        - Japanese officers told Col. Ernest Miller to keep them there until ordered to move
    - 10 April 1942
        - started march
            - at times slipped on remains of dead who had been killed by Japanese shelling
        - reached Lamao
       - reached Limay and main road
        - officers, majors and up, separated from lower ranking officers and enlisted men
        - marched through Balanga, Abucay and Samal
     - lower ranking officers and enlisted men arrive at Orani
        - higher ranking officers rejoin march
        - ordered to form 100 men detachments
            - POWs marched at faster pace
            - fewer breaks
                - when given break, the POWs sat on road
        - North of Hermosa the POWs reached pavement
            - made march easier
            - POWs march through Layac and Lurao
            - rains - POWs drank as much as they could
        -  San Fernando
            - POWs put in groups of 200 to be fed
                - one POW sent to get a box of rice for each group
                - pottery jars of water given out the same way
        - POWs formed detachments of 100 men and marched to train station
            - put into small wooden boxcars used to haul sugarcane
                - each boxcar could hold eight horses or forty men
                - 100 POWs packed into each car
                - POWs who died remained standing
        - Capas - dead fell to floor as living left boxcars
            - as POWs formed ranks, Filipinos threw sugarcane to POWs
            - also gave them water
            - POWs walked last 8 kilometers to Camp O'Donnell

POW Camps:
    - Camp O'Donnell
        - 1 April 1942 - unfinished Filipino training base Japanese put into use as a POW camp
            - Japanese believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs
        - POWs searched upon arrival at camp
            - those found with Japanese money were accused of looting
            - sent to guardhouse
            - over several days, gun shots heard southeast of the camp
                - POWs who had money on them had been executed
        - Japanese took away any extra clothing from POWs as they entered the camp and refused to return it
            - since no water was available for wash clothing, the POWs threw soiled clothing away
            - clothing was taken from dead
            - few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing
        - POWs were not allowed to bathe
            - only one water spigot for entire camp
                - POWs waited 2 hours to 8 hours to get a drink
                    - water frequently turned off by Japanese guards and next man in line waited as long as 4 hours for water to be turned on again
                    - mess kits could not be cleaned
        - POWs had to carry water 3 miles from a river to cook their meals
            - second water spigot installed a week after POWs arrived
            - slit trenches overflowed since many of the POWs had dysentery
                - flies were everywhere including in camp kitchens and food
            - camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant
        - the senior POW doctor wrote a list of medicines he wanted to treat the sick and was told by the camp commandant, Capt. Yoshio
          Tsuneyoshi, never to write another letter
            - Tsuneyoshi said that all he wanted to know about the American POWs was their names and numbers when they died
                - refused to allow a truckload of medicine sent by the Archbishop of Manila into the camp
                - 95% of the medicine sent by Philippine Red Cross was taken by the Japanese for their own use
        - POWs in camp hospital lay on floor elbow to elbow
            - operations on POWs were performed with mess kit knives
            - only one medic out of six assigned to care for 50 sick POWs, in the hospital, was well enough to work
            - as many as 50 POWs died each day
                - each morning dead were found everywhere in the camp and stacked up under the hospital
                - ground under hospital was scrapped and cover with lime to clean it
                - the dead were moved to this area and the section where they had laid was scrapped and cover with lime
                - usually not buried for two or three days
            - work details: if a POW could walk, he was sent out on a work detail
                - POWs on burial detail often had dysentery and malaria
        - Japanese opened new POW camp to lower death rate
            - 1 June 1942 - POWs formed detachments of 100 men
                - POWs marched out gate and marched toward Capas
                    - Filipino people gave POWs small bundles of food
                        - the guards did not stop them
                - At Capas, the POWs were put into steel boxcars and rode them to Manila
                - train stopped at Calumpit and switched onto the line to Cabanatuan
                    - POWs disembark train at 6:00 P.M. and put into a school yard
                    - fed rice and onion soup     
    - Cabanatuan
        - original name: Camp Panagaian
            - Philippine Army Base built for 91st Philippine Army Division
                - actually three camps
                -  POWs from Camp O'Donnell put in Camp 1
                    - Camp 2 was four miles away
                        - all POWs moved from there because of a lack of water
                        - later used for Naval POWs
                    - Camp 3 was six miles from Camp 2
                        - POWs from Corregidor and from hospitals sent there

                        - camp was later consolidated into Camp 1
            - work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens, plant rice, and farm
                - when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in
                  their shins with their hobnailed boots
                    - they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
                - POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on
                - the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
                - if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn't doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
                - many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
            - to prevent escapes, the POWs set up patrols along the camp's fence
            - men who attempted to escape and caught were executed after being beaten
                - the other POWs were forced to watch the beatings
            - daily POW meal - 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn

            - assigned to Barracks 12
        - Camp Hospital:
            - 30 Wards
                - each ward could hold 40 men
                    - frequently had 100 men in each
               - two tiers of bunks
                   - sickest POWs on bottom tier
               - each POW had a 2 foot by 6 foot area to lie in
            - Zero Ward
              - given name because it had been missed when counting wards
              - became ward where those who were going to die were sent
              - fenced off from other wards
                  - Japanese guards would not go near it
                 - POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving

            - hospitalized - 21 January 1943
                - discharged - date not known
            - hospitalized - 16 March 1943
                - discharged - date not known

        - Clark Field

            - sent to detail as a replacement

            - POWs built revetments and a runway

            - guards beat POWs for talking to their friends

        - Bilibid Prison

            - 17 August 1944

            - sent there when detail ended
Hell Ship:
    - Noto Maru
        - Boarded: 25 August 1944       
        - Sailed: Manila - 27 August 1944

            - spent night in Subic Bay

        - Sailed: 28 August 1944
        - Arrived: 30 August 1944 - Takao, Formosa
        - Sailed: Same Day

        - Arrived: Same Day - Keelung, Formosa
        - Sailed - 31 - August 1944
        - Arrived: Moji, Japan - 4 September 1944
POW Camp:

    - Japan

        - Sendai #6

             - POWs worked in a copper mine

             - mine owned by Mitsubishi

Liberated:

    - September 1945
        - returned to the Philippine Islands
Transport:
   
- U.S.S. Marine Shark
        - Sailed: Manila - 10 October 1945
        - Arrived: Seattle, Washington - 1 November 1945
            - taken to Madigan General Hospital - Ft. Lewis, Washington

Education:

    - University of California
        - Class of 1948

Married: multiple marriages

Died: 25 May 1991 - Laguna Hills, California



 

 

 

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