Pvt. Clarence E. Simms
Pvt. Clarence E. Simms was born to Andrew L. Simms & Hattie Roach-Simms on June 8, 1915, in
Guyan Township, Gallia County, Ohio. He was the oldest of the couple's four children and grew up in Newport,
Kentucky. He was living in Huntington, West Virginia, working as a mechanic, when he enlisted in the U.S. Army at
Fort Hayes, Ohio, on
January 7, 1941.
At Fort Knox, Kentucky, he was assigned to the 19th Ordnance Battalion, because he was a mechanic. A company of the battalion would later be reorganized as 17th Ordnance Company and sent to the Philippine Islands in September 1941.
On December 8, 1941, Clarence lived through the Japanese attack on Clark Field just ten hours after Pearl Harbor. His company worked to keep the tanks of the 192nd & 194th Tank Battalions supplied with gasoline, ammunition, and running.
He became a Prisoner of War when Bataan was surrendered to the Japanese on April 9, 1942, and took part in the death march from Mariveles to San Fernando. He, like the other POWs, received little food and water. At San Fernando, the POWs were packed into small wooden boxcars that could hold eight horses or forty men. Each boxcar was packed with 100 men. Those who died remained standing until the living climbed out at Capas. They then walked the last eight kilometers to Camp O'Donnell.
The camp was an unfinished Filipino Army Training Base that the Japanese pressed into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942. When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese confiscated any extra clothing that the POWs had and refused to return it to them. They searched the POWs and if a man was found to have Japanese money on them, they were taken to the guardhouse. Over the next several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of the camp. These POWs had been executed for looting.
There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two to eight hours waiting for a drink. The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and the next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again. This situation improved when a second faucet was added.
There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing when it had been soiled. In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the camp and mess kits could not be washed. The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon overflowing since most of the POWs had dysentery. The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp including the POW kitchens and in the food.
The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant. When the ranking American doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies, he was told never to write another letter.
The Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the camp, the Japanese commandant refused to allow the truck into the camp. When the Japanese Red Cross sent medical supplies the camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them. When a representative of the Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150 bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a Japanese lieutenant.
Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to the hospital and placed underneath it. The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried in the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria. To clean the ground under the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it. The bodies of the dead were placed in the area, and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
Work details were sent out on a daily basis. Each day, the American doctors gave a list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work. If the quota of POWs needed to work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick, but could walk, to work. The death rate among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day. The Japanese finally acknowledge that they had to do something, so the opened a new POW camp at Cabanatuan.
On June 1, 1942, the POWs formed detachments of 100 men each and were marched to Capas. There, the were put in steel boxcars with two Japanese guards. At Calumpit, the train was switched onto another line which took it to Cabanatuan. The POWs disembarked and were taken to a schoolyard where they were fed cooked rice and onion soup. From there, they were marched to Cabanatuan which had been the headquarters of the 91st Philippine Army Division and was formerly known at Camp Panagaian. The POW transfer lasted until June 4.
The camp was actually three camps. Camp 1 was where the men who captured on Bataan and taken part in the death march where held. Camp 2 did not have an adequate water supply and was closed. It later reopened and housed Naval POWs. Camp 3 was where those men captured when Corregidor surrender were taken. In addition, men from Bataan who had been hospitalized when the surrender came were sent to the camp. Camp 3 was later consolidated into Camp 1.
Once in the camp, the POWs were allowed to run the camp. The Japanese only entered if they had an issue they wanted to deal with. To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a detail that patrolled the fence of the camp. The reason this was done was that those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed, while the other POWs were made to watch. It is believed that no POW successfully escaped from the camp.
In the camp, the Japanese instituted the "Blood Brother" rule. If one man escaped the other nine men in his group would be executed. POWs caught trying to escape were beaten. Those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed. It is not known if any POW successfully escaped from the camp.
The barracks in the camp were built to house 50 POWs, but most had between 60 to 120 POWs in them. The POWs slept on bamboo slats, without mattresses, bedding, or mosquito netting. Many quickly became ill. The POWs were assigned to barracks which meant that the members of their group lived together, went out on work details together, and would be executed together since they were Blood Brothers.
The POWs were sent out on work details one was to cut wood for the POW kitchens. The two major details were the farm detail and the airfield detail which lasted for years. A typical day on any detail lasted from 7:00 A.M. until 5:00 P.M. The POWs on the farm detail would have to go to a shed each morning to get tools. As they left the shed, the Japanese guards thought it was great fun to hit them over their heads.
The detail was under the command of "Big Speedo" who spoke very little English. When he wanted the POWs to work faster, he told the POWs "speedo." Although he was known to have a temper, the POWs thought he was fair. Another guard was "Little Speedo" who was smaller and also used "speedo" when he wanted the POWs to work faster. The POWs also felt he was pretty fair in his treatment of them. "Smiley" was another guard who always had a smile on his face but could not be trusted. He was the meanest of the guards and beat men up for no reason. He liked to hit the POWs with the club. Any prisoner who he believed was not working hard enough got knocked over with it. Any prisoner who he believed was not working hard enough got knocked over with it. Each morning, after arriving at the farm, the POWs went into a tool shed to get their tools. As they left the shed, the guards hit them on their heads.
Other POWs worked in rice paddies. While working in the fields, the favorite punishment given to the men in the rice paddies was to have their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on by a guard to drive their faces deeper into the mud. Returning from a detail the POWs bought, or were given, medicine, food, and tobacco, which they somehow managed to get into the camp even though they were searched when they returned.
Rice was the main food given to the POWs fed to them as "lugow" which meant "wet rice." During their time in the camp, they received few vegetables and almost no fruit. Once in awhile, they received bread.
The camp hospital was known as "Zero Ward" because it was missed by the Japanese when they counted barracks. The sickest POWs were sent there to die. The Japanese put a fence up around the building to protect themselves, and they would not go into the building. There were two rolls of wooden platforms around the perimeter of the building. The sickest POWs were put on the lower platform which had holes cut into it so the they could relieve themselves. Most of those who entered the ward died.
Records kept by the medical staff at the camp show that Clarence was admitted to the hospital on Saturday, June 12 suffering from malaria. When he was discharged was not recorded. On September 19, he was readmitted to the hospital because of what the medical staff referred to as an "old left ankle injury." Once again, no discharge date was given.
The Japanese organized a work detail to extend a runway at Nichols Airfield. The POWs were housed in the Passay School about a mile from the airfield. The plans to expand the airfield were drawn up by the Army-Air Corps, but the Japanese had no plans on using construction equipment. The POWs on this detail had nothing but picks and shovels to build the runways. At first the work was hard but not as hard as it was going to get. About 400 yards from where they began working where hills. The POWs removed these hills with picks and shovels. The dirt was put into wheel barrows and carried to a swamp and dumped as landfill. This turned out to be inefficient, so the Japanese brought in mining cars and railroad track. Two POWs pushed each car to where it was to be dumped. He would remain on this detail for almost seventeen months.
The brutality shown to the POWs was severe. The first Japanese
commander of the camp
, a Lt. Moto,
was called the "White Angel" because he wore a spotless naval uniform. He was
commander of the camp for slightly over thirteen months. One day a POW collapsed while
working on the runway. Moto was told about the man and came out and ordered him to get
up. When he couldn't four other Americans were made to carry the man back to the Pasay
The welfare of the POWs was of no concern to the Japanese. They only concern they had was getting the runway built. If the number of POWs identified as being sick was too large, the Japanese would simply walk among the POWs, at the school, and select men who did not display any physical signs of illness or injury. Men suffering from dysentery or pellagra could not get out of work.
In particular, "the Wolf" was was hardest to convince that a man was
sick. If a man's arm or leg was bandaged, he would kick the man's leg, in the spot it
was bandaged, and see how the man reacted. If the man showed a great deal of pain, he
was not required to work. In one case, a man whose broken wrist was in a splint, was
twisted by the Wolf while the man trembled in pain.
Of this time, Graef said , "As we moved through the tropical waters, the heat down in the steel-encased hell hole was maddening. We were allowed three ounces of water per man every 24 hours. Quarts were needed under these conditions, to keep a man from dehydrating .
"While men were dying of thirst, Jap guards--heaping
insults on us--would empty five gallon tins of fresh water into the hold.
Men caught the water in pieces of clothing and sucked the cloth dry. Men
licked their wet skins. It was hell all right. Men went mad."
Graef described conditions in the
"There were so many (that died ) out of 1800. The condition in that
hold.....men were just dying in a continuous stream. Men, holding their
bellies in interlocked arms, stood up, screamed and died. You were being
starved men were dying at such a pace we had to pile them up. It was like you
were choking to death. Burial consisted of two men throwing another
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