Sigala_C

 

Pvt. Charles Richard Sigala


Born: 5 July 1916 - Santa Clara County, California

Parents: Macario Sigala & Margarita Cobos-Sigala

Hometown: Castroville, California

Enlisted: California National Guard - 1932 - 16 years old

Inducted: 

    - U. S. Army

        - 10 February 1941 - Salinas Army Airfield

Training: 

    - Fort Lewis, Washington
        - C Company, 194th Tank Battalion
Note: On August 15, 1941, at Ft. Knox, Kentucky, the 194th received orders for duty in the Philippines because of an event that happened during the summer.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd in the water.  He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island, hundred of miles away, with a large radio transmitter on it.  The squadron continued its flight plane and flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field.  By the time the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day. 
    The next morning, by the time another squadron was sent to the area the next day, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat which was seen making its way toward shore.  Since communication between and Air Corps and Navy was poor, the boat was not intercepted.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
Overseas Duty:
    - rode train to Ft. Mason, San Francisco, California
        - Arrived: 7:30 A.M. - 6 September 1941
    - ferried on U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe to Angel Island
        - given physicals and inoculated by battalion's medical detachment
        - men with medical conditions replaced
    - Ship: S.S. President Calvin Coolidge
        - Boarded: Monday - 8 September 1941 - 3:00 P.M.
        - Sailed: 9:00 P.M. - same day
        - Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii - Saturday - 13 September 1941 - 7:00 A.M.
        - Sailed: 5:00 P.M. - same day
            - escorted by the heavy cruiser - U.S.S. Astoria and an unknown destroyer
                - smoke seen on horizon several times
                -  cruiser intercepted ships
        - Arrived: Manila - Friday - 26 September 1941
            - disembark ship - 3:00 P.M.
            - taken by bus to Fort Stostenburg
            - maintenance section with 17th ordnance remained behind to unload the tanks and attached turrets
                -27 September 1941 - job completed at 9:00 A.M.
    - Stationed:
        - Ft. Stotsenburg, Philippine Islands
            - lived in tents until barracks completed - 15 November 1941
            - 1 December 1941
                - tanks ordered to perimeter of Clark Field
                - 194th guarded north end of airfield with 192nd guarding south portion
                - two crew members of each tank and half-track remained with vehicle at all times
                    - meals served by food trucks
                - those not assigned to a tank or half-track remained at command post

Engagements: 

   - Battle of Luzon

        - 8 December 1941 - 6 January 1942

            - Clark Field - watched attack from inside his tank

        - 12 December 1941
            - moved to new bivouac south to San Fernando near Calumpit Bridge
                - arrived 6:00 A.M.
            - C Company ordered to Southern Luzon
        - 15 December 1941
            - C Company holding Tagaytay Bridge - South Luzon
            - spent most of time chasing down Fifth Columnists

        - 24 December 1941
            - company moved over Taal Road to Santo Tomas
                - bivouacked near San Paolo
        - 25 December 1941
            - sent to assist in operations around Lucena, Paglibo, and Lucban
        - 26/27 December 1941
            - defended in Southern Luzon near Lucban
            - supported Philippine Army
        - 29/30 December 1941
            - new line at Bamban River established
            - tank battalions held line until ordered to withdraw

        - 30 December 1941
                - at Becaue covered withdraw of Philippine Divisions
                - it was around this time that the company rejoined the battalion at Guagua

        - 31 December 1941
            - rejoined battalion
            - covered withdrawal of Philippine Army Divisions south of Route 3
        - 2 January 1942
            - both tank battalions ordered to withdrawal to Lyac Junction
            - 194th withdrew there on Highway 7

        - 5 January 1942
            - rejoined rest of 194th at Guagua

            - ambushed a Japanese force of 750 to 800 soldiers attempting to cut the highway

            - Japanese lost half their force
            - Labao was burning when tanks left area
         - 6/7 January 1942 - that night the 194th crosses bridge into Bataan
            - withdraw covered by 192nd Tank Battalion 

   - Battle of Bataan

        - 7 January 1942 - 9 April 1942
            - January 1942
                - 2:30 A.M. attacked in force by Japanese who used a smoke screen

                    - 5:00 A.M. - Japanese broke off attack because of heavy casualties and sunrise
            - 8 January 1942
                - composite tank company made up of tanks from the 192nd and 194th sent to protect East Coast Road north of Hermosa
                    - their job was to keep the East Road open  north of Hermosa and prevent the Japanese from driving into Bataan before the main
                      battle line had been formed
                - remainder of tanks ordered to bivouac for night south of Aubucay-Hacienda Road
                    - tankers had been fighting for a month without a rest
                    - tanks also needed overdue maintenance
                    - 17th Ordnance
                - all tank companies reduced to ten tanks
                   - three per tank platoon
                - sent to reopen Moron Road so General Segunda's forces could withdraw
                - tanks knock out an anti-tank gun
                - two tanks disabled by landmines but recovered
                - mission abandoned
                - Gen. Segunda's troops escaped using beach but lost their heavy equipment
            - 12 January 1942
                - C Company, with D Company, 192nd, sent to Cadre Road
                    - forward position with little alert time
        - 13 January 1942   
            - mines planted by ordnance prevented them from reaching Cadre Road
            - returned to battalion

        - 16 January 1942 - Bagac

            - sent to reopen Moron Road so General Segunda's forces could withdraw

            - tanks knock out an anti-tank gun

            - two tanks disabled by landmines but recovered

            - mission abandoned

            - Gen. Segunda's troops escaped using beach but lost their heavy equipment
        - 20 January 1942

            - Bani Bani Road -tanks sent in to save 31st Infantry command post

        - 25/26 January 1942
            - the battalion held a position a kilometer north of the Pilar-Bagac Road
                - four SPMs with the battalion
            - warned by Filipino a large Japanese force was coming

            - when the enemy appeared they opened up with all the battalion had   

            - Japanese withdrew after losing 500 of 1800 men

        - 28 January 1942
        - 194th tanks given beach duty protecting southern beaches of Bataan

    It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver, "Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal.  If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay."
    - February 1942
        - tank battalions took it upon themselves to guard three airfields
        - guarded beaches against Japanese landings
    - March 1942
        - two tanks were bogged down in mud
        - the tankers were working to get them out
        - Japanese Regiment entered the area
            - Lt. Col. Miller ordered tanks and artillery to fire at point blank range
            - Miller ran from tank to tank directing fire
        - wiped out Japanese regiment
        - gasoline rations cut to 15 gallons a day for all vehicles except the tanks
        - Weaver suggested to Gen. Wainwright that one platoon of tanks be sent to Corregidor
            - Wainwright rejected idea   
    - April 1942
        - tanks sent into various sectors to stop Japanese advance
    - 6 April 1942
        - four tanks sent to support 45th Philippine Infantry and 75th Infantry, Philippine Scouts
            - one tank knocked out by anti-tank fire
            - other tanks covered withdraw
        - 3rd Platoon sent up west coast road
            - near Mount Samat ran into heavy Japanese force
            - the tanks withdrew to Marivales
        - 8 April 1942
            - fighting on East Coast Road at Cabcaban
It was at this time that the tank battalion commanders received this order
, "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished."
            - 10:30 P.M. - Gen. King announced that further resistance would result the massacre of 6,000 sick or wounded and 40,000 civilians
            - less than 25% of his troops were healthy enough to continue fighting
            - he estimated they could hold out one more day
            - sent his staff officers to negotiate the surrender of Bataan

Prisoner of War: 

    - 9 April 1942
        - tankers received order "crash" at 6:45 A.M.
        - destroyed their equipment and tanks
    - 10 April 1942
            - started march
                - at times slipped on remains of dead who had been killed by Japanese shelling
            - POWs given ordered to sit in front of four guns firing on Corregidor
            - Corregidor returned fire and shells landed among POWs
                - POWs attempted to take cover
                - Corregidor knocked out three of the four artillery pieces
            - reached Lamao
            - reached Limay and main road
            - officers, majors and up, separated from lower ranking officers and enlisted men
            - marched through Balanga, Abucay and Samal
     - lower ranking officers and enlisted men arrive at Orani
        - higher ranking officers rejoin march
        - ordered to form 100 men detachments
            - POWs marched at faster pace
            - fewer breaks
                - when given break, the POWs sat on road
        - North of Hermosa the POWs reached pavement
            - made march easier
            - POWs march through Layac and Lurao
            - rains - POWs drank as much as they could
        -  San Fernando
            - POWs put in groups of 200 to be fed
                - one POW sent to get a box of rice for each group
                - pottery jars of water given out the same way
        - POWs formed detachments of 100 men and marched to train station
            - put into small wooden boxcars used to haul sugarcane
                - each boxcar could hold eight horses or forty men
                - 100 POWs packed into each car
                - POWs who died remained standing
        - Capas - dead fell to floor as living left boxcars
            - as POWs formed ranks, Filipinos threw sugarcane to POWs
            - also gave them water
            - POWs walked last 8 kilometers to Camp O'Donnell

POW Camps:

    - Philippines:

        - Camp O'Donnell

            - 1 April 1942 - unfinished Filipino training base Japanese put into use as a POW camp
                - Japanese believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs
            - POWs searched upon arrival at camp
                - those found with Japanese money were accused of looting
                - sent to guardhouse
                - over several days, gun shots heard southeast of the camp
                    - POWs who had money on them had been executed
            - Japanese took away any extra clothing from POWs as they entered the camp and refused to return it
                - since no water was available for wash clothing, the POWs threw soiled clothing away
                - clothing was taken from dead
                - few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing
            - POWs were not allowed to bathe
            - only one water spigot for entire camp
                - POWs waited 2 hours to 8 hours to get a drink
                    - water frequently turned off by Japanese guards and next man in line waited as long as 4 hours for water to be turned on again
                    - mess kits could not be cleaned
                - POWs had to carry water 3 miles from a river to cook their meals
                - second water spigot installed a week after POWs arrived
            - slit trenches overflowed since many of the POWs had dysentery
                - flies were everywhere including in camp kitchens and food
            - camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant
            - the senior POW doctor wrote a list of medicines he wanted to treat the sick and was told by the camp commandant, Capt. Yoshio
              Tsuneyoshi, never to write another letter
                - Tsuneyoshi said that all he wanted to know about the American POWs was their names and numbers when they died
                - refused to allow a truckload of medicine sent by the Archbishop of Manila into the camp
                - 95% of the medicine sent by Philippine Red Cross was taken by the Japanese for their own use
            - POWs in camp hospital lay on floor elbow to elbow
            - operations on POWs were performed with mess kit knives
            - only one medic out of six assigned to care for 50 sick POWs, in the hospital, was well enough to work
            - as many as 50 POWs died each day
                - each morning dead were found everywhere in the camp and stacked up under the hospital
                - ground under hospital was scrapped and cover with lime to clean it
                - the dead were moved to this area and the section where they had laid was scrapped and cover with lime
                - usually not buried for two or three days
            - work details: if a POW could walk, he was sent out on a work detail
                - POWs on burial detail often had dysentery and malaria
        - Japanese opened new POW camp to lower death rate
            - 1 June 1942 - POWs formed detachments of 100 men
                - POWs marched out gate and marched toward Capas
                    - Filipino people gave POWs small bundles of food
                        - the guards did not stop them
                - At Capas, the POWs were put into steel boxcars and rode them to Manila
                - train stopped at Calumpit and switched onto the line to Cabanatuan
                    - POWs disembark train at 6:00 P.M. and put into a school yard
                    - fed rice and onion soup        
        - Cabanatuan #1
            - original name - Camp Panagaian
                - Philippine Army Base built for 91st Philippine Army Division
                    - put into use by Japanese as a POW camp
                - actually three camps
                    - Camp 1: POWs from Camp O'Donnell sent there in attempt to lower death rate
                    - Camp 2:  two miles away
                        - all POWs moved from there because of a lack of water
                        - later used for Naval POWs
                    - Camp 3: six miles from Camp 2
                        - POWs from Corregidor and from hospitals sent there
                        - camp created to keep Corregidor POWs separated from Bataan POWs
                        - Corregidor POWs were in better shape
                            - January 1943 - POWs from Camp 3 consolidated into Camp 1
        - Camp Administration:
            - the Japanese left POWs to run the camp on their own
                - Japanese entered camp when they had a reason
                - POWs patrolled fence to prevent escapes
                    - Note: men who attempted to escape were recaptured
                    - Japanese beat them for days
                    - executed them
            - Blood Brother Rule
                - POWs put into groups of ten
                    - if one escaped the others would be executed
                    - housed in same barracks
                    - worked on details together
            - Barracks:
                - each barracks held 50 men
                    - often held between 60 and 120 men
                    - slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, and mosquito netting
                        - diseases spread easily
                    - no showers
            - Morning Roll Call:
                - stood at attention
                    - frequently beaten over their heads for no reason
                - when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in
                  their shins with their hobnailed boots because they didn't like the way the POWs lined up
            - Work Details:
                - Two main details
                    - the farm and airfield
                        - farm detail
                            - POWs cleared land and grew comotes, cassava, taro, sesame, and various greens
                            - Japanese took what was grown
                    - Guards:
                        - Big Speedo - spoke little English
                            - in charge of detail
                            - fair in treatment of POWs
                            - spoke little English
                                - to get POWs to work faster said, "speedo"
                        - Little Speedo
                            - also used "speedo" when he wanted POWs to work faster
                            - fair in treatment of POWs
                        - Smiley
                            - always smiling
                            - could not be trusted
                            - meanest of guards
            - Airfield Detail:
                - Japanese built an airfield for fighters
                    - POWs cut grass, removed dirt, and leveled ground
                        - at first moved dirt in wheel barrows
                        - later pushed mining cars
                   - Guards:
                        - Air Raid
                            - in charge
                            - usually fair but unpredictable
                                - had to watch him
                        - Donald Duck
                            - always talking
                            - sounded like the cartoon character
                            - unpredictable - beat POWs
                            - POWs told him that Donald Duck was a big American movie star
                                - at some point, he saw a Donald Duck cartoon
                                - POWs stayed away from him when he came back to camp
                - Work Day: 7:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
                    - worked 6 days a week
                        - had Sunday off
            - Other Details:
                - work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens and plant rice
                    - they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
                - POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on
                - the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
                - if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn't doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
                - many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
            - Burial Detail
                - POWs worked in teams of four
                    - carried 4 to 6 dead to cemetery at a time in liter
                    - a grave contained from 15 to 20 bodies 
            - daily POW meal
                - 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn
                - rice was main staple, few vegetables or fruits
        - Camp Hospital:
            - 30 Wards
                - each ward could hold 40 men
                    - frequently had 100 men in each
               - two tiers of bunks
                   - sickest POWs on bottom tier
               - each POW had a 2 foot by 6 foot area to lie in
            - Zero Ward
                - given name because it had been missed when counting wards
                - became ward where those who were going to die were sent
                - fenced off from other wards
                    - Japanese guards would not go near it
                    - POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving
                    - medical staff had little to no medicine to treat sick
                    - many deaths from disease caused by malnutrition
            - hospitalized - Saturday - 17 July 1942 - diphtheria
                - discharged - Tuesday - 15 September 1942
            - hospitalized - Saturday - 30 January 1943 - beriberi
                - discharged - 5 February 1943
Note: Family learned he was a POW - May 1943

        - Las Pinas Detail
            - Nichols Field Detail
                - July 1942
                    - 150 POWs arrive to cut down gogon grass, bushes, and small trees with bolos (long, straight-bladed steel knives)
                - 31 August 1942
                    - 500 POWs arrive  
                        - heads were shaven      
                        - POWs were in fairly good shape when they arrived at Las Pinas
                - 6 December 1942
                - 800 POWs on detail
                - Pasay School:
                    - 3 miles from Nichols Field
                    - POW housed in school rooms
                    - each room was 20 feet by 30 feet and accommodated 28 to 30 men
                     - men slept so close together, on thin mattresses, and could hardly turn over
                        - each POW had two small blankets
                        - room infested with bedbugs, ants, and mosquitoes
            - Cherry Blossom
                - got name from flral insignia he wore on his shoulder pieces
                - Japanese civilian in command of barracks
                - temperamental and described as terribly, terribly stupid
                - roll calls took forever since he could not count over 100
                    - American officers had to correct roll call
                - Latrines:
                    - two toilets for 500 men
                        - cans also were put in rooms
                    - 300 POWs shared seven showers
                    - 500 POWs shared  four showers
                        - waited in line for up to an hour to take a shower
                - Meals:
                    - main diet was boiled rice which was from sweepings of a warehouse floor
                        - nails, worms, dust, glass, bottle caps, were often in it
                        - POWs picked the rice to eat it
                            - each POW received 240 grams of rice
                            - later cut to 120 grams
                    - POWs grew squash, gourds, green beans, egg plant, and sweet potatoes
                        - did not meet their nutritional needs since they got scraps from Japanese mess
                        - meat was in a form of a fish used as fertilizer
                            - fish usually rotten
                    - POWs also received 250 pounds of potatoes each day for 500 POWs
                        - Japanese would let potatoes rot before giving them to POWs
                    - 80 pounds of flour given to POWs each week
                    - 20 pounds of meat a week for 800 POWs
                    - although they worked where fruit grew, the POWs were not allowed to eat any
                    - when Red Cross packages were given to POWs the Japanese cut the food rations by one fourth for 15 days
                    - beriberi spread among POWs because of diet
            - Clothing:
                - Philippine Red Cross gave clothing for POWs
                    - Japanese did not give it to them
                        - also kept Red Cross packages containing clothing
                - every 3 months, the Japanese gave 18 shirts and 18 trousers for 500 POWs
                    - there was enough clothing in a warehouse to furnish each POW with two sets of clothes including shoes
            - Camp Commander:
                - Capt. Kenji Iwataka
                    - called the "White Angel"
                    - wore a spotless naval uniform
                    - commanded camp for 13 months
            - Beatings:
                - a daily event
                - POWs were beaten on their way to the airfield, at the airfield, at lunch, and on their way from the airfield at the end of the day
                - one POW collapsed while working and the White Angel ordered him to get up
                    - four other POWs took the man back to the school
                    - Japanese guards gave the man a shower and straightened his clothes
                    - the rest of the Americans were ordered to Pasay School
                    - the White Angel took an American officer behind the school with him where the man was
                    - the other POWs heard two shots
                    - the White Angel told the remaining POWs this was what was going to happen to anyone who would not work for the Japanese
                      Empire
                    - later the American officer told the POWs what the White Angel had done to the man - Yakota - second in command and looked
                      like a wolf
                    -  known as "The Wolf"
                    - civilian that wore a naval uniform
                    - each morning The Wolf selected POWs who looked the sickest and lines them up
                        - the POWs had to put one leg on each side of a slit trench and next do 50 push-ups
                        - if the man collapsed and touched the ground, he was beaten with pick handles
                - A POW collapsed while working
                    - The Wolf had him taken to the school
                    - that evening the Wolf came to the barracks and the man was still unconscious
                        - he took the man and banged his head into the concrete floor and kicked him in the head
                        - the man was taken to the showers where The Wolf drowned him in the basin
                 - a third POW tried to walk away from the detail
                    - told the Japanese guards to shoot him
                    - he was taken back to the school by the guards
                    - he was strung up by his thumbs outside the doorway of the school
                        - a bottle of beer and sandwich were placed in front of him
                        -he was dead by that evening
            - Ikagami
                - second in command behind the Wolf
                - compared to "The Wolf," he was good to the men
                - he let them smoke, gave the sick breaks but told them to work if "The Wolf" or the captain showed up
                - bought cigarettes, rice cakes  and sugar for POWs with their money
                - he also would give a POW his shoes and exchange their shoes for another pair that he gave to another POW for his shoes
                    - did this repeatedly 
            - Work:
                - 1 September 1942 - work started on runway
                    - Reveille: 6:00 A.M.
                    - 6:15 A.M. - roll call taken
                    - breakfast: fish soup and rice
                    - roll call taken again
                        - both healthy and sick POWs were counted
                    - POWs marched a mile and half to airfield
                        - arrived at 8:30 A.M.
                    - Roll Call - after arriving at airfield
                    - tools handed out at tool shed
                    - Initially the POWs worked until 11:30 A.M. and did not work again until 1:30 P.M.
                        - work day ended at 4:15
                    - Japanese took roll call
                        - POWs arrived at school at about 5:50 P.M.
                        - roll call taken again
                        - rush to showers
                        - supper
                        - roll call again
                        - lights out at 9:00 P.M.
                        - work day got longer the longer the detail went on
            - Japanese wanted a runway 500 yards wide and approximately a mile long
                - runway would go through swamp ground southeastward and straight through the hills
                    - plans for runway came from Americans who had planned to build it with construction equipment
                    - Japanese had no plans to use construction equipment
                - POWs built runway with picks, shovels, and wheelbarrows
                    - most had dysentery, malaria, beriberi, diarrhea, and were malnourished
                - POWs worked under the 103rd Construction Unit by order of the Southern Third Fleet
                    - work was easy at first because the ground was almost level
                    - about 400 yards from start, the runway hit the foothills as tall as 80 feet had to be leveled with picks and shovels
                    - work got harder
                    - literally removed the side of a mountain by hand
                    -called "The Cut"
                    - POWs worked barefooted on gravel, rocks, and sun baked mud and left bloody footprints
                        - many only had g-strings for clothing
                        - others worked nude
                    - dirt carried to  swamp in wheelbarrows and dumped as landfill to fill-in swampland
                    - Japanese bring in old mine cars and rail
                        - laid four sets of tracks
                        - four POWs assigned to each mine car to keep them moving
                    - POWs loaded mine cars with earth and two POWs pushed cars to dumping area
                        - car returned to loading area where two of the POWs had another load waiting
                        - all four of the POWs loaded minecar
                        - as tracks got longer, loading pushing, dumping, unloading took longer to do
                        - each track had a quota which had to be met before POWs before the POWs could stop working
            - Medical Supplies:
                - Japanese issued little of the Red Cross medical supplies that came into the camp
                - POW doctors said there was not enough medicine to cure an ailment but just enough to prolong the ailment
                    - there was a lack of quinine and carborine
                    - there was no emetine to cure amoebic dysentery
                - request for medicines were repeatedly turned down
                - operations performed without anesthetics or proper medical equipment
                - only 80 POWs were allowed to be on sick call each day
                    - Japanese determined which men were sick enough not to work
                - POWs who brought the dead to Bilibid for burial
                    - most died of exhaustion or beatings
                    - POW medical staff told to write "malaria," or other disease, as cause of death on death certificates
                    - POWs on detail would not talk about the detail
                    - attempts were made to open boxes containing dead to take fingerprints
                    - Japanese would not allow the boxes to be opened
                - October 1943 - 4 February 1945
                    - 200 to 300 POWs were sent to the hospital at Bilibid Prison
                        - most of the sick POWs were from Pasay School
                        - many died after arriving at Bilibid
                        - it was then that the POWs at Bilibid learned what the Las Pinas Detail was like
                - 21 September 1944 - American planes bomb and strafe airfield
                - 22 September 1944 - detail ends
                    - POWs sent to Bilibid Prison

Hell Ship:
    - Hokusen Maru
        - Boarded: 1 October 1944
            - moved to buoy and dropped anchor
                - POWs start  going insane from heat in holds
               - Japanese threaten to shoot POWs unless they are silenced
               -POWs kill insane
        - Sailed: Manila - 4 October 1944
            - stopped at Cabcaban, Philippine Islands
            - stopped 5 October 1944 - San Fernando, La Union, Philippine Islands
                - joined convoy
            - 6 October 1944 - convoy attacked by submarines
                - two ships sunk
            - 9 October 1944 - airplane scare - convoy broke up
                - sailed for Hong Kong
                - ran into wolf pack - ship sunk
        - Arrived: Hong Kong - 11 October 1944
            - attacked by American planes while in port
        - Sailed: 21 October 1944
        - Arrived: Takao, Formosa - 24 October 1944
        - Disembark: 8 November 1944
            - POWs in such bad shape that Japanese decided to leave them on Formosa

            Note: POWs were scheduled to sail on Arisan Maru but were switched to Hokusen Maru since the other POW group was not ready to
                      sail. 
Arisan Maru was sunk by an American submarine. Only nine POWs, of the nearly 1775 POWs, survived the sinking.

POW Camp:

    - Formosa:

        - Toroku Camp

            - Work: Sugarcane processing
Hell Ship:

     - Melbourne Maru

        - Sailed: Formosa - 14 January 1945

        - Arrived: Japan - 23 January 1945
POW Camp:

    - Japan:
        - Tokyo Camp #4
            - POWs worked in steel mill
            - camp closed

        - Maibara #10B

            - Work: canal building

Liberated: September 1945

Military Medals: Two Purple Hearts, Presidential Unit Citation
Promoted: Sergeant
    - transferred to the Army Air Corps

Military Career:

     - United States Air Force

         - Vietnam  War

Retired: 31 May 1961

Married: Lucille

Children: 2 daughters, 2 sons

Medals:

    - 2 Purple Hearts
Residence: Modesto, California

Died:

    - 31 October 1996 - Denair, California

Buried:

    - San Joaquin Valley National Cemetery - Gustine, California

        - 7 November 1996 - Plot:  10   0   2122


 

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