Pvt. Emil Otto Schmidt

    Pvt. Emil O Schmidt was born on September 14, 1915, in Illinois to Otto & Shirley Schmidt and was the third oldest of the couple's seven children.  As a child his family moved to Sturtevant, Wisconsin, and he would later live at 124 Corn Exchange and 1020 Laurel Avenue in Janesville, Wisconsin.  To support himself, he worked as a maintenance worker for the park district.

    Emil joined the Wisconsin National Guard on November 11, 1939, and was called to federal duty on November 25, 1940, as A Company, 192nd Tank Battalion.  With his company, he traveled by train Fort Knox, Kentucky, on November 28th. 
    A typical day for the soldiers started in 6:15 with reveille, but most of the soldiers were up before this since they wanted to wash and dress.  Breakfast was from 7:00 to 8:00 A.M., followed by calisthenics at 8:00 to 8:30.  Afterwards, the tankers went to various schools within the company.  The classes consisted of .30 and .50 caliber machine guns, pistol, map reading, care of personal equipment, military courtesy, and training in tactics. 
    At 11:30 the soldiers stopped what they were doing and cleaned up for mess which was from noon to 1:00 P.M.  Afterwards, they attended the various schools which they had been assigned to on January 13th, such as: mechanics, tank driving, radio operating.  At 4:30, the soldiers called it a day and returned to their barracks and put on dress uniforms and at five held retreat which was followed by dinner at 5:30.  After dinner, they were off duty and lights were out at 9:00 P.M., but they did not have to turn in until 10:00 when Taps was played. 
   In August 1941, the tankers were informed that they were going to take part in maneuvers in Louisiana from September 1st through 30th.  After the maneuvers, the battalion was ordered to report to Camp Polk, Louisiana, instead of returning to Ft. Knox.  It was then that the they learned the battalion was being sent overseas.  They were told that they would be gone from one to six years.  The soldiers also knew that the information they heard that day was not the entire story.  It was also at this time that members of the battalion who were married, or over 29 years old, were allowed to resign from federal service.
    The decision to send the 192nd overseas -  which had been made in August 1941 - was the result of an event that took place in the summer of 1941.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island which was hundred of miles away.  The island had a large radio transmitter.  The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
    When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.  The next day, when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its deck - which was seen making its way to shore.   Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult, the boat escaped.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.

    After returning to Louisiana from a furlough, the battalion traveled over different train routes to San Francisco, California, and where ferried to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island.  On the island, they received inoculations and physicals, and those found to have treatable medical conditions remained behind on the island and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date.  Some men were simply replaced.

    The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27th.  During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP.   They arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2nd and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.     
    On Wednesday, November 5th, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes.  It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and the S. S. President Calvin Coolidge.  Sunday night, November 9th, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11th.  During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Date Line.  On Saturday, November 15th, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon.  The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke.  It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country. During this part of the voyage, smoke      
    When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16th, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day.  At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20th, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning.  At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.  Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
    At the fort, they were greeted by Gen. Edward P. King, who apologized that they had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Field.  He made sure that they had what they needed and received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own dinner.  Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
For the next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their weapons.  The grease was put on the weapons to protect them from rust while at sea.  They also loaded ammunition belts and did tank maintenance as they readied their tanks to take part in maneuvers.

    On December 1st, the tankers were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field to guard against Japanese paratroopers.  Two tank crew members remained with their tank at all times and received their meals from food trucks.  The morning of December 8, 1941, Capt. Walter Write informed his company that Pearl Harbor had been bombed by the Japanese.  At 8:30 A.M., American planes took off to intercept any Japanese planes.  Sometime before noon, the alert was canceled and the planes landed and were lined up, in a straight line, near the pilots' mess hall.  The pilots went to lunch. 

    The tankers were eating lunch when planes were seen approaching the airfield from the north at about 12:45.  Many of the tankers counted 54 planes.  The planes approached the airfield and watched hat was described as "raindrops" falling from the planes.  When the raindrops began exploding on the runways, the tankers knew the planes were Japanese.

    The members of A Company lived through the bombing of Clark Field.  During the attack, they could do little since their guns were not made to use against planes.  For some reason, not known to the tankers, the Japanese did not attack the tanks., but the few that did had their bombs land between the tanks.
    When the Japanese were finished, there was not much left of the airfield.  The soldiers watched as the dead, dying, and wounded were hauled to the hospital on bomb racks, trucks, and anything that could carry the wounded was in use.  When the hospital filled, they watched the medics place the wounded under the building.  Many of these men had their arms and legs missing.    
    That night, the tankers lived through several more air raids and most slept under their tanks since it was safer then sleeping in their tents, while those not assigned to tanks slept in ditches.  They had no idea that they had slept their last night in a bed for the next three and one half years.  The company was sent to the Barrio of Dau, on December 21st, so it would be close to a highway and railway to protect them from sabotage.  From there, the company was sent to join the other companies of the 192nd just south of the Agno River.   
    On December 23rd and 24th, the company was in the area of Urdaneta, where the tankers lost the company commander, Capt. Walter Write.  After he was buried, the tankers made an end run to get south of Agno River after the main bridge had been destroyed.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening and successfully crossed the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25th, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27th.

    The members of the battalion pitched the tents in an open field halfway between the Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg.  The tents were set up in two rows and five men were assigned to each tent.  There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at the end of the rows of tents.
    On a road east of Zaragoza, on December 30th, the company was bivouacked for the night and posted sentries.  The sentries heard a noise on the road and woke the other tankers who grabbed Tommy-guns and manned the tanks' machine guns.  As they watched, a Japanese bicycle battalion rode into their bivouac.  When the last bicycle passed the tanks, the tankers opened up on them.  When they stopped firing, they had completely wiped out the bicycle battalion.  To leave the area, the tankers drove their tanks over the bodies.
    At Gumain River, the night of December 31st to the morning of January 1st, the tank companies formed a defensive line along the south bank of the river.  When the Japanese attacked the position at night, they were easy to see since they were wearing white t-shirts.  The Japanese were taking heavy casualties, so they attempted to use smoke to cover their advance, but the wind blew the smoke into the Japanese.  When the Japanese broke off the attack, they had suffered fifty percent casualties.
    At Guagua, A Company, with units from the 11th Division, Philippine Army, attempted to make a counterattack against the Japanese.  Somehow, the tanks were mistaken, by the Filipinos to be Japanese.  The 11th Division accurately used mortars on them.  The result was the loss of three tanks.
    On January 1st, the tanks of the 194th were holding the Calumpit Bridge allowing the Southern Luzon Forces to cross the bridge toward Bataan.  General Wainwright was attempting to hold the main Japanese force coming down Route 5 to prevent the troops from being cut off.  General MacArthur's chief of staff gave conflicting orders involving whose command the defenders were under which caused confusion.  Gen. Wainwright was not aware these orders had been given.
    Because of the orders, there was confusion among the Filipinos and American forces defending the bridges over the Pampanga River.  Due to the efforts of the Self Propelled Mounts, the 71st Field Artillery, and a frenzied attack by the 192nd Tank Battalion the Japanese were halted.  From January 2nd to 4th, the 192nd held the road open from San Fernando to Dinalupihan so the southern forces could escape.  It was there that a Japanese soldier planted a magnetic mine on his tank that burnt through and burning his leg from the calf down.  It not known how long Emil was hospitalized.      

    On April 4, 1942, the Japanese launched an attack supported by artillery and aircraft.  A large force of Japanese troops came over Mount Samat and descended down the south face of the volcano.  This attack wiped out two divisions of defenders and left a large area of the defensive line open to the Japanese.  When General King saw that the situation was hopeless, he initiated surrender talks with the Japanese.
    On April 9, 1942, Emil received the word of the surrender of Bataan.  He made his way to Mariveles and from there started what became known as the Bataan Death March. 

    Emil and the other members of A Company made their way to San Fernando, where, they boarded boxcars and rode to Capas.  As they got out of the cars, the bodies of the dead fell to the ground.  The Prisoners of War walked the last few miles to Camp O'Donnell.

    Camp O'Donnell was a death trap with men dying daily.  To lower the number of deaths among the POWs, the Japanese opened a new camp at Cabanatuan.  According to medical records kept at the camp, Emil was hospitalized in July 1, 1942, and tested for tuberculosis.  Emil was known to still be a POW in the camp up to August 1943.

    In September 1943, Emil was sent out on a work detail to Las Pinas.  There, he and the other POWs were used as laborers to build runways for an Nichols Field and remained on this detail until September 22, 1944.  The detail was disbanded when American planes appeared over the airfield on September 21st, for the first time, and bombed and strafed the airfield. 

    Emil was sent to Bilibid Prison in Manila in October 1944.  Emil had been selected to be transferred to Japan.  This was done to prevent the POWs from being liberated.  The ship that Emil's POW detachment was suppose to sail on was the Arisan Maru.  His entire detachment had arrived but their ship was not ready to sail.  Another ship, the Hokusen Maru was ready to sail so the Japanese switched POW detachments.
    The ship sailed but dropped anchor at the harbor's breakwater.  It remained there for three days and the temperatures in the hold rose to over 100 degrees causing some men to go crazy.  The Japanese threatened to kill the POWs if they didn't quiet the men.  To do this, the sane POWs strangled those out of their minds or hit them with canteens.
    As part of a ten ship convoy it sailed again on October 4th and stopped at Cabcaban.  The next day, it was at San Fernando La Union, where the ships were joined by four more ships and five escorts. The ships stayed close to the shoreline to prevent submarine attacks which failed since, on October 6th, two of the ships were sunk.

    The ships were informed, on October 9th, that American carriers were seen near Formosa and sailed for Hong Kong when it was informed American planes were in the area.  During this part of the trip, the ships ran into American submarines which sank two more ships.  The Hokusen Maru arrived at Hong Kong on October 11th.  While it was in port, American planes bombed the harbor on October 16th.  On October 21st, the ship sailed for Takao, Formosa, arriving on October 24th.

    It should be noted that Emil's original ship, the Arisan Maru, never reached Japan and was sunk by an American submarine on October 24, 1944, in the South China Sea.  Of the 1803 POWs on the ship, only nine survived the sinking.

    On November 8th, the Japanese decided the POWs were too ill to continue the trip to Japan, so they were disembarked.   Emil was held at Toroku Camp on Formosa where the POWs did light work.  On January 14, 1945, he was transported by Melbourne Maru to Moji, Japan, arriving there on January 30th.  The POWs were put in the same hold as the hemp that the ship was carrying.  The POWs discovered that beneath the hemp were bags of sugar and cans of tomatoes.  The POWs helped themselves to the canned tomatoes.
    After the ship arrived in Japan, the POWs disembarked and were taken to a schoolhouse.  When they arrived at the school, the Japanese made them strip off their clothes since the men were infested with lice.  After being deloused, the POWs rode a train to various POW camps along the line.  In Emil's case he was taken to Maibara Camp.
    In Japan, he was held at Maibara Camp #10-B, where the POWs built a canal to drain a lake, worked in steel mills, worked in warehouses.
  During his time in the camp, the treatment improved with the arrival of a new commandant.  As the war came to an end, the POWs were issued shoes and Japanese military uniforms.

    One day a British POW entered the camp and told the men that the war was over.  The prisoners decided that they were going to test this information.  The guards were standing nearby, but their guns were leaning against a building.  The POWs rushed the guns and so did the guards.  After a short struggle, the guards let go of the guns and left.  To the POW's this was the first proof that the war was over.  When the Japanese gave the POWs beer, they knew the war was over.  On August 19th, the camp commandant officially told them the war had ended.  When American planes appeared and started to drop them supplies, the prisoners' belief was confirmed.
    Emil remained in the camp until he was liberated in September 10, 1945, and returned to the Philippines.  He sailed for the United States shortly after arriving. on the  and arrived in San Francisco, on the U.S.S. Yarmouth, on October 8, 1945. nearly four years after he had sailed from there for the Philippines.  He was taken to Letterman General Hospital and later to a hospital in the Midwest.  He was discharged, from the Army, on May 5, 1946.

    Emil O. Schmidt returned to Janesville and spent the rest of his life in Wisconsin.  He passed away on March 16, 2003, at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Tomah, Wisconsin, and was buried at Elmwood Cemetery in Antigo, Wisconsin.


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