Sgt. Harold E. Schenk was the son of Herman
Schenk & Gertrude R. Stadler-Schenk.
He was born on September 25, 1918, in Nodaway, Missouri.
With his sister and two brothers, he grew up in Oregon, Missouri,
where attended high school, for two years, before going to work in his family's automotive shop.
It is not known when, but he joined the Missouri
National Guard in Saint Joseph, Missouri.
His tank company was designated B Company, 194th Tank Battalion in
November 1940, but, because of a strike in the lumber industry, it was not called to federal service until
February 10, 1941.
The company traveled to Fort Lewis, Washington, for six months of
When Headquarters Company was formed, Harold was
transferred to the new company.
It is believed he was assigned to the maintenance section of the
On August 15, 1941, the 194th received orders, from Ft. Knox, Kentucky, for duty in
the Philippines because of an event that happened during the summer. A squadron of American fighters was
flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd. He took his plane down and
identified a buoy in the water. He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to
the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island, with a large radio transmitter, hundred of
miles away. The squadron continued its flight plane and flew south to Mariveles and then returned to
Clark Field. By the time the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
The next morning, another squadron was sent to the area and found that the buoys had
been picked up by a fishing boat which was seen making its way toward shore. Since communication between
and Air Corps and Navy was poor, the boat was not intercepted. It was at that time the decision was made
to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
On September 1, 1941, the company rode a train to Ft. Mason in
San Francisco, California, on September 5, and were ferried, by the
U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe, to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island. It was there the soldiers
received physicals and inoculations and those men found with medical conditions were replaced.
The soldiers spent three days preparing their equipment and the equipment of the 194th
Tank Battalion for shipment to the Philippine Islands. The turrets of the tanks were removed and the
tank's serial number was sprayed on each one so that it could be reattached to the right tank.
The men boarded the
S.S. President Calvin Coolidge on September 8 at 3:00 P.M. and sailed at 9:00 P.M. for the Philippine
Islands. To get the tanks to fit in the ship's holds, the turrets had serial numbers spray painted on
them and were removed from the tanks. They arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Saturday, September 13 at 7:00
A.M., and most of the soldiers were allowed off ship to see the island but had to be back on board before the
ship sailed at 5:00 P.M.
The ship took a southern route away from the normal shipping lanes and was escorted by
the cruiser, the
U.S.S. Astoria and an unknown destroyer.
On several occasions smoke was seen on the horizon and the cruiser
went to investigate. Each time it turned out the ship was from a friendly country. The ships
crossed the International Dateline on September 16 and the date changed to September 18. They entered
Manila Bay on September 26th and disembarked later that day.
The members of the battalion, except for the maintenance section,
were taken to Fort Stotsenburg by bus. 17th Ordnance and the maintenance section reattached the turrets
on the tanks. The turrets had been removed so that the tanks would fit into the ship's hold.
The battalion spent the next few months preparing for
In early October, they went on a training maneuver to simulate the
invasion at Lingayen Gulf.
The first week of December 1941, the tanks of the
194th and the 192nd Tank Battalions were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Airfield to guard it against
At all times two member of each tank crew had to remain with their
tank. The morning of December 8, 1942, they were told of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor that had
happened hours earlier.
The members of HQ Company remained in the battalion’s bivouac.
The tankers lived in tents at the fort until their barracks were finished on November
15th. The first week of December, 1941, the tank battalions were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Airfield to
guard against enemy paratroopers. Two tank crew members remained with the tank at all times and received
their meals from food tucks.
The morning of December 8, 1941, the tankers heard the news of Japanese attack on
Pearl Harbor just hours earlier. As they sat their tanks, the sky was filled with American planes.
At noon, the planes landed, to be refueled, and were lined up in a straight line outside the mess hall.
The pilots went to lunch.
The tankers were having lunch, which meant a tank crew member went to the food truck
and got food for the other members of the crew. As they sat in their tanks, they watched two formations,
of 27 planes each, approaching the airfield from the north. At first they believed the planes were
American, it was only when bombs began exploding on the runways that they knew the planes were Japanese.
During the attack the members of HQ Company took cover in ditches since they had few
weapons that could be used against planes. The attack lasted for about 45 minutes. When the
Japanese were finished, there was not much left of the airfield. The soldiers watched as the dead, dying,
and wounded were hauled to the hospital on bomb racks, trucks, and anything that could carry the wounded was in
use. When the hospital filled, they watched the medics place the wounded under the building. Many
of these men had their arms and legs missing.
The battalion was sent to the barrio of San Jaoaquin on the Malolus Road and moved to
an area just south of San Joaquin near the Calumpit Bridge on December 12th. It would receive 15 Bren Gun
carriers that were used to test the ground to see if it could support the weight of a tank. The battalion
moved again to west and north of Rosario and was operating in north of the Agno River the night of December
The tank battalions formed the Santa Ignacia-Gerona-Santo Tomas defensive line the
night of December 26/27. They were holding a new line at the Bamban River the night of December 29/30 and
were at the Calumpit Bridge the next night.
On January 5th, they were at Lyac Junction and dropped back to Remedios were a new defensive line was
The night of January 6/7, the 194th withdrew over a bridge on the Culis Creek covered
by the 192nd Tank Battalion, and entered Bataan. The 192nd crossed the bridge before it was destroyed and
The tank battalions were covering the East Coast Road on January 8th. It was at
this time that the tank platoons were reduced to three tanks each and HQ Company with the 17th Ordnance Company
were able to do long overdue maintenance on the tanks.
The tanks continued to cover withdraws for the rest of January and February. In
March, HQ Company was recovering two tanks that had been bogged down in the mud when the Japanese entered
the area. Lt. Col. Miller ordered the tanks to fire at point blank range and ran from tank to tank
directing the fire.
On April 3, the Japanese lunched an all out offensive at 3:00 P.M., and the tanks were
sent to various sectors in an attempt to stop the advance. It was the evening of April 8 that Gen. Edward
P. King decided that further resistance was futile, since approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to
fight, and he estimated they would last one more day. In addition, he had over 6,000 troops who sick or
wounded and 40,000 civilians who he feared would be massacred. At 10:30 that night, he sent his staff
officers to negotiate surrender terms.
Tank battalion commanders received this order
, "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within
one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat vehicles, arms,
ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as
The morning of April 9, 1942, at 6:45, the tank crews
heard the order
This meant that the tank battalions were to their destroy tanks,
ammunition, and anything that the Japanese could use.
After this was done, the tankers waited until the Japanese made
The Japanese arrived on April 10th and ordered the Prisoners
of War to Mariveles at the southern tip of Bataan.
The members of the 194th did not start the march until around 7:00
They marched until 3:00 in the morning.
At that time, the marchers were given a one hour break.
At 4:00 A.M., they began the march again.
They reached the barrio of Lamao at around 8:00 A.M.
There the POWs were allowed to try to find food.
Little was found.
The POWs again were ordered to move at 9:00 A.M.
The column reached Limay at noon.
For Harold and the other tankers, this was from where they really
started the death march.
Up to this time, the guards, regular combat soldiers, had shown a
great deal of respect for them since the guards were combat troops.
As they got further north, the treatment kept getting worse when
non-combat troops took over for them.
When the POWs reached San Fernando, they were herded
into a bullpen.
The ground was covered in human waste from previous POWs.
The POWs remained there until they were ordered to form 100 men
detachments next and were marched to the train station. There, they boarded small wooden boxcars which were
known as forty or eights.
The cars could hold forty men or eight horses.
The Japanese packed 100 POWs into each car.
During the trip to Capas, the POWs were packed in so
tightly that those who died remained standing.
When the living left the cars, the dead fell to the floor.
After walking another ten miles, they finally reached Camp
The camp was an unfinished Filipino Army Training Base.
The Japanese pressed the camp into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942. When they arrived at the camp, the
Japanese confiscated any extra clothing that the POWs had and refused to return it to them. They searched
the POWs and if a man was found to have Japanese money on them, they were taken to the guardhouse. Over
the next several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of the camp. These POWs had been executed for
There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two
to eight hours waiting for a drink. The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and
the next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again. This
situation improved when a second faucet was added.
There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing
when it had been soiled. In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the
camp and mess kits could not be washed. The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon
overflowing since most of the POWs had dysentery. The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp
including the POW kitchens and in the food.
The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant. When the ranking American
doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies,
he was told never to write another letter.
The Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the camp, the
Japanese commandant refused to allow the truck into the camp. When the Japanese Red Cross sent medical
supplies the camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six
medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them. When a representative of the
Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150 bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a
Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to
the hospital and placed underneath it. The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried
in the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria. To clean the ground
under the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it. The bodies of the dead were
placed in the area, and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
Work details were sent out on a daily basis. Each day, the American doctors gave
a list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work. If the quota of POWs
needed to work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick, but could walk, to work. The
death rate among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day. The Japanese finally acknowledge that they had to
do something, so the opened a new POW camp at Cabanatuan.
On June 1, 1942, the POWs formed detachments of 100 men each and were marched to
Capas. There, the were put in steel boxcars with two Japanese guards. At Calumpit, the train was
switched onto another line which took it to Cabanatuan. The POWs disembarked and were taken to a
schoolyard where they were fed cooked rice and onion soup. From there, they were marched to Cabanatuan
which had been the headquarters of the 91st Philippine Army Division and was formerly known at Camp Panagaian.
To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a detail that patrolled the fence of the
camp. The reason this was done was that those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being
executed, while the other POWs were made to watch. It is believed that no POW successfully escaped from
The POWs were sent out on work details to cut wood for the POW kitchens. Meals
on a daily basis consisted of 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, and sweet potato or
corn. Other POWs worked in rice paddies. Each morning, after arriving at the farm, the POWs went
into a tool shed to get their tools. As they left the shed, the guards hit them on their heads.
While working in the fields, the favorite punishment given to the men in the rice paddies was to have their
faces pushed into the mud and stepped on by a guard. Returning from a detail the POWs bought, or were
given, medicine, food, and tobacco, which they somehow managed to get into the camp even though they were
searched when they returned.
He remained there until December 12, 1942, when he
went out on a work detail to Lipa Batangas.
The POWs on the detail built runways with picks and shovels.
Every other day, the POWs worked on local farms.
Harold remained on the detail for nearly two years when he was
sent to Bilibid Prison.
Rumors stated that a detachment of POWs was going to
be sent out.
On December 8, a list of names was posted.
These men were given physicals.
On December 12, 1944, the POWs went through what was a farce of an
They were told cigarettes, soap, and salt would be issued.
The POWs were also told that they would also receive a meal to eat
and one to take with them.
The Japanese stated they would leave by 7:00 in the morning, so
the lights were left on all night.
At 4:00 A.M. the morning of December 13, the POWs were awakened.
At 7:00 A.M., the POWs were lined up and roll call was taken of the men who had
been selected for transport to Japan. The prisoners were allowed to roam the compound until they were told
At 11:30, the POWs formed 100 men detachments and marched the two miles to
the pier. During the march down Luzon Boulevard, the POWs saw that the street cars had stopped
running and many things were in disrepair.
At the harbor, the POWs saw that American bombers were
doing a job on the Japanese transports.
There were at least forty wrecked ships in the bay.
When the POWs reached Pier 7, there were three ships docked.
One was a rundown ship, the other two were large and in good
They soon discovered that one of the two nicer ships was theirs.
The POWs were allowed to sit, and many of them fell asleep. At 5:00 in the
afternoon, the POWs were boarded onto the
Oryoku Maru and put in one of the ship's holds. The high ranking officers were the first put into
the ship's afthold. Being the first on meant that they would suffer many deaths. Around the
perimeter of the hold were two tiers of bunks for the POWs. The heat was so bad that men soon began to
pass out. One survivor said,
"The fist fights began when men to pass out. We knew that only the front men in bay would be able to
get enough air."
The POWs who were closer to the hold's hatch, used anything they could find to fan air toward
those further away from it.
The ship sailed and became a part of a convoy which moved without lights. The
cries for air began as the men lost discipline, so the Japanese threatened to cover the holds and cut off all
air. When the Japanese sent down fried rice, cabbage, and fried seaweed, those further back from the
opening got nothing.
At 10:00 P.M., the Japanese interpreter threatened to have the guards fire into the
holds unless the POWs stopped screaming. Some of the POWs fell silent because they were exhausted, and
others because they had died. One major of the 26th Cavalry stated the man next to him had lost his
mind. Recalling the conversation he had with the man he said, "Worst was the man who had gone mad but
would not sit still. One kept pestering me, pushing a mess kit against my chest, saying
, 'Have some of this chow? It's good.' I smelled of it, it was not chow. 'All right'
, 'If you don't want it. I'm going to eat it.' And a little later I heard him eating it , right beside
The Japanese covered the holds and would not allow the slop buckets to be taken out of
the holds. Those POWs who were left holding the buckets at first asked for someone else to hold it for
awhile. When that did not work, they dumped the buckets on the men around them.
As light began to enter the hold as morning came, the POWs could see men who were in
stupors, men out of their minds, and men who had died. The POWs in the aft hold which also had a
sub-hold, put the POWs who out of their minds into it.
On the side of the holds, water had condensed on the walls so the POWs tried to scrap
it off the wall for a drink. The Japanese did allow men who had passed out to be put on deck, but as soon
as they revived they went back into the holds. The Japanese would not allow the bodies of the men who had
died to be removed from the holds.
The POWs received their first meal at dawn. Meals on the ship consisted of a
little rice, fish, some water, and three fourths of a cup of water was shared by 20 POWs. It was 8:00
A.M., off the coast of Luzon, and the POWs had just finished eating breakfast when they heard the sound of
guns. At first, they thought the gun crews were just drilling, because they had not heard any
planes. It was only when the first bomb hit in the water and the ship shook that they knew it was not a
At first it seemed that most of the planes were attacking the other ships in the
convoy. Commander Frank Bridgit, had made his way to the top of the ladder into the hold and sat
down. He gave the POWs a play by play of the planes attacking
, "I can see two planes going for a freighter off our starboard side. Now two more are detached from
the formation. I think they may be coming for us."
The POWs heard the change in the sound of the planes' engines as they began their
dives toward the ships in the convoy. Several more bombs hit the water near the ship causing it to
rock Explosions were taking place all around the ship. In an attempt to protect themselves, the
POWs piled baggage in front of them. Bullets from the planes were ricocheted in the hold causing many
Lt. Col. Elvin Barr of the 60th Coast Artillery came up to Maj, John Fowler of the
26th Cavalry on the cargo deck and said
, "There's a hole knocked in the bulkheads down there. Between 30 and 40 men have already died down
Barr would never reach Japan. The attack by 30 to 50 planes lasted for about 20 to 30
minutes. When the planes were ran out of bombs they strafed. Afterwards, the planes flew off,
returning to their carrier, and there was a lull of about 20 to 30 minutes before the next squadron of planes
appeared over the ships and resumed the attack. This pattern repeated itself over and over during the
In the hold, the POWs concluded that the attacking planes were concentrating on the
bridge of the ship. They noted that the planes had taken out all the anti-aircraft guns leaving only .30
caliber machine guns to defend the ship.
At 4:30 P.M., the ship went through the worse attack on it. It was hit at least
three times by bombs on its bridge and stern. Most of the POWs, who were wounded, were wounded by
ricocheting bullets and shrapnel from exploding bombs. During the attack Chaplain Cummings, a Catholic
priest, led the POWs in the Our Father. As they prayed, the bombs that exploded near the ship sent
torrents of water over the ship. Bullets from the planes hit the metal plates, of the haul, at an angle
that prevented most of them from penetrating the haul. Somewhere on the ship a fire started, but it was
put out after several hours. The POWs lived through seven or eight attacks before sunset. Overall,
six bombs hit the ship. One hit the stern of the ship killing many POWs.
At dusk the ship raised anchor and headed east. It turned south and turned again
this time heading west. The next turn it made was north. It headed in this direction for a good amount of
time before dropping anchor at about 8:00 P.M. The POWs figured out that they had just sailed in a
circle. What had happened is that the ship's had been hit during the attack and the ship could not be
Sometime after midnight, the POWs heard the sound of the Japanese civilians being
evacuated from the ship. During the night, the POW medics were ordered onto the deck to treat the
Japanese wounded. One medic recalled that the dead, dying, and wounded were everywhere.
The ship reached Subic Bay at 2:30 in the morning and steamed closer to the beach
where its anchor was dropped. At 4:00 A.M., the POWs were told that they would disembark at daybreak at a
pier. The moaning and muttering of POWs who were losing their minds kept the POWs up all night.
That night 25 POWs died in the hold.
It was December 15 and the POWs sat in the ship's holds for hours after dawn.
The first 35 POWs were taken out of the hold and went into the water. At 8:00 A.M. as the other POWs
waited, the sound of A Japanese guard yelled into the hold at the POWs
, "All go home; speedo!"
He shouted that the wounded would be the first to be evacuated. Suddenly, he looked up and
, "Planes, many planes!"
As the POWs were abandoning ship the planes returned and continued the attack. The ship
bounced in the water from the explosions. Chief Boatswain Clarence M. Taylor who was in the water said
, "I saw the whole thing. A bomb fall, hit near the stern hatch, and debris go flying up in the air."
In the hold, the POWs crowded together. Chips of rust fell on them from
the ceiling. After the raid, they took care of the wounded before the next attack started. In the
hold a Catholic priest, Father Duffy, began to pray,
"Father forgive them. They know not what they do."
The Japanese guards and interpreter had abandoned ship, but the ship's captain
remained on board. He told the POWs in his limited English that they needed to get off the ship to
safety. The POWs made their way over the side and into the water. As they swam to shore, the
Japanese fired at them, with machine guns, to prevent them from escaping.
Four of the planes flew low over the water above the POWs. The POWs waved
frantically at the planes so they would not be strafed. The planes banked and flew lower over the
POWs. This time the pilots dipped their wings to show that they knew the men in the water were
Americans. About a half hour later, the ship began to really burn and the bodies of the dead could be
seen on the decks.
The Japanese sent out a motorboat with a machine gun and snipers on it. The POWs
attempting to escape were hunted down and shot. It is believed as many as 30 men died in the water.
There was no real beach so the POWs climbed up on a seawall and found the the Japanese
Naval Landing Party had set up a machine gun and had just laid flat to rest when the gun opened up on
them. Those who came ashore were warned to stay in the water, but only did so when one man climbed
up on the seawall and was wounded. There were also Japanese snipers in wait to shoot anyone who attempted
It is not known when, but Sgt. Harold Schenk died
during the attack on the
He may have been killed in the ship's hold from ricocheting
bullets or from shrapnel from exploding bombs, or he may have been killed, by Japanese fire, as he swam to
Whatever was the cause of his death, Sgt. Harold Schenk was
reported to have died on December 15, 1944, during the sinking of the
After the war, the name of Sgt. Harold Schenk was
placed on the Tablets of the Missing at the American Military Cemetery at Manila.