Pvt. Harry J. Noworul


     Pvt. Harry J. Noworul was born in Chicago on June 20, 1917.  He was the son of Walter Noworul & Veronica Kaczmarczyk-Noworul and the brother of Adolph and Florence.  He grew up above the grocery store his parents owned at 2250 South Albany Avenue.  While growing up in Chicago, he attended Farragut High School and then Harrison High School.  In 1940, he enlisted in the United States Army because he wanted to do something with his life.  

    Sometime during 1941, he was assigned to Company B, 192nd Tank Battalion.  At this time, the army was still  attempting to fill openings in companies with men from the home state of each company.  Harry joined the company while it was training at Fort Knox in 1941.  

    From September 1 through 30, 1941, the 192nd took part in maneuvers in Louisiana.  After these maneuvers, the 192nd was sent to Camp Polk instead of returning to Ft. Knox.  It was at that time the battalion was informed it was being sent overseas as part of Operation PLUM.  Many of the men figured out that "PLUM" stood Philippines, Luzon, Manila.  The battalion received replacements for men released from service from the 753rd Tank Battalion.  It also received the battalion's tanks. 
    The battalion traveled west by train to San Francisco.  Arriving there, they were taken by ferry, the U.S.A.T General Frank M. Coxe, to Angel Island in San Francisco Bay.  At Ft. McDowell, they were given physicals and inoculated by the battalion's medical detachment.   Those men found to have a minor medical condition were held back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date.  Other men were simply replaced.
    The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Gen. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27.  During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP.   The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2 and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
    On Wednesday, November 5, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes.  It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and, another transport, the S.S. President Calvin Coolidge.  Sunday night, November 9th, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11.  During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Date Line.  On Saturday, November 15, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon.  The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke.  It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
    When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day.  At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning.  At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.  Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
   At the fort, they were greeted by Colonel Edward P. King, who apologized they had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Airfield.  He made sure that they had what they needed and received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own dinner.  Ironically, November 20 was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
    The members of the battalion pitched the tents in an open field halfway between the Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg.  The tents were set up in two rows and five men were assigned to each tent.  There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at the end of the rows of tents.
    For the next seventeen days, the tankers loaded ammunition belts and worked at cleaning the cosmoline out of their weapons.  They were scheduled to take part in maneuvers.

    The tanks were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field the morning of December 1 to guard against paratroopers.  At all times, two members of each tank crew remained with their tanks.  On December 8, 1941, they were informed of the attack on Pearl Harbor and returned to their tanks.  At 8:30 that morning, American planes began taking off to guard the airfield and filled the sky.  At noon, the planes landed and were parked in a straight line outside the mess hall.  The pilots went to lunch.

    At 12:45 in the afternoon, planes approached the airfield from the north.  The tankers had time enough to count 54 planes in the formation.  They saw what some described as raindrops falling from the planes and knew they were bombs when they began exploding on the runways.  The tankers only could watch the attack since most of their weapons were useless against airplanes.  They fought the best they could with weapons that were not designed to fight aircraft.

    The tank battalion remained at the the airfield until it received orders on December 21 that it was to proceed north to Lingayen Gulf.  Because of logistics problems, the B and C Companies soon ran low on gas.  When they reached Rosario, there was only enough for one tank platoon, from B Company, to proceed north to support the 26th Cavalry.
    On December 23 and 24, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta.   The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of river.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening.  They successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27.

    The tankers were at Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27th, and at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan on December 28 and 29.  On December 31/January 1,  the tanks were stationed on both sides of the Calumpit Bridge when they received conflicting orders, from Gen. MacArthur's chief of staff, about whose command they were under and to withdraw from the bridge.  The defenders were attempting to stop the Japanese advance down Route 5 which would allow the Southern Luzon Forces to withdraw toward Bataan.  General Wainwright was unaware of the orders.
    Because of the orders, there was confusion among the Filipinos and American forces defending the bridges over the Pampanga River and about half the defenders withdrew.  Due to the efforts of the Self Propelled Mounts, the 71st Field Artillery, and a frenzied attack by the 192nd Tank Battalion the Japanese were halted.  From January 2 to 4, the 192nd held the road open from San Fernando to Dinalupihan so the southern forces could escape.
    At 2:30 A.M., the night of January 5/6, the Japanese attacked at Remlus in force and using smoke as cover.  This attack was an attempt to destroy the tank battalions.  At 5:00 A.M., the Japanese withdrew having suffered heavy casualties.
    The night of January 6/7 the tanks withdrew into the peninsula with the 192nd holding its position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leap frog past it, cross the bridge, and then cover the 192nd's withdraw over the bridge.  The 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan, before the engineers blew up the bridge at 6:00 A.M.
    The next day, the battalion was between Culo and Hermosa and assigned a road to enter Bataan on which was worse than having no road.  The half-tracks kept throwing their rubber tracks and members of 17th Ordnance assigned to each battalion had to re-track them in dangerous situations.  After daylight, Japanese artillery fire was landing all around the tanks.
    A composite tank company was formed, the next day, under the command of Capt. Donald Haines, B Co., 192nd.  Its job was to protect the East Coast Road north of Hermosa open and to stop Japanese tanks attempting to use it to overrun the next defensive line that was forming. While in this position, the tanks were under constant enemy artillery fire.  The rest of the tanks were ordered to bivouac south of the Abucay-Hacienda Road.
    When word came that a bridge was going to be blow, all the tanks were ordered out of the area, which included the composite company.  This could have resulted in a catastrophe, but the Japanese did not take advantage of the situation.
    The tanks bivouacked south of the Pilar-Bagac Road and about two kilometers from the East Coast Road.  It had almost been one month since the tank crews had a rest and the tanks had maintenance work done on them by 17th Ordnance.  It was also on this day that the tank platoons were reduced to three tanks per tank platoon.  The men rested and the tanks received the required maintenance.  Most of the tank tracks had worn down to bare metal and the radial engines long past their 400 hour overhauls.
    It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver: "Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal.  If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay."
    The battalions were sent to cover the junctions of the Back Road and East Road with the Abucay-Heicienda Road on January 25.  While holding the position, the 45th Infantry, Philippine Scouts, fought its way to the position at 3:00 A.M.  One platoon was sent to the front of the the column of trucks which were loading the troops.  The tanks provided heavy fire so that the infantry could withdraw and inflicted heavy losses on the Japanese.
    Later on January 25, both the 192nd and 194th held a defensive line on the Bakanga-Cardre-BaniBani Roads until the withdraw was completed at midnight.  They held the position until the night of January 26/27, when they dropped back to a new defensive line roughly along the Pilar-Bagac Roads.  When ordered to withdraw to the new line, the 192nd found that the bridge at Balanga, that they were suppose to use had been destroyed by enemy fire.  To withdraw, they had to use secondary roads to get around the barrio and tanks were still straggling in at noon.
    The tank battalions, on January 28th, were given the job of protecting the beaches.  The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast, while the battalion's half-tracks were used to patrol the roads.  The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.
    Companies A & C were ordered to the west coast of Bataan while B Company - which was held in reserve - and 17th Ordnance held the southern shore of Bataan.  The tankers were awake all night and attempted to sleep under the jungle canopy, during the day, which protected them from being spotted by Japanese reconnaissance planes.  During the night, they were kept busy with repeated threats both on and off shore.
    The tank battalions, on their own, took up the job of protecting the airfields at Cabcaban, Bataan, and Mariveles, since Japanese paratroopers were known to be available.  The tanks and half-tracks were well hidden in the jungle around the airfields and different plans were in place to be used against Japanese forces.  There was only one major alert in March when 73 Japanese planes came over.
    The company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets - from January 23 to February 17 - to wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind the main defensive line after a Japanese offensive was stopped and pushed pack to the original line of defense.  The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket.  Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the pocket.  Doing this was so stressful that each tank company was rotated out and replaced by one that was being held in reserve.
    To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used.  The first was to have three Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank.  As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole.  Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually exploded.
    The other method to use to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over the foxhole.  The driver gave the other track power resulting with the tank spinning around and grinding its way down into the foxhole.  The tankers slept upwind of their tanks.
    While the tanks were doing this job, the Japanese sent soldiers, with cans of gasoline, against the tanks.  These Japanese attempted to jump onto the tanks, pour gasoline into the vents on the back of the tanks, and set the tanks on fire.  If the tankers could not machine gun the Japanese before they got to a tank, the other tanks would shoot them as they stood on a tank.  The tankers did not like to do this because of what it did to the crew inside the tank.  When the bullets hit the tank, its rivets would pop and wound the men inside the tank.  It was for their performance during this battle that the 192nd Tank Battalion would receive one of its Distinguished Unit Citations.
    Since the stress on the crews was tremendous, the tanks rotated into the pocket one at a time.  A tank entered the pocket and the next tank waited for the tank that had been relieved to exit the pocket before it would enter.  This was repeated until all the tanks in the pocket were relieved.
    What made this job so hard was that the Japanese dug "spider holes" among the roots the trees.  Because of this situation, the Americans could not get a good shot at the Japanese. 
    The tankers, from A, B, and C Companies, were able to clear the pockets.  But before this was done, one C Company tank which had gone beyond the American perimeter was disabled and the tank just sat there.  When the sun came up the next day, the tank was still sitting there.  During the night, its crew was buried alive, inside the tank, by the Japanese.  When the Japanese had been wiped out, the tank was turned upside down to remove the dirt and recover the bodies of the crew.  The tank was put back into use.
     At the same time the company took part in the Battle of the Points on the west coast of Bataan.  The Japanese landed troops but ended up trapped.  One was the Lapay-Longoskawayan points from January 23 to 29, the Quinawan-Aglaloma points from January 22 to February 8, and the Sililam-Anyasan points from January 27 to February 13.  The defenders successfully eliminated the points by driving their tanks along the Japanese defensive line and firing their machine guns.  The 45th Infantry, Philippine Scouts followed the tanks eliminating any resistance and driving the Japanese Marines over the edge of the cliffs where they hid in caves.  The tanks fired into the caves killing or forcing them out of them into the sea.

    In February 1942, B Company was also given the job of defending a beach, along the east coast of Bataan, where the Japanese could land troops.  One night while on this duty, the company engaged the Japanese in a fire fight as they attempted to land troops on the beach.  When morning came, not one Japanese soldier had successfully landed on the beach.
    After being up all night, the tankers attempted to get some sleep.  Every morning "Recon Joe" flew over attempting to  locate the tanks.  The jungle canopy hide the tanks from the plane.  Walter Cigoi aggravated about being woken up, pulled his half-track on the beach and took a "pot shot" at the plane.  He missed.  Twenty minutes later, Japanese planes appeared and bombed the position.  Frank took cover under a tank.
    After the attack, the tankers found Richard Graff and Charles Heuel dead, and Francis McGuire was wounded.  Another man had his leg partially blown off.  The tankers attempted to put the man in a jeep, but his leg got in the way.  To get him into the jeep, his leg was cut off by T/4 Frank Goldstein. 
    The soldiers were hungry and began to eat everything they could get their hands on to eat.  The Carabao were tough but if they were cooked long enough they could be eaten.  They also began to eat horse meat provided by the 26th U. S. Cavalry.  To make things worse, the soldiers' rations were cut in half again on March 1, 1942.  This meant that they only ate two meals a day.
    The Japanese also were dropping surrender leaflets with a scantly clad blond on them.  The Japanese would have been more successful at getting the Americans to surrender if the picture had been hamburger, since the men were so hungry that they most likely would have surrendered for a good meal. 

    In March, the amount of gasoline was reduced to 15 gallons a day for all vehicles except the tanks.  This would later be dropped to ten gallons a day.  At the same time, food rations were cut in half again.  Also at this time, Gen. Weaver suggested to Gen. Wainwright that a platoon of tanks be sent to Corregidor.
    The Japanese lunched an all out attack on April 3.  On April 7, the 57th Infantry, Philippine Scouts, supported by tanks, attempted to restore the line, but Japanese infiltrators prevented this from happening.  During this action, one tank was knocked out but the remaining tanks successfully withdrew.  The number of operational tanks also became more critical with C Company, 194th - which was attached to the 192nd - having only seven tanks left.
   The tanks became a favorite target of the Japanese receiving fire on trails and while hidden in the jungle where they could not fight back.  The situation was so bad that other troops avoided being near the tanks, and the 26th Cavalry turned down a tank company's offer of assistance in a counter-attack.  When General King saw that the situation was hopeless, he initiated surrender talks with the Japanese. 

    It was the evening of April 8 that Gen. Edward P. King decided that further resistance was futile, since approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight, and he estimated they would last one more day.  In addition, he had over 6,000 troops who sick or wounded and 40,000 civilians who he feared would be massacred.  At 10:30 that night, he sent his staff officers to negotiate surrender terms.
    Tank battalion commanders received this order: "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished."      
    On April 9, 1942, Harry became a Prisoner of War when Filipino and American Forces were surrendered to the Japanese.  To him, the worst thing  was the sight of hundreds of Japanese troops surrounding the men in his detachment. 

    In one of the strangest twists of fate, the Japanese assembled members of Harry's company and asked those who could drive an American car to step forward.  When all the members present stepped forward, the Japanese became angry.  Through an interpreter, the POWs were able to explain that almost everyone in the United States could drive a car.  This was a fact the Japanese found hard to believe.  

    Harry was selected by the Japanese to drive a car along the route of what would become known as "The Bataan Death March."  While driving the Japanese officers, Harry saw his neighborhood friend from Chicago, Anthony Czerwin, from the 17th Pursuit Squadron.

    After Harry had completed his car driving duty, he too took part in the death march with his friend from B Company Pvt. Andy Aquila.  While Harry was on the march, he came close to being bayoneted by a Japanese guard because he was caught bartering with a Filipino civilian for food.    

    As a POW, Harry was held at Camp O'Donnell which was an unfinished Filipino Army Training Base the Japanese pressed into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942.  When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese confiscated any extra clothing that the POWs had and refused to return it to them.  They searched the POWs and if a man was found to have Japanese money on them, they were taken to the guardhouse.  Over the next several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of the camp.  These POWs had been executed for looting.
    There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two to eight hours waiting for a drink.  The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and the next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again.  This situation improved when a second faucet was added.
    There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing when it had been soiled.  In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the camp and mess kits could not be washed.  The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon overflowing since most of the POWs had dysentery.  The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp including the POW kitchens and in the food.
    The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant.  When the ranking American doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies, he was told never to write another letter.
    The Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the camp, the Japanese commandant refused to allow the truck into the camp.  When the Japanese Red Cross sent medical supplies the camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
    The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them.  When a representative of the Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150 bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a Japanese lieutenant.
    Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to the hospital and placed underneath it.  The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried in the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria.  To clean the ground under the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it.  The bodies of the dead were placed in the area, and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
    Work details were sent out on a daily basis.  Each day, the American doctors gave a list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work.  If the quota of POWs needed to work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick, but could walk, to work.  The death rate among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day. 
    While there, he came down with malaria.  He was extremely ill and was close to death when Tony Czerwin gave Mike Wepsiec quinine pills that Tony had gotten by bartering with a Filipino civilian.   These pills saved Harry's life.    

    Harry was among 100 POWs selected to go out on a work detail to Bataan to retrieve American vehicles that had been destroyed by the army before it was surrendered.  It was while he was on this detail that Harry and Sgt. Ray Vandenbroucke would bury Cpl. William Burns, Pvt. Charles Peterson and Pvt. Edwin Singletary, who were members of Company B.
    The POWs on the detail tied disabled vehicles together with rope and tied them to an operating vehicle.  As this vehicle pulled, the POWs sat in the disabled cars and trucks and drove them to San Fernando.  From there, the vehicles were taken to Japan as scrap metal.
When the detail ended, Harry was sent to Cabanatuan which had been the headquarters of the 91st Philippine Army Division and was formerly known at Camp Panagaian.
    To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a detail that patrolled the fence of the camp.  The reason this was done was that those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed, while the other POWs were made to watch.  It is believed that no POW successfully escaped from the camp.
    The POWs were sent out on work details to cut wood for the POW kitchens.  Meals on a daily basis consisted of 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, and sweet potato or corn.  Other POWs worked in rice paddies.  Each morning, after arriving at the farm, the POWs went into a tool shed to get their tools.  As they left the shed, the guards hit them on their heads.  While working in the fields, the favorite punishment given to the men in the rice paddies was to have their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on by a guard.  Returning from a detail the POWs bought, or were given, medicine, food, and tobacco, which they somehow managed to get into the camp even though they were searched when they returned. 

    Harry was also held as a prisoner at Bilibid Prison and did dock work in Manila before he was sent to Japan on a hell ship.  Harry was boarded onto the Taga Maru which was also known as the Coral Maru.  The ship sailed on September 20, 1943, and arrived at Tako, Formosa, on September 23rd.  It sailed again on September 26th and arrived at Moji, Japan, on October 5th.  During the voyage, 70 POWs died and their bodies were thrown into the sea.
    In Japan, he was held at Niigata #5-B, which opened on August 30, 1943, and also known as Tokyo #5-B.  The POWs in this camp worked for Niigata Kairiku Unso, Nippon Tsu-un, and Niigata Tekko.  The first 300 POWs in the camp were from Dutch from Java, British POWs and Canadians from Hong Kong, with the Americans, from the Philippines, on October 7th.  The POWs lived in a dormitory owned by Niigata Kairiku Unso but were moved, in December 25, 1943, when another 350 POWs arrived  at the camp.  The new wooden barracks, that were built for the POWs, were of flimsy construction and soon became infested with lice, fleas, and rats, which also spread rapidly among the POWs.  Each man had a 3 foot by 6 foot area to sleep in on a straw mat.  One building collapsed during a storm on January 1, 1944, and killed eight POWs.
    The POWs performed various jobs.  Some worked on the docks loading and unloading coal cars, scrap metal, food, and machinery.  They also load and unloaded Japanese war supplies which was in violation of the Geneva Convention.  When unloading food, the POWs took every opportunity to steal food for themselves.  A typical work day was nine hours long not counting travel to and from the work site, breaks, and lunches.
    There was no building designated as a camp hospital but only a room for the sick.  The room soon took on the name of the "Death Room," since many of the POWs who were sent there died.  One reason was there was little to no medicine or medical supplies to treat the sick with.  Since the men were not working, their daily rations were reduced to half of what a working POW received. 
If the Japanese felt a man was not sick enough he was made to work to improve the camp's efficiency rating.  Most of the POWs who died in the camp died because they did not have adequate clothing for the climate.

    A Japanese medical corporal at the camp sent POWs too sick to work which resulted in some of them dying.  When the POWs reported for sick call, they were beaten, hit, punched, and kicked in the face or stomach.  From September 3, 1943 to  December 31st, a guard jumped on or kicked the POWs suffering from beriberi and malnutrition.  He ordered them to stand at attention and to bow.  He was also known for appropriating the Red Cross packages sent to the camp for the POWs.  In October 1943, he had those POWs suffering from dysentery brought to him.  When they arrived, he poked them in their stomachs with a stick.  He also hit them on the head and body with his hands, fists, and with a stick to get them to go to work since so many POWs were needed each day.
    The food ration for the POWs was determined by the jobs they performed.  The POWs working in the factories received 600 grams a day, while those assigned to the docks received 700 grams.  A typical meal consisted of rice or soybeans and the tops of daikon which were Japanese radishes.  The POWs would receive a watery soup once in awhile.  To supplement their meals, the POWs would smuggle food into the camp.
  It is known that Red Cross packages sent to the camp, for the POWs, were misappropriated by the Japanese and sold on the Black Market.  The food from the packages was given to the guards, his family and friends.
    The Japanese severely punished the POWs for stealing.  When two POWs were caught stealing Red Cross packages, they were beaten for repeatedly over several days.  They were tied up outside only in their underwear and later died of exposure.

    If caught stealing the POWs were beaten.  Post-war Japanese war trial documents show that Harry and another POW, Donald Crago, were working on the docks when they were beaten repeatedly over a period of time, with fists and clubs, during the winter of 1944.  The beatings may have been the result of the Japanese guard believing they were not working hard enough, or that they had stolen food to eat. 
    It is not known when or why, but Harry appears to have been transferred to Tokyo #2-B which was also known as Kawasaki #2.  The barracks in the camp were poorly built and had little heat.  The clothing the POWs had to wear was thin and did not offer much protection for the climate.  The POWs were also poorly fed and received very little medical treatment. 

    The POWs worked for the Mitsui Corporation as stevedores loading and unloading ships and train cars.  They also provided labor at a steel mill owned by the company. The camp itself was located near the mill in violation of the Geneva Convention.

    The POW barracks at the hospital were flimsy and made out of wood and were referred to as barns or huts.  Each barracks had four big rooms and two small bunks at the end of each building.  There were 19 straw mats  and 16 lockers in each barracks.  When a window broke, it was not replaced allowing wind to blown into the barracks even thought there was glass available.  The POWs washed their dishes in the same sinks used to wash soiled clothing.  None of the barracks were heated.  The only time any type of heating took place was right before the International Red Cross visited the hospital in March 1945.  The sick slept often slept together on a mat for warmth.  Lice were a problem in the barracks and there was also a rat problem.
    Red Cross packages meant for them were appropriated by the Japanese who ate the canned meats, fruits, and milk.  They also took the chocolate for themselves.  The clothing and shoes sent by the Red Cross, for the POWs, was also used by the Japanese.  Beatings in the camp were common, and the POWs were forced to stand at attention while they were slapped, punched, clubbed for braking a camp rule.  Since a certain number of POWs were needed each day, the sick who were able to stand were sent to work. 

    Punishment in the camp took various forms and lasted for hours.  POWs were made to stand at attention in a sewer manhole and had cold water thrown on them.  They were also hung from a bar, forced to hold two buckets of water with their arms outstretched, and kneel on sharp pieces of wood.
    The American medical staff had little to no medicine to treat the sick with since most of the Red Cross packages had been rifled through and about half of what was in the packages had been appropriated by the Japanese.  Dr. Hisakichi Tokuda also would cancel the requests for certain drugs made by the POW doctors.

     After one air raid, the POWs went out on a burial detail which dug the bodies of those killed by the American bombing from the ruins.  While he and the other POWs were burying the dead, they noticed that one of the dead was a Japanese guard known as Sgt. Saki, who had tormented the POWs repeatedly.  The POWs took turns hitting his head with sticks before burying him.
    As the war went on, American B-29s began to appear in the sky.  On July 25th, a bombing mission near the camp resulted in the POW barracks being destroyed,.  After the POWs recovered the dead, the POWs were moved to Nisshin Flour Mill. 

    Harry was liberated by American Occupation Forces and was returned to the Philippines for medical treatment.  On the U.S.S. Yarmouth he returned to the United States at San Francisco on October 8, 1945.  After receiving more medical treatment, he returned to Chicago.  He married his girlfriend, Dorothy, who had waited for him to return home not knowing if he was alive or dead.  Together they would raise a son and a daughter.  

    After he returned home, Harry helped the families of William Burns and Charles Peterson bring the remains of their sons home by drawing a map to show where they had been buried.  This map also allowed the army to rebury the remains of Edwin Singletary at the American Military Cemetery outside of Manila.  

    Harry was discharged, from the army, on May 10, 1947.  The effects of the war did not end with Harry's return home and married Dorothy Siessmann.  Harry's son recalled the first time he ever saw his father cry was on the day that his mother died.  Harry's wife had provided the support he needed to start his life over again.  Harry J. Norowul passed away on October 18, 1989.

    The picture at the top of the page was taken of Harry, by the Japanese, while he was a prisoner.  The number 487 is written on it.  This was Harry's POW identification number.  Harry's son, Walter, received the photo at his father's wake.  A man came up to him and said that he thought Walter might want the picture.  Right after the man handed Walter the photo, Walter was temporary distracted by someone else, when he turned back to talk to the man, the man was gone.  Walter never learned who the man was and how the man came to have his father's POW photo.


 

 


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