Pvt. Raymond Hayden McGill
Born: 12 July 1920 - Caddo County, Oklahoma
Parents: Joseph A. McGill & Callie Thomas-McGill
Siblings: 1 sister, 2 brothers
Home: 1105 North 9th Street - Chickasha, Oklahoma
Nickname: Hayden
Occupation: worked at bowing alley
Enlisted:
    - U.S. Army
        - 25 September 1941 - Fort Sills, Oklahoma
            - Name on military records: Hayden R. McGill
            - appeared his time in the military was extended as he
              approached discharge
Training:
    - learned to maintain 57 different vehicles used by the Army
    - learned to repair and maintain weapons used by tank battalions
Units:
    - 19th Ordnance Battalion
        - August 1941 - went on maneuvers in Arkansas
            - A Company received orders to return to Ft. Knox
                - 17 August 1941 - the company was designated 17th Ordnance Company
                    - received orders on the same day for duty overseas
Overseas Duty:

    - 4 September  1941
    - traveled by train to Ft. Mason, San Francisco, California
        - Arrived: Thursday, 5 September 1941
        - ferried to Ft. McDowell, Angel Island on U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
            - given physicals and inoculations
            - men with medical conditions replaced
    - removed turrets from tanks of the 194th Tank Battalion
    - Ship: S.S. President Calvin Coolidge
        - Boarded: Monday - 8 September 1941 - 3:00 P.M.
        - Sailed: 9:00 P.M. - same day
        - Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii - Saturday - 13 September 1941 - 7:00 A.M.
        - Sailed: 5:00 P.M. - same day
            - escorted by the heavy cruiser, U.S.S. Astoria, and an unknown destroyer
                - smoke seen on horizon several times
                -  cruiser intercepted ships
        - 16 September 1941 - crossed International Dateline
            - date became Thursday, 18 September 1941
        - Arrived: Manila - Friday - 26 September 1941
            - disembark ship - 3:00 P.M.
            - taken by bus to Fort Stostenburg
            - maintenance section with 17th ordnance remained behind to unload the tanks and attached turrets
                -27 September 1941 - job completed at 9:00 A.M.
Stationed:
    - Ft. Stotsenburg
        - lived in tents until barracks completed - 15 November 1941
        - 1 December 1941
            - tanks ordered to perimeter of Clark Field
            - 194th guarded north end of airfield with 192nd guarding south portion
            - two crew members of each tank and half-track remained with vehicle at all times
                - meals served by food trucks
            - those not assigned to a tank or half-track remained at command post
Engagements:
    - Battle of Luzon
        - 8 December 1942 - 6 January 1942
    - Battle of Bataan
        - 7 January 1942 - 9 April 1942
            - serviced tanks of the 192nd & 194th Tank Battalions
            - headquartered in an abandoned ordnance depot building         
Prisoner of War
    - 9 April 1942
        - Death March
           - Mariveles - POWs start march at southern tip of Bataan
            - POWs ran past Japanese artillery firing at Corregidor
                - Americans on Corregidor returned fire
            - San Fernando - POWs put into small wooden boxcars
                - each boxcar could hold eight horses or forty men
                - 100 POWs packed into each car
                - POWs who died remained standing
            - Capas - dead fell to floor as living left boxcars

POW Camps:
    - Philippines:
        - Camp O'Donnell
            - 1 April 1942 - unfinished Filipino training base Japanese put into use as a POW camp
                - Japanese believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs
            - POWs searched upon arrival at camp
                - those found with Japanese money were accused of looting
                - sent to guardhouse
                - over several days, gun shots heard southeast of the camp
                    - POWs who had money on them had been executed
            - Japanese took away any extra clothing from POWs - as they entered the camp - and refused to return it
                - since no water was available for wash clothing, the POWs threw soiled clothing away
                - clothing was taken from dead
                - few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing
            - POWs were not allowed to bathe
            - only one water spigot for entire camp
                - POWs waited 2½ hours to 8 hours to get a drink
                    - water frequently turned off by Japanese guards and next man in line waited as long as 4 hours
                      for water to be turned on again
                    - mess kits could not be cleaned
                - POWs had to carry water 3 miles from a river to cook their meals
                - second water spigot installed a week after POWs arrived
            - slit trenches overflowed since many of the POWs had dysentery
                - flies were everywhere including in camp kitchens and food
            - camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant
            - the senior POW doctor wrote a list of medicines he wanted to treat the sick and was told by the camp commandant, Capt. Yoshio
              Tsuneyoshi, never to write another letter
                - Tsuneyoshi said that all he wanted to know about the American POWs was their names and numbers when they died
                - refused to allow a truckload of medicine sent by the Archbishop of Manila into the camp
                    - 95% of the medicine sent by Philippine Red Cross was taken by the Japanese for their own use
            - POWs in camp hospital lay on floor elbow to elbow
            - operations on POWs were performed with mess kit knives
            - only one medic out of six assigned to care for 50 sick POWs, in the hospital, was well enough to work
            - as many as 50 POWs died each day
                - each morning dead were found everywhere in the camp and stacked up under the hospital
                - ground under hospital was scrapped and cover with lime to clean it
                - the dead were moved to this area and the section where they had laid was scrapped and cover with lime
                - usually not buried for two or three days
            - work details: if a POW could walk, he was sent out on a work detail
                - POWs on burial detail often had dysentery and malaria
                    - to bury the dead, the POWs held the body down with a pole while it was covered with dirt
                    - the next day when they returned, the bodies often were sitting up in the graves or had been dug up by
                      wild dogs
        - Japanese opened new POW camp to lower death rate
            - 1 June 1942 - POWs formed detachments of 100 men
                - POWs marched out gate and marched toward Capas
                    - Filipino people gave POWs small bundles of food
                        - the guards did not stop them
                - At Capas, the POWs were put into steel boxcars and rode them to Manila
                - train stopped at Calumpit and switched onto the line to Cabanatuan
                    - POWs disembark train at 6:00 P.M. and put into a school yard
                    - fed rice and onion soup          
        - Cabanatuan #1
            - the Japanese left POWs to run the camp on their own
                - Japanese entered camp when they had a reason
                - POWs patrolled fence to prevent escapes
                    - Note: men who attempted to escape were recaptured
                    - Japanese beat them for days
                    - executed them
            - Blood Brother Rule
                - POWs put into groups of ten
                    - if one escaped the others would be executed
                    - housed in same barracks
                    - worked on details together
            - Barracks:
                - each barracks held 50 men
                    - often held between 60 and 120 men
                    - slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, and mosquito netting
                        - diseases spread easily
                    - no showers
            - Morning Roll Call:
                - stood at attention
                    - frequently beaten over their heads for no reason
                - when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in
                  their shins with their hobnailed boots because they didn't like the way the POWs lined up
            - Work Details:
                - Two main details
                    - the farm and airfield
                        - farm detail
                            - POWs cleared land and grew comotes, cassava, taro, sesame, and various greens
                            - Japanese took what was grown
                    - Guards:
                        - Big Speedo - spoke little English
                            - in charge of detail
                            - fair in treatment of POWs
                            - spoke little English
                                - to get POWs to work faster said , "speedo"
                        - Little Speedo
                            - also used "speedo" when he wanted POWs to work faster
                            - fair in treatment of POWs
                        - Smiley
                            - always smiling
                            - could not be trusted
                            - meanest of guards
                                - hit POWs with a club
            - Airfield Detail:
                - Japanese built an airfield for fighters
                    - POWs cut grass, removed dirt, and leveled ground
                        - at first moved dirt in wheel barrows
                        - later pushed mining cars
                   - Guards:
                        - Air Raid
                            - in charge
                            - usually fair but unpredictable
                                - had to watch him
                        - Donald Duck
                            - always talking
                            - sounded like the cartoon character
                            - unpredictable - beat POWs
                            - POWs told him that Donald Duck was a big American movie star
                                - at some point, he saw a Donald Duck cartoon
                                - POWs stayed away from him when he came back to camp
                - Work Day: 7:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
                    - worked 6 days a week
                        - had Sunday off
            - Other Details:
                - work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens and plant rice
                    - they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
                - POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on
                - the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
                - if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn't doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
                - many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
            - Burial Detail
                - POWs worked in teams of four
                    - carried 4 to 6 dead to cemetery at a time in liter
                    - a grave contained from 15 to 20 bodies 
            - daily POW meal
                - 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn
                - rice was main staple, few vegetables or fruits
        - Camp Hospital:
            - 30 Wards
                - each ward could hold 40 men
                    - frequently had 100 men in each
               - two tiers of bunks
                   - sickest POWs on bottom tier
               - each POW had a 2 foot by 6 foot area to lie in
            - Zero Ward
              - given name because it had been missed when counting wards
              - became ward where those who were going to die were sent
              - fenced off from other wards
                  - Japanese guards would not go near it
                  - POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving
                  - medical staff had little to no medicine to treat sick
                  - many deaths from disease caused by malnutrition
Hell Ship:
    - Nagato Maru
        - Boarded: 6 November 1942
        - Sailed: Manila - 7 November 1942
            - three ship convoy
            - attacked by submarine
                - Japanese put hatch covers on holds
                - depth charge explosions told POWs what was happening
            - dysentery spread among POWs
                - 17 POWs died
        - Arrived: Takao, Formosa - 11 November 1942
            - dead taken ashore and cremated
        - Sailed: 14 November 1942
        - Arrived: Pescadores Islands - 14 November 1942
            - remained off islands due to storm
            - lice spread among POWs
        - Sailed: 18 November 1942
        - Arrived: Keelung, Formosa - 18 November 1942
        - Sailed: 20 November 1942
        - Arrived: Moji, Japan - 24 November 1942
            - POWs disembarked, deloused, showered, fed, and issued new clothes
POW Camps:

    - Japan:
        - Tokyo 12B
            - also known as Mitsushima Camp
            - during trip to camp, the train the POWs were on had to stop because of a train wreck at a tunnel
                - the POWs left the train and climbed a mountain at night to reach the camp
                - 26 November 1942 - Americans arrived at 10:00 P.M.
           - when they reached the camp, the POWs stood out in the cold for an hour and a half and listen to the camp commandant
                - he threatened to kill them at the slightest opportunity
                - when POWs arrived at the camp, the Japanese commanding officer tried to intimidate them by saying they would never leave
                  Japan
            - Barracks:
                - 18 feet wide by 75 feet long 
                    - divided into three sections
                    - 120 POWs in each barracks
                    - slept on two tiers
                        - each POW had an area of 2½ foot by 6 foot 2 inch area to sleep in and call his own
                    - barracks flooded when it rained
                        - floors were dirt and sand
                - barely heated
                    - 3 foot by 3 foot fire pit for heat
                        - 10 pieces of wood each day
                            - each was 4 inches thick and 2 feet long
                         - no flu for smoke to escape through
                            - barracks filled with smoke which hurt the POWs eyes
                - only heated from 5:00 to 7:00 P.M.
                - not enough wood provided
                - Japanese intentionally did not give wood to POWs
                    - always used an excuse that a rule had been broken
                - wind blew through barracks because of poor construction
                - barracks infested with fleas, lice, and other pests
            - Latrines:
                - two latrines
                    - each one could accommodate 30 men
                     - trenches that had no drainage
                    - POWs had to empty trenches
            - Food:
                - mostly a mix of barley & rice
                    - once in awhile they received vegetables
                    - almost never fish or meat
                        - fish had to be boiled to make it edible
            - Clothing:
                - POWs wore summer clothing
                    - Japanese supplied rags so the POWs could patch their clothing
                    - wore shoes made of straw made by POWs who were too sick to work in steel mills
                    - worked in rain without raincoats or change of clothes
                 - Note: After the war, a warehouse full of Red Cross clothing, shoes, and coats was found at the camp
            - Punishment:
                - Japanese practiced "collective punishment" when one POW violated a rule
                    - POWs made to stand at attention in cold for hours and had cold water thrown on them
                    - Japanese hit and clubbed POWs
                    - POWs were required to hit each other in the face
                - any excuse was used to beat POWs
                - POWs forced to kneel on sharp pieces of wood
                - hung POWs from iron bars
                - guards used jiu-jitsu on the POWs
                - strenuous exercise also used as a punishment
                - called out of barracks at night and beaten for no real reason
                    - stood at attention, for hours, in winter weather for no reason
                - POWs thrown into guardhouse without bedding and had rations reduced
            - Work:
                - POWs worked in detachments at multiple steel mills
                    - shoveled coal into furnaces without proper protection
                    - fumes made them sick and they frequently vomited
                - day off:
                    - no real day off
                    - POWs expected to clean campgrounds on day off
        - Medical Treatment:
            - Japanese raided Red Cross packages
            - medical supplies not issued to POWs
                - medicines used by Japanese
                - sick slept with soiled blankets
                - sick POWs forced to do hard labor which resulted in men dying
Note: 9 guards from this camp were executed after the war for war crimes
        - Tokyo #16B
            - also known as Kanose
            - 16 April 1944 - 100 POWs transferred to camp
            - also known as Kanose
            - POWs worked in a carbide mill located in mine shaft
                - owned by Showa Denko Company
                - worked in dangerous conditions - poor lighting and supervision
                    - no safety devices
            - Collective Punishment:
                - Camp Commandant treated POWs decently, but did not stop subordinates from mistreating them
                - all the POWs were punished when one broke a camp rule
                - POWs were beaten while standing at attention
            - July 1945 - POWs failed to fall out for an air raid
                - all the POWs lined up
                - beaten and knocked to ground
                    - after they were on the ground, they were kicked
            - Red Cross packages were withheld from POWs
                - Japanese took what they wanted from packages
                - also took clothing, blankets, and shoes meant for POW use
                - POWs issued Red Cross boxes for Red Cross visit, but were told not to touch anything in them
                    - after the visit the boxes were confiscated
            - Medical Treatment:
                - sick POWs were not forced to work
Liberated:
    - September 1945
    - returned to the Philippine Islands
Promoted: Corporal

Transport:
    - U.S.S. Gospar
        - Sailed: Manila - 24 September 1945
        -Arrived: Seattle, Washington - 12 October 1945
            - sent to Madigan General Hospital - Ft. Lewis, Washington
Discharged: 16 May 1946
Residence: Odessa, Texas
Died: 13 June 1997 - Odessa, Texas
Buried:
    - Sunset Memorial Gardens - Odessa, Texas

 


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