Pvt. Clement Francis Martini
Pvt. Clement F. Martini was
born to Andrew P. Martini & Mary C.
Miller-Martini in East Connersville, Indiana, in
August 1918. He with his five sisters
and two brothers grew up at 6235 Ashtubula Street,
Delhi Township, Hamilton County, Ohio. He
attended Electrical High School and worked at
Gibson Art Company as a machinist.
Clement was inducted into the Army on March 4, 1941, and did his basic training at Fort Knox, Kentucky, and was sent to Camp Polk, Louisiana, where he became a member of the 753rd Tank Battalion. The battalion had been sent to Camp Polk from Ft. Benning, Georgia. Although maneuvers were taking place in Louisiana, the 753rd did not take part in them.
After the maneuvers, the members of the 192nd Tank Battalion were ordered to Camp Polk without being told why. It was on the side of a hill that they learned their battalion was being sent overseas as part of Operation PLUM. Within hours, most hd decoded PLUM to mean Philippines, Luzon, Manila. Men 29 years old or older were allowed to resign from federal service. Many of those who remained were allowed to go home to say their goodbyes.
Clement joined the 192nd Tank Battalion at Camp Polk to replace a National Guardsman released from federal service. It is not known if he volunteered to join the battalion or if he had his name drawn. Upon joining the battalion, he was assigned to Headquarters Company and was assigned to reconnaissance and a member of a half-track crew.
The decision for this move - which had been made in August 1941 - was the result of an event that took place in the summer of 1941. A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd. He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance. He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island which was hundred of miles away. The island had a large radio transmitter. The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day. The next day, when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its deck - which was seen making its way to shore. Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult, the boat escaped. It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
The battalion traveled by train to San Francisco, California, and was ferried, on the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe, to Fort McDowell on Angel Island, where the soldiers were inoculated and given physicals by the battalion's medical detachment. Those who had medical issues were replaced or scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date.
The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Gen. Hugh L. Scott and sailed from San Francisco on Monday, October 27, for Hawaii. During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP. The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2, and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
On Wednesday, November 5, the ship sailed for Guam and took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes. It was at this time it was joined by the heavy cruiser the U.S.S. Louisville and the S.S. President Calvin Coolidge. On Sunday, November 9, the ships crossed the International Dateline so the soldiers went to bed Sunday and woke up Tuesday morning. On Saturday, November 15, smoke was seen on the horizon from an unknown ship. The Louisville revved its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it took off after the unknown ship. As it turned out the unknown ship belonged to a friendly nation.
The next day, Sunday, November 16, the ships arrived at Guam, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables, before sailing the next day for Manila. The ships entered Manila Bay,at 7:30 A.M., on Thursday, November 20th and docked at Pier 7 at Manila later that day. The soldiers disembarked and were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.
At the fort, they were greeted by Gen. Edward P. King, who apologized that the men had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Field. He made sure that they had what they needed and that they received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own dinner.
For the next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their weapons. The grease was put on the weapons to protect them from rust while at sea. They also loaded ammunition belts and did tank maintenance.
On Monday, December 1, the tanks were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field to guard against paratroopers. The 194th Tank Battalion guarded the northern portion of the airfield and the 192nd guarded the southern portion. At all times, two members of each tank and half-track remained with their vehicles. Meals were served to the tankers from food trucks.
The morning of December 8, the officers of the 192nd were called to an office and informed of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. All members of the tank companies were sent to the airfield. HQ Company remained behind in their bivouac.
All morning the sky was filled with American planes. At noon, the planes landed to be refueled, they were lined up in a straight line, and the pilots went to lunch. At 12:45 in the afternoon, Japanese bombers appeared over Clark Field destroying the American Army Air Corps.
The tank battalion received orders on December 21 that it was to proceed north to Lingayen Gulf. Because of logistics problems, the B and C Companies soon ran low on gas. When they reached Rosario, there was only enough for one tank platoon, from B Company, to proceed north to support the 26th Cavalry.
On December 23 and 24, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta. The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of river. As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening, but they successfully crossed the river.
On December 25, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27, when the tanks fell back toward Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan, and at San Isidro, south of Cabanatuan, on December 28 and 29. While there, the bridge over the Pampanga River was destroyed, but once again, they were able find a crossing over the river.
Clement most likely was never involved in front line action, but he did live the constant strafing by Japanese planes. Clement was assigned to a half-track and did reconnaissance. A picture of a half-track, taken on Bataan, shows Clement sitting on the hood of the half-track.
The next day, the battalion was between Culo and Hermosa and assigned a road to enter Bataan on which was worse than having no road. The half-tracks kept throwing their rubber tracks and members of 17th Ordnance assigned to each battalion had to re-track them in dangerous situations. After daylight, Japanese artillery fire was landing all around the tanks.
The next day, a composite tank company was formed under the command of Capt. Donald Haines, B Co., 192nd. Its job was to protect the East Coast Road north of Hermosa open and to stop Japanese tanks attempting to use it to overrun the next defensive line that was forming. While in this position, the tanks were under constant enemy artillery fire. The rest of the tanks were ordered to bivouac south of the Abucay-Hacienda Road.
When word came that a bridge was going to be blow, all the tanks were ordered out of the area, which included the composite company. This could have resulted in a catastrophe, but the Japanese did not take advantage of the situation.
The tanks bivouacked south of the Pilar-Bagac Road and about two kilometers from the East Coast Road. It had almost been one month since the tank crews had a rest and the tanks had maintenance work done on them by 17th Ordnance. It was also on this day that the tank platoons were reduced to three tanks per tank platoon. The men rested and the tanks received the required maintenance. Most of the tank tracks had worn down to bare metal and the radial engines long past their 400 hour overhauls.
It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver, "Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal. If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay."
The battalions were sent to cover the junctions of the Back Road and East Road with the Abucay-Heicienda Road on January 25th. While holding the position, the 45th Infantry, Philippine Scouts, fought its way to the position at 3:00 A.M. One platoon was sent to the front of the the column of trucks which were loading the troops. The tanks provided heavy fire so that the infantry could withdraw and inflicted heavy losses on the Japanese.
Later on January 25, both the 192nd and 194th held a defensive line on the Bakanga-Cardre-BaniBani Roads until the withdraw was completed at midnight. They held the position until the night of January 26/27, when they dropped back to a new defensive line roughly along the Pilar-Bagac Roads. When ordered to withdraw to the new line, the 192nd found that the bridge at Balanga, that they were suppose to use had been destroyed by enemy fire. To withdraw, they had to use secondary roads to get around the barrio and tanks were still straggling in at noon.
The tank battalions, on January 28, were given the job of protecting the beaches. The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast, while the battalion's half-tracks were used to patrol the roads. The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.
Companies A & C were ordered to the west coast of Bataan while B Company - which was held in reserve - and 17th Ordnance held the southern shore of Bataan. The tankers were awake all night and attempted to sleep under the jungle canopy, during the day, which protected them from being spotted by Japanese reconnaissance planes. During the night, they were kept busy with repeated threats both on and off shore.
The tank battalions, on their own, took up the job of protecting the airfields at Cabcaban, Bataan, and Mariveles, since Japanese paratroopers were known to be available. The tanks and half-tracks were well hidden in the jungle around the airfields and different plans were in place to be used against Japanese forces. There was only one major alert in March when 73 Japanese planes came over.
The battalion also took part in the Battle of the Pockets to wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind the main defensive line. The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket. Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the pocket. Doing this was so stressful that the tank companies were pulled out and replaced by one that was being held in reserve.
To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used. The first was to have three Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank. As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole. Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually exploded.
The other method to use to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over the foxhole. The driver gave the other track power resulting with the tank spinning around and grinding its way down into the foxhole. The tankers slept upwind of their tanks.
In March, the amount of gasoline was reduced to 15 gallons a day for all vehicles except the tanks. This would later be dropped to ten gallons a day. At the same time, food rations were cut in half again. Also at this time, Gen. Weaver suggested to Gen. Wainwright that a platoon of tanks be sent to Corregidor.
The Japanese lunched an all out attack on April 3. On April 7, the 57th Infantry, Philippine Scouts, supported by tanks, attempted to restore the line, but Japanese infiltrators prevented this from happening. During this action, one tank was knocked out but the remaining tanks successfully withdrew. C Company, 194th, which was attached to the 192nd, had only seven tanks left.
The tanks became a favorite target of the Japanese receiving fire on trails and while hidden in the jungle. and could not fight back. The situation was so bad that other troops avoided being near the tanks, and the 26th Cavalry turned down a tank company's offer of assistance in a counter-attack.
It was at this time that Gen. Edward King decided that further resistance was futile. Approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight, and he estimated they would last one more day. In addition, he had over 6000 troops who sick or wounded and 40000 civilians who he feared would be massacred. At 10:30 that night, he sent his staff officers to negotiate surrender terms.
Tank battalion commanders received this order, "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished."
The evening of April 8, 1942, Capt. Fred Bruni, HQ's commanding officer, gave his men the news of the surrender. While informing the members of the company of the surrender, he waved his arm toward the tanks and told the men that they would no longer need them. As he spoke, his voice choked. He turned away from the men for a moment, and when he turned back he continued. He next told the sergeants what they should do to disable the tanks. During the announcement, Bruni emphasized that they all were to surrender together. He told the soldiers to destroy their weapons and any supplies that could be used by the Japanese. The only thing they were told not to destroy were the company's trucks. The men waited in their bivouac until ordered to move. Somehow, Bruni had found enough bread and pineapple juice for what he called, "Their last supper."
On April 11th, the first Japanese soldiers appeared at HQ company's encampment, and a Japanese officer ordered the company, with their possessions, out onto the road that ran in front of their encampment. Once on the road, the soldiers were ordered to kneel along the sides of the road with their possessions in front of them. As they knelt, the Japanese soldiers, who were passing them, went through their possessions and took whatever they wanted from the Americans. They remained along the sides of the road most of the day.
The company finally boarded their trucks and drove to just outside of Mariveles. From there, they walked to Mariveles Airfield and ordered to sit and wait. As they sat, the POWs noticed a line of Japanese soldiers forming across from them. They soon realized that this was a firing squad and the Japanese were going to kill them.
As they sat watching and waiting to see what the Japanese intended to do, a Japanese officer pulled up in a car in front of the Japanese soldiers. He got out of the car and spoke to the sergeant in charge of the detail. The officer got back in the car and drove off. As he drove away, the Japanese sergeant ordered the soldiers to lower their guns.
Later in the day, the POWs were moved to a school yard in Mariveles and left sitting in the sun for hours. The Japanese did not feed them or give them water. Behind the POWs were four Japanese artillery pieces which began firing on Corregidor and Ft. Drum which had not surrendered. Shells from these two American forts began landing among the POWs who could do little since they had no place to hide. Some POWs were killed by incoming American shells. One group that tried to hide in a small brick building died when it took a direct hit. The American guns did succeed in knocking out three of the four Japanese guns.
The POWs were ordered to move again, by the Japanese, and had no idea that they had started what became known as the death march. During the march, they received no water and little food. It took the members of HQ Company six days to reach San Fernando. Once there, the POWs were put into a bull pen that had a fence around it. In one corner was a slit trench to be used as a toilet by the POWs. The surface of the trench moved since it was covered in maggots. The POWs had enough room to sit, but they could not lie down.
During their time in the bull
pen, the POWs watched the Japanese bury three
POWs. Two were still alive. When one
of the men attempted to climb out of the grave,
he was hit in the head with a shovel and
buried. The Japanese ordered the
POWs to form 100 men detachments and marched
them to the train station where they were put into a small wooden boxcars,
used to haul sugarcane, and taken to
Capas. The cars could hold forty men or
eight horses, but the Japanese packed 100 POWs
into each car and closed the doors. The
POWs were packed in so tightly that those who
died remained standing until the living left the
cars at Capas. From there, the POWs walked
the last ten miles to Camp O' Donnell.
Clement remained at Cabanatuan when the Japanese
began evacuating POWs to prevent them from being
liberated by the advancing American
forces. On October 7, his name appeared on
a list of POWs being sent to Japan. Trucks
were sent to the camp and the POWs were taken to
Bilibid Prison near Manila. They were
issued heavy Japanese Army uniforms which were
too small for a large number of the men.
Many of the men had a good laugh about how they
looked in the uniforms.
afternoon of October 11, the POWs were marched
to the Port Area of Manila. When they
arrived, they were scheduled to sail on the Hokusen
Maru, which was ready to sail, but the
entire POW detachment hadn't arrived at the
port. Another POW detachment, at the pier,
had completely arrived and was waiting for their
ship to sail. The Japanese made the
decision to swap the POW detachments so that the
Hokusen Maru could sail.
sailed later on October 11 but instead of
heading to Japan, it headed south to a cove at
Palawan Island to hide from American
planes. Within the first 48 hours
in the hold, five POWs had died. During
this time, the ship was attacked at least once
by American planes. The POWs discovered
that the Japanese had removed the lights bulbs
from the hold's lighting system, but they had
left on the power. The POWs hot-wired the
hold's fans, into the lighting system, and the
had fresh air for two days. When the
Japanese figured out what the POWs had done,
they turned the power off.
On October 20, the ship returned to Manila to join a twelve ship convoy. On October 21, 1944, the Arisan Maru sailed for Takao, Formosa, as part of the convoy. Around 5:00 PM, on Tuesday, October 24, the ship was in the Bashi Channel of the South China Sea, and POWs were on deck preparing dinner for the other POWs. About 5:50 that evening, sirens and bells began to sound warning of submarines. As the POWs watched, the Japanese ran toward the bow of the ship and watched a torpedo pass in front of the it. Moments later the Japanese ran to the stern of the ship as another torpedo passed behind the ship.
The ship shook and came to a dead stop in the water. It had been hit by two torpedoes, amidships, in a hold where no POWs were being held, but it still killed some POWs. The men in the holds cheered. The Japanese guards used their rifles as clubs on the POWs on deck to get them back into the ship's holds. After they were in the holds, the Japanese put the hatch covers on the holds. A short time later, the Japanese abandoned ship. Before they left, they cut the rope ladders hanging down into the holds and put the hatch covers in place but did not tie them down.
Since the hatch covers had
not been tied down, some of the POWs made their
way back on deck and reattached and dropped the
rope ladders to the men in the holds. The
POWs climbed out of the holds onto the
deck. On the ship's
deck an American major spoke to
the POWs, he said, "Boys,
we're in a hellva a jam - but
we've been in jams
before. Remember just
one thing: We're American
soldiers. Let's play it
that way to the very end of
the script." Right after he
spoke, a chaplain said to them, "Oh
Lord, if it be thy will to
take us now, give us the
strength to be men."
Three POWs reached a lifeboat that the Japanese had abandoned and were able to climb into it. Since it had no oars and the waves were as high as fifteen feet, they could not maneuver it to rescue other POWs. According to these men, that night, the cries for help became fewer and fewer until there was silence. The next morning, they rescued two more men.
Of the nearly 1775 men who boarded the Arisan Maru, only nine survived the attack and only eight of these men survived the war. Pfc. Clement Martini was not one of them. Since he was lost at sea, his name appears on the Tablets of the Missing at the American Military Cemetery outside Manila.