Pvt. Frank J. Lukas Jr.
Born: 9 May 1917 - Broome County, New York
Parents: Frank J. Lukas Sr. & Irma Lukas
Siblings: 1 brother
Home: 508 Oak Hill Avenue - Union, New York
Occupation: tool maker - machine shop
Inducted:
    - U.S. Army
        - 6 February 1941 - Albany, New York
    - Fort Knox, Kentucky
Units:
    - 19th Ordnance Battalion
        - trained alongside the 192nd Tank Battalion at Ft. Knox
        - August 1941 - Arkansas Maneuvers
            - A Company detached and returned to Ft. Knox
    - 17th Ordnance Company
        - 17 August 1941 - A Company new designation
            - received overseas orders the same day
Note:  The decision for this move - which had been made on August 15, 1941, at Ft. Knox, Kentucky - was the result of an event that took place in the summer of 1941.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island which was hundred of miles away.  The island had a large radio transmitter.  The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
     When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.  The next day, when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its deck - which was seen making its way to shore.  Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult, the boat escaped.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
Overseas Duty:
        - traveled by train to Ft. Mason, San Francisco, California
            - Arrived: Thursday, 5 September 1941
        - ferried to Ft. McDowell, Angel Island on U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
            - given physicals and inoculations
            - men with medical conditions replaced
        - removed turrets from tanks of the 194th Tank Battalion
    - Ship: S.S. President Calvin Coolidge
        - Boarded: San Francisco, California - Monday - 8 September 1941
        - Sailed: 9:00 P.M.
        - Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii - Saturday 13 September 1941 - 7:00 A.M.
            - soldiers given shore leave for the day
        - Sailed: 5:00 P.M.
            - escorted by the heavy cruiser, U.S.S. Astoria, and an unknown destroyer
                - smoke seen on horizon several times
                -  cruiser intercepted ships
        - 16 September 1941 - crossed International Dateline
            - date became Thursday - 18 September 1941
        - Arrived: Manila, Philippine Islands - Friday - 26 September 1941
        - Disembarked:
            - 17th Ordnance remained behind to unload tanks of the 194th Tank Battalion
                - reattached turrets to tanks
                - worked in shifts
                - slept on ship that night
        - finished attaching turrets at 9:00 A.M. the next day
        - rode bus to Ft. Stotsenburg                
Stationed:
    - Ft. Stotsenburg, Philippine Islands
        - lived in tents until barracks completed - 15 November 1941
            - 8 December 1942 - lived through Japanese attack on Clark Field
                - company went to a bamboo thicket where they could disperse vehicles
                    - company set up bivouac
                        - set up machine shop trucks, half-tracks, and trucks
                - received orders to return to Ft. Stotsenburg
       - 12:45 P.M. - Japanese attacked
           - Japanese wipe out Army Air Corps
           - dead and wounded were everywhere
Engagements:
    - Battle of Luzon
        - 8 December 1942 - 6 January 1942
    - Battle of Bataan
        - 7 January 1942 - 9 April 1942
            - serviced tanks of the Provisional Tank Group
            - headquartered in an abandoned ordnance depot building
           - 8 April 1942
It was at this time that the tank battalion commanders received this order, "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished."
            - 10:30 P.M. - Gen. King announced that further resistance would result the massacre of 6,000 sick or wounded and 40,000 civilians

            - less than 25% of his troops were healthy enough to continue fighting
            - he estimated they could hold out one more day
            - sent his staff officers to negotiate the surrender of Bataan Prisoner of War
    - 9 April 1942
        - Death March
            - POWs started march at Mariveles on the southern tip of Bataan
            - ran past Japanese artillery firing on Corregidor
                - American artillery returned fire
            - San Fernando - POWs packed into small wooden boxcars
                - each boxcar could hold eight horses or forty men
                - Japanese packed 100 POWs into each boxcar
                - POWs who died remained standing
            - Capas - POWs leave boxcars - dead fall out of cars
            - POWs walked last ten miles to Camp O'Donnell
POW Camps:
    - Philippines:
        - Camp O'Donnell
            - 1 April 1942 - unfinished Filipino training base Japanese put into use as a POW camp
                - Japanese believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs
            - POWs searched upon arrival at camp
                - those found with Japanese money were accused of looting
                - sent to guardhouse
                - over several days, gun shots heard southeast of the camp
                    - POWs who had money on them had been executed
            - Japanese took away any extra clothing from POWs - as they entered the camp - and refused to return it
                - since no water was available for wash clothing, the POWs threw soiled clothing away
                - clothing was taken from dead
                - few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing
            - POWs were not allowed to bathe
            - only one water spigot for entire camp
                - POWs waited 2 hours to 8 hours to get a drink
                    - water frequently turned off by Japanese guards and next man in line waited as long as 4 hours for water to
be turned on again
                    - mess kits could not be cleaned
                - POWs had to carry water 3 miles from a river to cook their meals
                - second water spigot installed a week after POWs arrived
            - slit trenches overflowed since many of the POWs had dysentery
                - flies were everywhere including in camp kitchens and food
            - camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant
            - the senior POW doctor wrote a list of medicines he wanted to treat the sick and was told by the camp commandant, Capt. Yoshio
              Tsuneyoshi, never to write another letter
                - Tsuneyoshi said that all he wanted to know about the American POWs was their names and numbers when they died
                - refused to allow a truckload of medicine sent by the Archbishop of Manila into the camp
                - 95% of the medicine sent by Philippine Red Cross was taken by the Japanese for their own use
            - POWs in camp hospital lay on floor elbow to elbow
            - operations on POWs were performed with mess kit knives
            - only one medic out of six assigned to care for 50 sick POWs, in the hospital, was well enough to work
            - as many as 50 POWs died each day
                - each morning dead were found everywhere in the camp and stacked up under the hospital
                - ground under hospital was scrapped and cover with lime to clean it
                - the dead were moved to this area and the section where they had laid was scrapped and cover with lime
                - usually not buried for two or three days
            - work details: if a POW could walk, he was sent out on a work detail
                - POWs on burial detail often had dysentery and malaria
                    - to bury the dead, the POWs held the body down with a pole while it was covered with dirt
                    - the next day when they returned, the bodies often were sitting up in the graves or had been dug up by
                      wild dogs
        - Japanese opened new POW camp to lower death rate
            - 1 June 1942 - POWs formed detachments of 100 men
                - POWs marched out gate and marched toward Capas
                    - Filipino people gave POWs small bundles of food
                        - the guards did not stop them
                - At Capas, the POWs were put into steel boxcars and rode them to Manila
                - train stopped at Calumpit and switched onto the line to Cabanatuan
                    - POWs disembark train at 6:00 P.M. and put into a school yard
                    - fed rice and onion soup         
        - Cabanatuan
            - original name - Camp Panagaian
                - Philippine Army Base built for 91st Philippine Army Division
                    - put into use by Japanese as a POW camp
                - actually three camps
                    - Camp 1: POWs from Camp O'Donnell sent there in attempt to lower death rate
                    - Camp 2:  two miles away
                        - all POWs moved from there because of a lack of water
                        - later used for Naval POWs
                    - Camp 3: six miles from Camp 2
                        - POWs from Corregidor and from hospitals sent there
                        - camp created to keep Corregidor POWs separated from Bataan POWs
                        - Corregidor POWs were in better shape
                            - January 1943 - POWs from Camp 3 consolidated into Camp 1
        - Camp Administration:
            - the Japanese left POWs to run the camp on their own
                - Japanese entered camp when they had a reason
                - POWs patrolled fence to prevent escapes
                    - Note: men who attempted to escape were recaptured
                    - Japanese beat them for days
                    - executed them
            - Blood Brother Rule
                - POWs put into groups of ten
                    - if one escaped the others would be executed
                    - housed in same barracks
                    - worked on details together
            - Barracks:
                - each barracks held 50 men
                    - often held between 60 and 120 men
                    - slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, and mosquito netting
                        - diseases spread easily
                    - no showers
            - Morning Roll Call:
                - stood at attention
                    - frequently beaten over their heads for no reason
                - when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in
                  their shins with their hobnailed boots because they didn't like the way the line looked
            - Work Details:
                - Two main details
                    - the farm and airfield
                        - farm detail
                            - POWs cleared land and grew comotes, cassava, taro, sesame, and various greens
                            - Japanese took what was grown
                    - Guards:
                        - Big Speedo - spoke little English
                            - in charge of detail
                            - fair in treatment of POWs
                            - spoke little English
                                - to get POWs to work faster said, "speedo"
                        - Little Speedo
                            - fair in treatment of POWs
                        - Smiley
                            - always smiling
                            - could not be trusted
                            - meanest of guards
            - Airfield Detail:
                - Japanese built an airfield for fighters
                    - POWs cut grass, removed dirt, and leveled ground
                        - at first moved dirt in wheel barrows
                        - later pushed mining cars
                   - Guards:
                        - Air Raid
                            - in charge
                            - usually fair but unpredictable
                                - had to watch him
                        - Donald Duck
                            - always talking
                            - sounded like the cartoon character
                            - unpredictable - beat POWs
                            - POWs told him that Donald Duck was a big American movie star
                                - at some point, he saw a Donald Duck cartoon
                                - POWs stayed away from him when he came back to camp
                - Work Day: 7:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
                    - worked 6 days a week
                        - had Sunday off
            - Other Details:
                - work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens and plant rice
                    - they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
                - POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on
                - the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
                - if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn't doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
                - many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
            - Burial Detail
                - POWs worked in teams of four
                    - carried 4 to 6 dead to cemetery at a time in liter
                    - a grave contained from 15 to 20 bodies
            - daily POW meal
                - 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn
                 - rice was main staple, few vegetables or fruits
        - Camp Hospital:
            - 30 Wards
                - each ward could hold 40 men
                    - frequently had 100 men in each
               - two tiers of bunks
                   - sickest POWs on bottom tier
               - each POW had a 2 foot by 6 foot area to lie in
            - Zero Ward
              - given name because it had been missed when counting wards
              - became ward where those who were going to die were sent
              - fenced off from other wards
                  - Japanese guards would not go near it
                  - POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving
                  - medical staff had little to no medicine to treat sick
                  - many deaths from disease caused by malnutrition
Work Detail:
    - Ft. McKinley
       - 12 October 1942 - POWs arrive from Cabanatuan
            - lived in barracks of 45th Infantry Division, Philippine Scouts
            - cleaned up junk from the battle
            - POWs moved to Nielsen Field
    - Nielson Airfield
        - December 1942 - POWs built a northeast/southwest runway
            - cleared and leveled ground
            - runways and revetments with picks and shovels
            - beatings took place daily - often beaten with pick handles
                - Japanese also used iron bars, bayonets, and clubs
            - collective punishment
                - stood at attention for 6 to 9 hours
                - also made to do pushups
                    - made to stay for long time on their hands and tiptoes
           - at first there were tents for protection from sun and rain
                - some tents stolen by Filipinos
                - others simply disintegrate
        - Work Day: 8:00 A.M. to Noon, 1:00 P.M. to 5:00 P.M.
            - POWs divided into two groups
                - one group worked while other rested from a hour
                - removed dirt and rock from an area, with picks and shovels, and dumped it on runway
                    - did this with wheelbarrows until Japanese realized too many POWs were being hurt
                    - small mining cars were brought in
                        - pushed by four POWs on track that was 300 feet to 500 feet long
                        - usually two tracks ran parallel to each other
        - apparently Frank became ill and returned to Cabanatuan
    - Cabanatuan
        - selected or volunteered to go to Japan or another occupied country
Hell Ship:
    - Tottori Maru
        - Sailed: Manila - 8 October 1942
            - one group of POWs put in ship's holds
            - remainder of POWs remained on deck
        - Arrived: Takao, Formosa - 11 October 1942
        - Sailed: 19 October 1942
        - Arrived: Pusan, Korea - 9 November 1942
            - POWs took a two day train trip to Mukden, Manchuria
    - Mukden, Manchuria
        - Hoten Camp
            - Barracks:
                - two story brick buildings
                - buildings had electricity and cold running water
                - heated with "petchka" stoves
                    - provided adequate heat
                - building infested with fleas, bedbugs, and lice
                - divided into ten sections
                    - five on first floor and five on second floor
                    - each section divided into four double-decked sleeping bays
                        - 8 POWs slept in a bay
                        - 48 POWs slept in a section
        - Meals:
            - Breakfast: corn meal mush, beans, bun
            - Lunch: maize and beans
            - Supper: beans and a bun
                 - POWs made snares to catch wild dogs that roamed into camp
                 - stopped catching dogs when one was saw eating the body of a dead Chinese civilian
        - Hospital:
            - many of POWs who died in the camp died due illnesses caused by malnutrition
                - many of those who died, died from illnesses that could be treated
                - over 200 POWs died the first winter in the camp
                - POWs who died during winter were stored in a building until the ground thawed and they could be buried
            - Japanese doctor, Jeichi Kumashima, denied Red Cross medicine to the POWs
                - overruled American doctors on who was ill
                    - sick forced to work
                - later found guilty of war crimes and hanged
            - Juro Oki, Japanese civilian doctor who smuggled medicine into the camp for POWs
                - would have been shot if he had been caught

        - Work:
            - POWs worked in machine shop and lumber mill
            - Japanese wanted POWs to produce guns
            - POWs sabotaged machines by dropping sand in oiling holes
            - while poring cement, the POWs would drop pieces of machines into the cement to sabotage them
        - Punishment:
            - POWs kicked, hit with clubs, sticks, bamboo poles, shoe heals, sabers, and fists
            - any reason used to beat them
            - Collective Punishment:
                - when the Japanese suspected some POWs had smuggled cigarettes into their barracks, all the POWs were ordered outside and
                  stood at attention
                - POWs ordered to strip and stood nude in the code
                - stood in snow barefooted for hours as the barracks and the 700 POWs, who lived in it were searched
            - Eiichai Nada - guard
                - was considered the worse abuser of POWs
                - born, raised, and educated in Berkley, California
                  - frequently beat POWs at morning assembly
                     - when they fell to the ground he screamed at them
                     - "Get up, you yellow, white son of a bitch!"
             - Lt. Mikki - walked through the barracks with a 3 foot and hit the POWs with it
        - Red Cross clothing withheld from POWs
            - Chinese told them there was a warehouse full of Red Cross clothing
        - Unit 731:
            - POWs from camp selected to be used in Japanese germ warfare experiments
                - injected with deadly diseases
                - some of these men were dissected while alive
        Air Raids:
            - B-29s start bombing Mukden late 1944
                - camp bombed because it was lined up with military targets
Note: Japanese medical officer, Jeichi Kuwashima, asked the POWs, wounded from bombings, to write letters asking the Allies to stop the bombing of Mukden.  The POWs did write the letters but told the Allies that they wouldn't mind more frequent bombings.
Extermination Order:
    - Camp commander received order to march the POWs into the forest and execute them
    - 16 August 1945 - Four American OSS officers parachuted into camp and told the commander the war was over
    - the team was held as POWs for one night and sent to Sian Camp
        - this was the camp where high ranking officers were imprisoned
Liberated: 20 August 1945 - Russian Army
    - B-29s appeared over area where the POWs lit oil drums to signal planes with smoke
        - lead plane came down and saw the POWs
        - circle and dropped medical supplies, food, and clothing to POWs
    - American planes dropped walkie-talkies to POWs
        - allowed POWs to talk to air crews
            - POWs told the crews what they wanted
            - planes dropped them ice cream to now fiddle strings
    - 29 August 1945 - American Recovery Team enters camp
         - POWs taken by train to Dalian, China
        - taken by ship to Okinawa
         returned to the Philippine Islands
    - 25 October 1945
        - POWs sent by train to Dalian, China
        - returned to the Philippine Islands by ship
Transport:
    - U.S.S. Hugh Rodman
        - Sailed: not known
        - Arrived: San Francisco - 3 October 1945
            - taken to Letterman General Hospital
Married: Julie Lukas
Discharged: 13 April 1946
Died:
    - 10 May 2001 - Endicott, New York
Buried:
    - Calvary Cemetery - Johnson City, New York



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