2nd Lt. Harry Ricker Lafon Jr. was born in Virginia around 1919 and was the son of Harry R.
Lafon Sr. & Katherine Mallon-Lafon. He later lived in Harriman, Tennessee, and Harrodsburg,
Kentucky. Harry met Helen Frankie McCamish while they both were students at Lincoln Memorial University in
Harrogate, Tennessee. They married on July 5, 1941, in Claiborne County, Tennessee.
It is not known when, but Harry enlisted in the Kentucky National
Guard at Harrodsburg. On November 25, 1940, Harry was called to federal duty when his tank company was
federalized and traveled to the fort on November 28th.
Harry went to Fort Knox, Kentucky, as a corporal. In early 1941,
he was assigned to Headquarters Company when the company was formed with men from the four letter companies of
the battalion in January 1941. During this time he rose in rank from corporal to sergeant.
After training for nearly a year, in 1941, the battalion was sent to Louisiana to take part
in maneuvers from January 1st through 30th. It was after the maneuvers, at Camp Polk, that
Harry and the rest of the battalion learned that they were being sent overseas. At that time,
those men who were 29 years old or older were given the chance to resign from federal service and replacements
came from the 753rd Tank Battalion. The 192nd also received the M3 "Stuart" Tanks from the
The reason for this move was an event that took place in the summer of
1941. A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed
something odd. He took his plane down and identified a buoy, with a flag, in the water. He came upon
more flagged buoys that lined up - in a straight line - for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an
Japanese occupied island, with a large radio transmitter, hundred of miles away. The squadron continued its
flight plane and flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field. When the planes landed, it was
too late to do anything that day, so the next day - when a when planes were sent to the area - the buoys had been
picked up and a fishing boat was seen making its way toward shore. Since communication between the planes
and Navy was poor, nothing was done to intercept the boat. It was at that time the decision was made to
build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
Harry was sent to San Francisco, California, along the southern route through New Mexico
Arriving there, the battalion was ferried to Camp McDowell on Angel Island by the
U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe.
The tankers received physicals and inoculations from the battalion's medical
detachment. Men with minor medical conditions were held back on the island and scheduled to rejoin the
battalion at a later date. Some men were simply replaced. It appear that it was at this time that
Harry was commissioned a second lieutenant when one of the officers, of D Company, was reassigned to Officer
Candidate School. Harry was assigned to D Company as a tank platoon commander.
On Wednesday, November 5th, the ship sailed for Guam but took a
southerly route away from the main shipping lanes. It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser,
U.S.S. Louisville and, the transport,
S.S. President Calvin Coolidge. Sunday night, November 9th, the soldiers went to bed and when they
awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11th. During the night, while they slept, the ships had
crossed the International Date Line. On Saturday, November 15th, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the
horizon. The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the
direction of the smoke. It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16th, the ships took on water, bananas,
coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day. At one point, the ships passed an island
at night and did so in total blackout. This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent
into harm's way. The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20th, and docked at
Pier 7 later that morning. At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.
Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to
unload the tanks.
At the fort, the tankers were met by Colonel Edward P. King, who welcomed them and made
sure that they had what they needed. He also was apologetic that there were no barracks for the tankers and
that they had to live in tents. The fact was he had not learned of their arrival until days before they
arrived. He made sure that they had Thanksgiving Dinner before he left to have his own dinner.
The members of the battalion pitched the tents in an open field halfway between the
Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg. The tents were set up in two rows and five men
were assigned to each tent. There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at
the end of the rows of tents.
For the next seventeen
days the tankers spent much of their time removing cosmoline from
their weapons. They also spent a large amount of time loading
ammunition belts. The plan was for them, with the 194th Tank
Battalion, to take part in maneuvers.
It was at this time that D Company was
attached to the 194th Tank Battalion. The transfer of the
company to the 194th never took place, but Harry was reassigned
to C Company of the 194th.
After arriving in the Philippines, the process was begun to transfer D
Company to the 194th Tank Battalion, which had left for the Philippines minus one company. B Company of
the battalion was sent to Alaska while the remaining companies, of the battalion, were sent to the
Philippines. The medical clerk for the192nd spent weeks organizing records to be handed over to the
On December 1st, the tank battalions were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field to
guard against Japanese paratroopers. The 194th, with D Company, was assigned northern part of the
airfield and the 192nd guarded the southern half. Two members of each tank and half-track crew remained
with their vehicles at all times and received their meals from food trucks.
The morning of December 8, 1941, just hours after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor,
the company was brought up to full strength at the perimeter of Clark Field. All morning long, the sky
was filled with American planes. At noon, the planes landed to be refueled and the pilots went to
lunch. The planes were parked in a straight line outside the pilots' mess hall.
At 12:45, two formations, totaling 54 planes, approached the airfield from the
north. When bombs began exploding on the runways, the tankers knew that planes were Japanese. Being
that their tanks could not fight planes, they watched as the Japanese destroyed the Army Air Corps.
When the Japanese were finished, there was not much left of the airfield. The
soldiers watched as the dead, the dying, and the wounded were hauled to the hospital on bomb racks, trucks, and
anything else, that could carry the wounded, was in use. When the hospital filled, they watched the
medics place the wounded under the building. Many of these men had their arms and legs missing.
That night, most men slept under their tanks since it was safer than sleeping in their
tents. They had no idea that they had slept their last night in a bed.
One of the results of the attack was that the transfer of D Company, to the 194th, was
never completed. The company retained its designation of being part of the 192nd for both the Battle of
Luzon and the Battle of Bataan.
It is known that Harry was thought of being a man of courage. He
was also well liked by the enlisted men of D Company. Other members of the company have stated that when
he lead his tanks into action, he stood up in the tank's turret and did not close the hatch for protection.
The 194th, with D Company, was moved, the night of the 12th, to an area south of San
Fernando near the Calumpit Bridge arriving there at 6:00 A.M. On December 13th, the tankers were moved 80
kilometers from Clark Field to do reconnaissance and to guard beaches. On the 15th, the battalion
received 15 Bren gun carriers but turned some over to the 26th Cavalry, Philippine Scouts. These were
used to test the ground to see if it could support tanks.
The tank battalions were sent to the area around the Lingayen Gulf. The company
was near a mountain, so many of the tankers climber to the top. On the mountain, they found troops,
ammunition, guns but were just sitting there watching the Japanese ships in the gulf. They had received
orders not to fire.
The tankers walked down the mountain and waited. They received orders to
drop back from the mountain and let the Japanese occupy it. They watched as the Japanese brought their
equipment to the top of the mountain. The Americans finally received orders to launch a counterattack
On December 22nd, the companies were operating north of the Agno River and after the
main bridge was bombed, on December 24/25, made an end tun to get south of the river and not be trapped by the
Japanese. The tanks held the south bank of the river from west of Carmen to the Carmen-Akcaka-Bautista
Road with the 192nd holding the bank east of Carmen to Tayug (northeast of San Quintin).
Christmas Day, the tankers spent in the night in a coconut grove. As it turned
out, the coconuts were all they had to eat. From Christmas to January 15, 1942, both day and night, all
the tanks did was cover retreats of different infantry units. The tanks were constantly bombed, shelled,
The tanks formed a new defensive held the Santa Ignacia-Gerona-Santo Tomas- San Jose
line on December 26th. When they dropped back from the line, all the platoons withdrew, except one which
provided cover, as the other platoons from the area. One tank went across the line receiving fire and
firing on the Japanese.
At Bayambang, Lt. Petree's platoon lost a tank. It was at this time that D
Company, 192nd, lost all their tanks, except one, because the bridge they were suppose to cross had been
destroyed. The company commander, Lt. Jack Altman, could not bring himself to totally destroy the tanks,
and the Japanese repaired them and used them on Bataan. The sergeant of the one tank, that had not
abandoned, found a place to ford the river a few hundred yards from the bridge.
The tankers were at Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27th, and at San Isidro
south of Cabanatuan on December 28th and 29th. On January 1st, conflicting orders were received by the
defenders who were attempting to stop the Japanese advance down Route 5. Doing this would allow the
Southern Luzon Forces to withdraw toward Bataan. General Wainwright was unaware of the orders since they
came from Gen. MacArthur's chief of staff.
Because of the orders, there was confusion among the Filipinos and American forces
defending the bridges over the Pampanga River. Due to the efforts of the Self Propelled Mounts, the 71st
Field Artillery, and a frenzied attack by the 192nd Tank Battalion the Japanese were halted. From January
2nd to 4th, the 192nd held the road open from San Fernando to Dinalupihan so the southern forces could escape.
At 2:30 A.M., the night of January 5th/6th, the Japanese attacked at Remlus in force
and using smoke as cover. This attack was an attempt to destroy the tank battalions. At 5:00 A.M.,
the Japanese withdrew having suffered heavy casualties.
The night of January 6th/7th the tanks withdrew into the peninsula with the 192nd
holding its position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leap frog past it, cross the bridge, and then cover
the 192nd's withdraw over the bridge. The 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan, before
the engineers blew up the bridge at 6:00 A.M. It was at this time that the tank companies were reduced to
three tanks each. This was done to provide tanks to D Company, while those crews still without tanks were
used as replacements,
At Gumain River, on January 5th, D Company and C Company, 194th, were given the job to
hold the south riverbank so that the other units could withdraw. The tank companies formed a defensive
line along the bank of the river. When the Japanese attacked the position at night, they were easy to see
since they were wearing white t-shirts. The tankers were able to hold up the Japanese.
The night of January 6/7, the 194th, covered by the 192nd, crossed the bridge over the
Culis Creek and entered Bataan. This was the beginning of the Battle of Bataan. At this time, the
food rations were cut in half.
General Weaver also issued the following orders to the tank battalions around this
time. "Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further
delay will jeopardize withdrawal. If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of
the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the
salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with
accomplishing the greatest possible delay."
A composite tank company was created on January 8th under the command of Capt.
Donald Haines, B Company, 192nd, and sent to defend the Wast Coast Road north of Hermosa. Its job was to
keep the north road open and prevent the Japanese from driving down the road before a new battle line had been
formed. The Japanese never lunched an attack allowing the defensive line to be formed. The tanks
withdrew after they began receiving artillery fire.
The remainder of the tanks were ordered to bivouac south of the Aubucay-Hacienda
Road. While there, the tank crews had their first break from action in nearly a month. The tanks,
which were long overdue for maintenance, were serviced by 17th Ordnance. It was also at this time that
tank platoons were reduced to ren tanks, with three tanks in each platoon. This was done so that D
Company, 192nd, would have tanks.
The 194th was sent to reopen the Moron Road so that General Segunda's forces,
which were trapped behind enemy lines, could withdraw. Attempting to do this two tanks were knocked out
by landmines planted by ordnance, but recovered, and a Japanese anti-tank gun was destroyed. The mission
was abandoned the next day. Gen. Segunda's forces escaped but lost their heavy equipment.
The next action the tanks saw was on the 20th when they were sent to relieve the 31st
Infantry's command post. On the 24th, the tanks were ordered to the Hacienda Road to support
infantry, but again could not accomplish their mission because of landmines planted by ordnance.
The 194th was holding a position a kilometer north of the Pilar-Bagac Road on January
26th with four self-propelled mounts. At 9:45 A.M., a Filipino came down the road and warned the
battalion that a large Japanese force was coming down the road. When they appeared the tanks opened up on
them. At 10:30, the Japanese withdrew having lost 500 of 1200 men. This action prevented the new line of
defense from being breached.
On January 28th, the tank battalions were given the job of guarding the beaches so
that the Japanese couldn't land troops. The 194th guarded the coastline from Limay to Cabcaban.
During the day, the tanks hid under the jungle canopy. At bight they were pulled out onto the
beaches. The battalion's half-tracks had the job of patrolling the roads. At all times, the tanks
were in contact with on-shore and off-shore patrols.
For most of March, the situation Bataan was relatively quiet and the Japanese had been
fought to a standstill. On one occasion, two tanks had gotten stuck in the mud, and the crews were
working to free them. While they were doing this, a Japanese regiment entered the area. Lt. Colonel
Ernest Miller ordered his tanks to fire on the Japanese at point blank range. He also ran from tank to
tank directing the crew's fire. The Japanese were wiped out. On March 21st, the last major
battle was fought by the tanks.
Having brought in combat harden troops from Singapore, the Japanese lunched a major
offensive on April 4th. The tanks were sent to various sectors in an attempt to stop the advance.
On the 6th, four tanks were sent to support the 45th Philippine Infantry, Philippine Scouts. One tank was
knocked out from anti-tank fire at the junctions of Trails 6 & 8, and the other tanks withdrew. On
April 8th, the 194th was fighting on the East Coast Road at Cabcaban.
It was at this time that Gen. King knowing that the situation was hopeless sent
officers to negotiate the surrender of Bataan. The tanks were instructed that they would hear the order
on their radios, or that it would be given to them verbally.
When the order was given, the tankers circled their tanks, fired an armor piercing
shell into the engine of the tank in front of their tank, and opened up the gasoline cocks in the crew
compartments. They dropped hand grenades into each crew compartment setting the tanks on fire.
Later in the war, the Japanese dragged the tanks out of the jungle to send to Japan as scrap metal.
When Bataan surrendered to the Japanese, the tankers became a Prisoners of War.
The POWs were ordered to the bivouac of the Provisional Tank Group. It was from there that they were
marched to join the main column of POWs on the march out of Bataan.
On April 10th, the Japanese arrived and ordered the Prisoners of War onto the
road. They quickly stripped the POWs of their watches, pens, and sun-glasses. The POWs were taken
to a trail and found that walking on the gravel trail was difficult. They immediately witnessed
"Japanese Discipline" toward their own troops. The Japanese apparently were marching for hours,
and when a man fell, he was kicked in his stomach and hit in the head with a rifle butt. If he still did
not get up, the Japanese determined that the man was exhausted and left him alone.
The trial the POWs were on ended when they reached the main road. The first
thing the Japanese did was to separate the officers from the enlisted men and counted them. The POWs were
left in the sun for the rest of the day wondering what was going to happen. That night they were ordered
north which was difficult, on the rocky road, in the dark, since they could not see where they were walking.
The POWs made their way north against the flow of Japanese horse artillery and trucks
which were moving south. At times, they would slip on something wet and slippery which were the remains
of a man killed by Japanese artillery the day before. When dawn came, the walking became easier but as
the sun rose it became hotter and the POWs began to feel the effects of thirst. It was at this time
that the POWs saw a group of Filipinos being marched by the Japanese. Looking at them, they realized that
they had been hungry, but the Filipinos had been starving.
When the men crossed the Lamao River, they smelled the sweet smell of death. The
Japanese had heavily bombed the area causing many casualties and many of the dead lay partially in the
river. The air corps POWs in front of them ran to the river and drank. Many would later die from
dysentery at Camp O'Donnell.
At Limay on April 11, the officers with the rank of major or above, were put into a
school yard. The officers were told that they would be driven the rest of the march. At 4:00 AM,
the officers were put into trucks for an unknown destination. It was there that the lower ranking
officers and the enlisted men joined the main column of POWs being marched out of Bataan. For the first time,
they began to witness the abuse of POWs as they walked through Balanga to Orani.
At Orani, the men were put into a bull pen where they were ordered to lay down.
In the morning, the POWs realized that they had been lying in the human waste of POWs who had already used the
bullpen. At noon, they received their first food.
When they resumed the march they were marched at a faster pace. The guards also
seemed to be nervous about something. The POWs made their way to just north of Hormosa. where the road
went from gravel to concrete, and the change of surface made the march easier. When the POWs were allowed
to sit down, those who attempted to lay down were jabbed with bayonets.
The POWs continued the march and for the first time in months it began to rain which
felt great and many men attempted to get drinks. When they arrived at San Fernando, the POWs were put
into another bull pen and remained until they were ordered to form detachments of 100 men.
At some point marched the POWs were marched to the train station, where they were
packed into small wooden boxcars known as "forty or eights." They were called this since each
car could hold forty men or eight horses, but the Japanese packed 100 men into each car and shut the
doors. The heat in the cars was unbearable and many POWs died but could not fall to the floors since
there was no room for them to fall. The POWs rode the train to Capas were they disembarked the
cars. As they left the cars, the dead fell to the floors. The POWs walked the last eight kilometers
to Camp O'Donnell.
The camp was an unfinished Filipino training base which the Japanese
pressed the camp into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942. When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese
confiscated any extra clothing that the POWs had and refused to return it to them. They searched the POWs
and if a man was found to have Japanese money on them, they were taken to the guardhouse. Over the next
several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of the camp. These POWs had been executed for looting.
There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two
to eight hours waiting for a drink. The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and
the next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again. This
situation improved when a second faucet was added.
There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing
when it had been soiled. In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the
camp and mess kits could not be washed. The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon
overflowing since most of the POWs had dysentery. The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp
including the POW kitchens and in the food.
The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant. When the ranking American
doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies,
he was told never to write another letter. When the Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical
supplies to the camp, Tsuneyoshi refused to allow the truck into the camp. When the Japanese Red Cross
sent medical supplies to the camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six
medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them. When a representative of the
Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150 bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a
Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to
the hospital and placed underneath it. The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried
in the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria. To clean the ground
under the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it. The bodies of the dead were
placed in the area, and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
Work details were sent out on a daily basis. Each day, the American doctors gave
a list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work. If the quota of POWs
needed to work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick, but could walk, to work. The
death rate among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day. The Japanese finally acknowledge that they had to
do something, so the opened a new POW camp at Cabanatuan.
On June 1, 1942, the POWs formed detachments of 100 men each and were marched to
Capas. There, the were put in steel boxcars with two Japanese guards. At Calumpit, the train was
switched onto another line which took it to Cabanatuan. The POWs disembarked and were taken to a
schoolyard where they were fed cooked rice and onion soup. From there, they were marched to Cabanatuan
which had been the headquarters of the 91st Philippine Army Division.
The camp was actually three camps. Camp 1 was where the men who captured on
Bataan and taken part in the death march where held. Camp 2 did not have an adequate water supply and was
closed. It later reopened and housed Naval POWs. Camp 3 was where those men captured when
Corregidor surrender were taken. In addition, men from Bataan who had been hospitalized when the
surrender came were sent to the camp. Camps 3 was later consolidated into Camp 1.
Once in the camp, the POWs were allowed to run the camp. The Japanese only
entered if they had an issue they wanted to deal with. To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a detail that
patrolled the fence of the camp. The reason this was done was that those who did escape and were caught,
were tortured before being executed, while the other POWs were made to watch. It is believed that no POW
successfully escaped from the camp.
In the camp, the Japanese instituted the "Blood Brother" rule. If one
man escaped the other nine men in his group would be executed. POWs caught trying to escape were
beaten. Those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed. It is not known
if any POW successfully escaped from the camp.
The barracks in the camp were built to house 50 POWs, but most had between 60 to 120
POWs in them. The POWs slept on bamboo slats, without mattresses, bedding, or mosquito netting.
Many quickly became ill. The POWs were assigned to barracks which meant that the members of their group
lived together, went out on work details together, and would be executed together since they were Blood
The POWs were sent out on work details to cut wood for the POW kitchens. The two
major details were the farm detail and the airfield detail which lasted for years. A typical day on any
detail lasted from 7:00 A.M. until 5:00 P.M.
Rice was the main food given to the POWs fed to them as "lugow" which meant
"wet rice." During their time in the camp, they received few vegetables and almost no
fruit. Once in awhile, they received bread.
The camp hospital was known as "Zero Ward" because it was missed by the
Japanese when they counted barracks. The sickest POWs were sent there to die. The Japanese put a
fence up around the building to protect themselves, and they would not go into the building. There were
two rolls of wooden platforms around the perimeter of the building. The sickest POWs were put on the
lower platform which had holes cut into it so the they could relieve themselves. Most of those who
entered the ward died.
The POWs had the job of burying the dead. To do this, they worked in teams of
four men. Each team carried a litter of four to six dead men to the cemetery where they were buried in
graves containing 15 to 20 bodies.
In October 1942, Harry was selected for transport to the Davao Penal Colony on the
Island of Mindanao to work on a labor detail. The POWs on the detail worked in rice patties on a farm.
and later built runways at
At the camp, the POWs were housed in eight barracks that were about 148 feet long and about 16
feet wide. A four foot wide aisle ran down the center of each barracks. In each barracks, were eighteen
bays. Twelve POWs shared a bay. 216 POWs lived in each barracks. Four cages were later put in a
bay. Each cage held two POWs.
The camp discipline was poor. The American commanding officer changed
frequently. The junior officers refused to take orders from the senior officers. Soon, the enlisted
men spoke anyway they wanted to, to the officers. The situation improved because all majority of POWs
realized that discipline was needed to survive.
At first, the work details were not guarded. In Harry's case he was a member
of what was called the plowing detail.
The POWs plowed, planted, and harvested the crops and lived in on the farm.
In April 1943, the POWs working conditions varied. Those working the rice fields received the
worst treatment. They were beaten for not meeting quotas, misunderstandings between the POWs and guards,
and a translator who could not be trusted to tell the truth.
The sick POWs made baskets.
Harry was sent to Davao on February 29, 1944, to work on a runway building detail. He
and other POWs joined 100 POWs who were building an airfield south of Davao.
One night the POWs heard the sound of a plane. It was the first American
plane they had heard in over two years.
On June 6, 1944, some of the POWs were sent to Manila, while the
remainder of the men remained on the island, at Lasang, until August 19, 1944.
Over the next two weeks the atmosphere at the airfield changed. The Japanese posted guards with
bayonets on their rifles by the POW barracks as air raids became daily. The Japanese camouflaged the
airfield and hid their planes in revetments. The POWs heard rumors that the Americans had landed at
During this time, the POWs rations were cut to a single cup of rice a day. The POWs
were now so hungry that they raided the Japanese garbage pile for remnants of vegetables. Many ate the
weeds that grew inside the camp until it was bare.
Air raids soon were nightly events. Japanese planes flying out of the airfield were
loaded with bombs and carried extra gasoline tanks. Finally, all work on the airfield was
On that day, the POWs were lined up by fours. The outside men had rope tied to their
wrists to prevent escape. They were marched shoeless to the Tabunco Pier and arrived there at
noon. They were packed into the two holds of the
Erie Maru. 400 POWs were in the first hold while the remaining 350 POWs were put in the second
hold. In addition, several tons of Japanese baggage were packed into the hold. Around six that
evening, the ship sailed.
As the ship made its way north it swayed in the waves. Many of the prisoners became
seasick. They retched when they tried to throw up since there was no food in their stomachs.
The next day, the POWs heard the sound of a plane. An American plane flew over the ship. Moments
later bombs exploded near the ship. The sound of machine-gun fire was heard by the POWs. The
Japanese once again tied down the hatch covers cutting off the air. Over the next three days, there were
several more alerts. Each time the hatch covers were battened down leaving the POWs in darkness.
The ship arrived in Zamboanga, on August 24th, where it waited for ten days until the
arrived. The POWs were not allowed out of the holds and the conditions in the ship's holds were
terrible. The holds were hot and steamy and the floors were covered with human waste. In addition,
the longer the POWs were in the holds the stench became worse. It was during this time, the POWs were
allowed on deck and sprayed with salt water.
It should be noted that the United States had intercepted the order from
Japanese command sending the
to Zamboanga. Someone misinterpreted the order as saying the ship would be transporting
"750 military personnel"
"750 military prisoners"
to Manila. The
U.S.S. Paddle was sent to the area to intercept the ship.
Pfc. Victor Mapes talked about being in the ship's hold
, "I was down in the hold with 750 other Americans. They had us stripped down to G-strings.
We'd left 22 days before from the southern Philippines -- Davao."
On September 4th, the POWs were transferred onto the
Shinyo Maru. 250 POWs were put in the ship's smaller hold while 500 POWs were put into its
larger hold. That night, bombs from American planes landed alongside of the ship rocking and
shaking it. The POWs prayed for the ship would be hit.
The ship sailed on September 5th at 2:00 a.m. Before the ship sailed, the hatch
covers were secured so that the POWs could not lift them from below. The ship headed north in a zigzag
pattern in an attempt to avoid submarines. The ship was now part of a convoy designated as C-076.
U.S. submarines began to pick off the ships one at a time.
The POWs were no longer allowed on deck. Their lips and throats were covered with
dust from cement that had previously been hauled by the ship. For the next two days the ship made good
time. It was at this time that the Japanese guards threatened to kill the POWs if the ship came under
attack by American planes. Since the POWs had not heard any air raid alerts, they assumed that they were
At 4:37 p.m., on September 7, 1944, the
U.S.S Paddle spotted the convoy off the west coast of Mindanao at Sindangan Point. It fired two
torpedoes at the ship. The first torpedo hit the ship in its main hold killing many POWs. Moments
later, a second torpedo hit the ship. There was a gaping hole in the ship's side. Those POWs
still alive saw the bodies of the dead floating in the water as the hold filled with water. Some POWs were
blown out of the hold through the hole during the explosion.
Sgt. Onnie Clem, U.S.M.C., recalled what it was like when the torpedoes hit.
"I was just flying, just twisting and turning....I couldn't couldn't see
anything but these billowy forms like pillows. I thought I was dead....I was underwater in the hold and
these pillows were the bodies of other guys
in there, some dead, some trying to get out."
d the event
, "The Jap freighter Number 83 -- was ripped apart by the Sub's
The surviving POWs found that the hatch cover had been blown off the hold by the
explosion. As the water level rose, they were able to climb out. Seven Japanese officers were on
the bridge with rifles. As the POWs emerged from the hold, they picked them off. The lucky POWs
made it through their fire and dove into the water.
The POWs in the smaller hold were also wounded from the torpedo hits. But,
the hold remained dry. Many of these POWs also were able to make it onto the deck and attempted to swim
to shore. It was believed that only 250 POWs made it into the water and that the remaining 500 died on
According to the POWs in the water, the
Shinyo Maru began to capsize. There was a tremendous crushing sound and the ship seemed to bend
upward in the middle. The ship split in two and sunk into the sea.
Japanese seaplanes dropped depth charges in an attempt to sink the American
submarine. When they spotted the POWs in the water, they strafed them. They stopped strafing when
they realized that there were Japanese in the water too. The good thing about the depth charges was that
they kept sharks away from the POWs.
A Japanese tanker that had been hit by torpedoes spilled oil and gasoline into the
water. The ship ran aground. The Japanese quickly set up machine guns and fired on the POWs.
Boats from the other ships in the convoy attempted to hunt down the POWs swimming in the water cruising in and
out of the debris field hunting and shooting the swimming Americans. If they found a man, they shot
him. One officer recalled seeing a young soldier struggling in the water and asked him if he could
swim. The soldier replied
sir, not very well." The officer began to say
, " Don't worry, well make it s
but before he could finish, a shot rang out the young soldier's head fell into the water.
There was a bullet hole in his head. What saved many lives was that with dusk it became harder for the
Japanese to see them.
Pfc. Mapes recalled
The men began swimming toward shore three miles away --- like a herd of sheep. The Japs from the
other ships in the convoy were cutting them to pieces. I figured that the only way to survive was to break
away from the bunch and swim to the opposite side."
The Japanese announced to the Americans that if they surrendered that they would be
treated with compassion, and about 30 men gave up after hearing this. Sgt. Denver R. Rose was one of the
30 men. He recalled
, "They tied our hands behind us and took us to another prison ship. They roped us together and
stood us in a line along the rail. They then started shooting us one at a time.
"Using his sword a Jap cut the rope to lose the first man in line. He was
taken to the stern of the boat and shot in the back. He fell into the water.
"Meanwhile, I found the frayed end of a steel cable by feeling with the fingers
behind my back and rubbed the ropes across the sharp edges until I got free. I decided I just as soon be
shot trying to get away as the other way, so I made a break for it. I ran to the front of the ship and
slipped down into the anchor hole After awhile, I heard shooting again, so I let myself down into
the water." Rose was the only man, of the 30 POWs, not to be executed.
Of the 750 POWs who were boarded onto the ship, 82 POWs survived its sinking. One
man died on shore while the remainder were rescued by Filipino guerillas and returned to U.S. Forces in October
1944. 2nd Lt. Harry Lafon Jr. was not one of these men.
It is not known if 2nd Lt. Harry R. Lafon Jr. died when the ship was
hit by the two torpedoes, or if he was one of the POWs who was shot by the Japanese while trying to escape from
one of the ship's holds, or if he was killed while attempting to swim to shore. What is known is that
2nd Lt. Harry R. LaFon Jr. died on Thursday, September 7, 1944, in the sinking of the
Since 2nd Lt. Harry Lafon Jr. was lost at sea, his name appears on the
Tablets of the Missing at the
American Military Cemetery at Manila.