Sgt. Leslie H. Krause
| Sgt. Leslie H.
Krause was one of the seven children of Herman F.
& Emma M. Krause and was born on April 8,
1920. He was known as "Les" to his family and
friends. With his five brothers and sister, he
grew up in Milladore Township in Wood County,
Wisconsin, and worked on his family farm until he
moved to Janesville, Wisconsin.
At some point, Les joined the Wisconsin National Guard's 32nd Tank Company in Janesville. In the late summer of 1940, the company was notified that it was being federalized as A Company, 192nd Tank Battalion. On November 27th, the company traveled by train to Ft. Knox, Kentucky, for what was suppose to be one year of military service.
In January of 1941, Les was transferred to the Headquarters Company when it was formed with men from the four letter companies of the battalion. It is known that the company had three tanks assigned to it. On April 8, 1941, he was promoted to sergeant and made a tank commander. It was his 21st birthday.
After training almost a year, Les took part in maneuvers in Louisiana from September 1 through 30. After the maneuvers, on the side of a hill at Camp Polk, Louisiana, the battalion learned they were being sent overseas. Les at this time was hospitalized at Camp Polk. When he was considered healthy, he was released and returned to his battalion.
The decision for this move - which had been made in August 1941 - was the result of an event that took place in the summer of 1941. A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd. He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance. He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island which was hundred of miles away. The island had a large radio transmitter. The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day. The next day, when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its deck - which was seen making its way to shore. Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult, the boat escaped. It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
Many of the members of the battalion were given furloughs so that they could say goodbye to family and friends. They returned to Camp Polk and traveled by train to San Francisco, California, and were ferried to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island n the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe. On the island they were given physicals and inoculated for tropical diseases. Some men were held back for health issues but scheduled to join the battalion at a later date. Other men were simply replaced.
The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S. A. T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27. During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP. The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2 and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
On Wednesday, November 5, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes. It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and, another transport, the S. S. PPresident Calvin Coolidge. Sunday night, November 9, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11. During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Dateline. On Saturday, November 15, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon. The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke. It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
During this part of the voyage, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon. The cruiser that was escorting the two transports revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it took off in the direction of the smoke. It turned out that the unknown ship was from a friendly country.During this part of the voyage, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon. The cruiser that was escorting the two transports revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it took off in the direction of the smoke. It turned out that the unknown ship was from a friendly countr
When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day. At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout. This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way. The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning. At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg. Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
At the fort, the tankers were met by Colonel Edward P. King, who welcomed them and made sure that they had what they needed. He also was apologetic that there were no barracks for the tankers and that they had to live in tents. The fact was he had not learned of their arrival until days before they arrived. After the soldiers had their Thanksgiving Dinner, King went to have his dinner.
On Monday, December 1, the tanks were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field to guard against paratroopers. The 194th Tank Battalion guarded the northern half of the airfield, while the 192nd guarded the southern half. At all times, two members of every tank and half-track crew remained with their vehicles. Meals were brought to them by food trucks.
At six in the morning on December 8, the officers of the battalion were called to the radio room at the fort. They were ordered to bring their tank platoons up to full strength at the perimeter of airfield. All morning the sky was filled with American planes. At noon, the planes landed to be refueled and the pilots went to lunch. At 12:45, the tankers were having lunch and watched as 54 planes approached the airfield from the north. As they watched, the saw "raindrops" falling from the planes. When bombs began exploding, the soldiers knew the planes were Japanese.
Since Les was a tank commander, he saw action against the Japanese. The tanks assigned to HQ were often assigned to one of the letter companies of the battalion when a company was short on tanks.
For the next four months. Les lived with the constant shelling and strafing by Japanese guns and planes. In March, the amount of gasoline was reduced to 15 gallons a day for all vehicles except the tanks. This would later be dropped to ten gallons a day. At the same time, food rations were cut in half again. Also at this time, Gen. Weaver suggested to Gen. Wainwright that a platoon of tanks be sent to Corregidor.
The Japanese lunched an all out attack on April 3. On April 7, the 57th Infantry, Philippine Scouts, supported by tanks, attempted to restore the line, but Japanese infiltrators prevented this from happening. During this action, one tank was knocked out but the remaining tanks successfully withdrew. C Company, 194th, which was attached to the 192nd, had only seven tanks left.
The tanks became a favorite target of the Japanese receiving fire on trails and while hidden in the jungle. and could not fight back. The situation was so bad that other troops avoided being near the tanks, and the 26th Cavalry turned down a tank company's offer of assistance in a counter-attack.
It was at this time that Gen. Edward P. King decided that further resistance was futile, since approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight, and he estimated they would last one more day. In addition, he had over 6000 troops who sick or wounded and 40000 civilians who he feared would be massacred. At 10:30 that night, he sent his staff officers to negotiate surrender terms.
Tank battalion commanders received this order, "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished."
The evening of April 8, 1942, Capt. Fred Bruni, HQ's commanding officer, gave his men the news of the surrender. While informing the members of the company of the surrender, he waved his arm toward the tanks and told the men that they would no longer need them. As he spoke, his voice choked. He turned away from the men for a moment, and when he turned back he continued. He next told the sergeants what they should do to disable the tanks. During the announcement, Bruni emphasized that they all were to surrender together. He told the soldiers to destroy their weapons and any supplies that could be used by the Japanese. The only thing they were told not to destroy were the company's trucks. The men waited in their bivouac until ordered to move. Somehow, Bruni had found enough bread and pineapple juice for what he called, "Their last supper," which consisted of bread and pineapple juice.
Les and the other members of Headquarters Company remained in their bivouac for two days. When a Japanese officer and soldiers entered their bivouac, the members of HQ Company were now Prisoners of War. They were then ordered out onto the road that passed near their encampment. Once on the road, they had to kneel along the sides of the road with their possessions in front of them. As they knelt, Japanese soldiers took whatever they wanted from the Prisoners of War. They remained there for hours.
The POWs finally boarded trucks and rode to an area just outside of Mariveles at the southern tip of Bataan. Once they got there, they got out of the trucks and walked to Mariveles Airfield and ordered to sit. As they waited, they noticed a line of Japanese soldiers forming across from them. They soon realized that this was a firing squad and the Japanese were going to kill them.
As they sat watching and waiting to see what the Japanese intended to do, a Japanese officer pulled up in a car and got out of it. He went up to the sergeant in charge of the detail and spoke with him. The officer got back in the car and drove off. As he drove away, the sergeant ordered the soldiers to lower their guns.
Later in the day, the POWs were moved to a schoolyard in Mariveles. In the schoolyard, they found themselves in front of the Japanese artillery firing on Corregidor and Ft. Drum. In response, the Americans on Corregidor and Ft. Drum began returning fire. Shells began landing among the POWs who had no place to hide. Some of the POWs were killed by the incoming shells. The American guns knocked out three of the four Japanese guns.
The POWs were again ordered to move by the Japanese and had no idea that they had started what became known as the death march. During the march, they received no water and little food. At San Fernando, the POWs were put into small wooden boxcars known as a "Forty or Eights," because each car could hold forty men or eight horses, and taken to Capas. The Japanese packed 100 POWs into each car and closed the doors. Those POWs who died remained standing since they could not fall to the floor. As the prisoners disembarked from the cars, the bodies of those who had died fell to the floors. From Capas, they walked the last few miles to Camp O' Donnell.
The camp was an unfinished Filipino training base which the Japanese pressed the camp into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942. When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese confiscated any extra clothing that the POWs had and refused to return it to them. They searched the POWs and if a man was found to have Japanese money on them, they were taken to the guardhouse. Over the next several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of the camp. These POWs had been executed for looting.
There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two to eight hours waiting for a drink. The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and the next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again. This situation improved when a second faucet was added.
There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing when it had been soiled. In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the camp and mess kits could not be washed. The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon overflowing since most of the POWs had dysentery. The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp including the POW kitchens and in the food.
The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant. When the ranking American doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies, he was told never to write another letter. When the Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the camp, Tsuneyoshi refused to allow the truck into the camp. When the Japanese Red Cross sent medical supplies to the camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them. When a representative of the Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150 bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a Japanese lieutenant.
Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to the hospital and placed underneath it. The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried in the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria. To clean the ground under the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it. The bodies of the dead were placed in the area, and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
Work details were sent out on a daily basis. Each day, the American doctors gave a list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work. If the quota of POWs needed to work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick, but could walk, to work. The death rate among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day. The Japanese finally acknowledge that they had to do something, so the opened a new POW camp at Cabanatuan.
On June 1, 1942, the POWs formed detachments of 100 men each and were marched to Capas. There, the were put in steel boxcars with two Japanese guards. At Calumpit, the train was switched onto another line which took it to Cabanatuan. The POWs disembarked and were taken to a schoolyard where they were fed cooked rice and onion soup. From there, they were marched to Cabanatuan which had been the headquarters of the 91st Philippine Army Division.
The camp was actually three camps. Camp 1 was where the men who captured on Bataan and taken part in the death march where held. Camp 2 did not have an adequate water supply and was closed. It later reopened and housed Naval POWs. Camp 3 was where those men captured when Corregidor surrender were taken. In addition, men from Bataan who had been hospitalized when the surrender came were sent to the camp. Camps 3 was later consolidated into Camp 1.
Once in the camp, the POWs were allowed to run the camp. The Japanese only entered if they had an issue they wanted to deal with. To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a detail that patrolled the fence of the camp. The reason this was done was that those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed, while the other POWs were made to watch. It is believed that no POW successfully escaped from the camp.
In the camp, the Japanese instituted the "Blood Brother" rule. If one man escaped the other nine men in his group would be executed. POWs caught trying to escape were beaten. Those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed. It is not known if any POW successfully escaped from the camp.
The barracks in the camp were built to house 50 POWs, but most had between 60 to 120 POWs in them. The POWs slept on bamboo slats, without mattresses, bedding, or mosquito netting. Many quickly became ill. POWs were assigned to barracks which meant that the members of their group lived together, went out on work details together, and would be executed together since they were Blood Brothers.
The POWs were sent out on work details to cut wood for the POW kitchens. The two major details were the farm detail and the airfield detail which lasted for years. A typical day on any detail lasted from 7:00 A.M. until 5:00 P.M.
Rice was the main food given to the POWs fed to them as "lugaii" which meant "wet rice." During their time in the camp, they received few vegetables and almost no fruit. Once in awhile, they received bread.
The farm detail was under a Japanese guard known as "Big Speedo" because he was taller than most of the Japanese. He knew very little English and used the word "Speedo" when he wanted the POWs to work faster. Overall, the POWs felt he treated them fairly and did not abuse them. There was also a smaller Japanese guard known as "Little Speedo," who was fair to the POWs. Smiley was another guard who the POWs quickly learned not to trust. He always had a smile on his face, but he was mean and beat the POWs for no apparent reason.
The POWs cleared the area and planted comotes, cassava, taro, sesame, and various greens. The Japanese used most of the food for themselves. When the POWs arrived at the farm, they would enter a shed. As they came out, it was common for them to be hit over the heads by the guards.
The Japanese wanted an airfield for their fighters, so the POWs were given the job of constructing it. The POWs leveled the land and moved dirt. At first, they used wheelbarrows to move the soil, but when this became inefficient, mining cars and track were brought in, and the POWs loaded the cars and pushed them to where the dirt was being dumped.
The POWs also worked planting rice. While doing this, one the favorite punishments was for a guard to push a man's face into the mud. Once his head was in the mud, the guard would step on his head to drive it deeper. Other details did go out, but usually lasted a few days. Major details, of hundreds of men, left the camp and worked on projects that lasted years. When, due to illness or death, details became depleted, more POWs left the camp for details as replacements.
The camp hospital was known as "Zero Ward" because it was missed by the Japanese when they counted barracks. The sickest POWs were sent there to die. The Japanese put a fence up around the building to protect themselves, and they would not go into the building. There were two rolls of wooden platforms around the perimeter of the building. The sickest POWs were put on the lower platform which had holes cut into it so the they could relieve themselves. Most of those who entered the ward died.
It was while he was a POW there, that he was selected to go out on a work detail at Camp 10-C at Lipa, Batangas. The POWs in this camp were used as labor on a farm and to build runways for a an Lipa Airfield. It was during this time that his family received a postcard from him which stated he was well.
When the detail ended, the Japanese sent Les and many of the other POWs back to Cabanatuan. He was next sent out to Clark Field to build runways. The POWs received frequent beatings and expected to work even when they were sick. He remained on this detail for most of his time as a POW in the Philippines. When it became apparent to the Japanese that it was just a matter of time before the Americans invaded the Philippines, they ended the detail and sent the POWs to Bilibid Prison in late September 1944. While there, he waited to be transported to Japan.
On October 11, 1944, the POWs from Bilibid were joined by POWs from the Bachrach Garage Detail at Pier 7 in the Port Area of Manila. A good number of these men were from Les's battalion. The POW group he was in was scheduled to be boarded onto the Hokusen Maru, but since the ship was ready to sail and not all the POWs in his detachment had arrived, the Japanese switched his detachment with another POW detachment that was ready to sail. Les' detachment was boarded onto their ship, the Arisan Maru which had been the ship the other POW detachment was scheduled to sail. The Japanese put nearly 1800 POWs into one of the ship's holds which could hold 400 men.
The Arisan Maru sailed, on October 11, but it headed south away from Formosa and dropped anchor in a cove off Palawan Island. This was done to prevent it from being attacked by American planes. Within the first 48 hours five POWs died in the hold. Conditions were so bad in the hold that the POWs began to develop heat blisters.
Some of the POWs discovered that the light bulbs had been removed from the hold's lighting system, but the power to the light system had not be turned off. They managed to wire the hold's ventilators into the system and had fresh air for two days. When the Japanese discovered what they had done, they turned off the power.
The Japanese finally acknowledged that something had to be done, so they transferred 600 POWs into a second hold that was partially filled with coal. One POW was also killed during the transfer when he attempted to escape.
During the next nine days, the ship was attacked by American planes at least once. On October 20, the Arisan Maru returned to Manila. There it joined eleven other ships in a convoy. While the ship had been at Palawan, the Americans had bombed the harbor and airfields around Manila.
The convoy set sail on October 21 and on Tuesday, October 24, the ship was, off the coast of China, in the Bashi Channel of the South China Sea. It was about 5:00 P.M. and twenty POWs were on deck preparing dinner for the men in the holds. Suddenly, the Japanese guards ran toward the bow of the ship. A torpedo passed just in front of the ship. The Japanese ran to the stern of the ship, and a second torpedo passed behind the stern.
The guards turned their attention to the POWs on deck and began beating them with their guns to get them back into the holds. Once the POWs were in the holds, they put the hatch covers on and cut the rope ladders.
It was about this time that two torpedoes hit the ship amidships in its third hold killing POWs while those men still alive cheered wildly. The ship shook in the water and came to a stop. The Japanese began to abandoned ship and left the POWs to drown.
POWs in the first hold managed to make their way onto the deck and reattached the rope ladders and dropped them into the holds. The surviving POWs made their way onto the deck. On the ship's deck an American major spoke to the POWs, he said, "Boys, we're in a hellva a jam - but we've been in jams before. Remember just one thing: We're American soldiers. Let's play it that way to the very end of the script." Right after he spoke, a chaplain said to them, "Oh Lord, if it be thy will to take us now, give us the strength to be men."
According to surviving POWs, the stern of the ship began going under which caused the ship to split in half but remain afloat. It was about this time that about 35 POWs swam to the nearest Japanese ship. When the Japanese realized that they were POWs, they pushed them underwater with poles and drowned them or hit them with clubs. Those POWs who could not swim raided the food lockers for a last meal. These men wanted to die with full stomachs.
As the ship got lower in the water, some of the POWs attempted to survive by putting on lifebelts, clinging to hatch covers, clinging to rafts, and clinging to other flotsam and jetsam. The majority of the POWs still were on the ship. The exact time of the ship's sinking is not known since it took place after dark.
Three POWs found a lifeboat that the Japanese had abandoned, but since they had no oars and the waves were rough, they could not maneuver it to help other POWs. The surviving POWs stated that the cries for help slowly faded away. Most of the POWs, if not all, were dead. The next morning, they rescued two other men.
The POWs who survived the sinking stated that as the night went on, the cries for help became fewer and fewer until there was silence. Of the nearly1800 POWs who boarded the Arisan Maru, only nine men survived the ship's sinking. Only eight of these men would see the end of the war. Sgt. Leslie H. Krause was not one of them.
Sgt. Leslie H. Krause died in the sinking of the Arisan Maru on October 24, 1944. He was 23 years old. Since he died at sea, his name appears on the Tablets of the Missing at the American Military Cemetery outside of Manila.