Bataan Project
Pvt. Clayton Cameron Klein
Born: 17 November 1919 - Arkansas
    - family moved to Oregon in 1930
Parents: Otto P. Klein & Ethel McFarland-Klein
Siblings: 2 sisters, 1 brother
Home: 1604 Y Avenue - La Grande, Oregon
    - LaGrande High School
        - Class of 1937
    - Eastern Oregon College
       - left after one year
    - Oregon National Guard
        - 2 October 1939
    - U. S. Army
        - 16 September 1940 - La Grande, Oregon
    - Camp Murray, Washington
    - Fort Lewis, Washington
    - 41st Infantry Division
        - transferred to 194th Tank Battalion as they prepared to go overseas   
        - had never been in a tank
    - 194th Tank Battalion
Note: On August 15, 1941, the 194th received orders, from Ft. Knox, Kentucky, for duty in the Philippines because of an event that happened during the summer.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a buoy in the water.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island, hundred of miles away, with a large radio transmitter on it.  The squadron continued its flight plan and flew south to Mariveles before returning to Clark Field.  By the time the planes landed that evening, it was too late to do anything that day.
    The next morning, another squadron was sent to the area and found that the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat which was seen making its way toward shore.  Since communication between and Air Corps and Navy was poor, the boat was not intercepted.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
Overseas Duty:
    - 4 September  1941
        - battalion traveled by train to Ft. Mason in San Francisco, California
    - Arrived: 7:30 A.M. - 5 September 1941
        - ferried to Ft. McDowell, Angel Island on U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
        - given physicals and inoculations
        - men with medical conditions replaced
    - Ship: S.S. President Calvin  Coolidge
        - Boarded: Monday - 8 September 1941 - 3:00 P.M.
        - Sailed: 9:00 P.M. - same day
        - Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii - Saturday - 13 September 1941 - 7:00 A.M.
        - Sailed: 5:00 P.M. - same day
            - escorted by heavy cruiser ,  U.S.S. Astoria , and an unknown destroyer
                - heavy cruiser intercepted several ships after smoke was seen on the horizon
                - ships belonged to friendly countries
        - Arrived: Manila - Friday - 26 September 1941
            - disembark ship - 3:00 P.M.
            - taken by bus to Fort Stostenburg
    - Ft. Stostenburg, Philippines
        - lived in tents until barracks completed - 15 November 1941
        - 1 December 1941 - tanks and half-tracks ordered to perimeter of Clark Field
            - two members of each crew ordered to remain with their vehicle at all times
            - received meals from food trucks  
    - Battle of Luzon
         - 8 December 1942 - 6 January 1942
    - Battle of Bataan
        - 7 January 1942 - 9 April 1942
            - During this time HQ Company supplied the tank companies as they fought to cover the withdraws toward Bataan
            - 8 December 1941
                - lived Japanese attack on Clark Field
                - planes did not go after tanks
                - after attack 194th sent to a bivouac three kilometers north of Clark Field
                    - from there they were sent to Barrio of San Joaquin on the Malolus Road
            - 12 December 1941
                - moved to new bivouac south to San Fernando near Calumpit Bridge
                    - arrived 6:00 A.M.
            - 15 December 1941
                - received 15 Bren gun carriers
                - turned some over to 26th Cavalry, Philippine Scouts
            - 22 December 1941
                - sent to Rosario
                    - west and north of the of barrio
                    - ordered out of the 71st Division Commander
                        - said they would hinder the cavalry's operation
            - 22/23 December 1941
                - operating north of Agno River
                - main bridge at Carmen bombed
            - 24/25 December 1941
                - tank battalions make end run to get south of Agno River
                    - ran into Japanese resistance but successfully crossed river
            - 25/26 December 1941
                - held south bank of Agno River from west of Carmen to Carmen-Akcaka-Bautista Road
                - 192nd held from Carmen to (Route 3) to Tayug (northeast of San Quintin)
            - 26/27 December 1941
                - ordered to withdraw
                    - 1 platoon forced its way through way through Carmen
                        - lost two tanks
                            - one tank belonged to company commander - Captain Edward Burke
                                - believed dead, but was actually captured
                            - one tank crew rescued
                - new line Santa Ignacia-Gerona-Santo Tomas-San Jose
                - rest of battalion made a dash out
                    - lost one tank at Bayambang
                    - another tank went across front receiving fire and firing on Japanese
                - Lt. Petree's platoon fought its way out and across Agno River
                - D Company, 192nd, lost all its tanks except one
                    - the tank commander found a crossing
                    - Japanese would use tanks later on Bataan
            - 29/30 December 1941
                - new line at Bamban River established
                - tank battalions held line until ordered to withdraw
            - 30/31 December 1941
                    - tank battalions held Calumpit Bridge
                    - covering withdraw of Philippine Divisions south on Rt. 3, San Fernando
            - 2 January 1942
                - both tank battalions ordered to withdrawal to Lyac Junction
                - 194th withdrew there on Highway 7
            - 5 January 1942
                - C Company and A Company, 192nd Tank Battalion, withdrew from Guagua-Poraline Line and moved into position between
                  Sasmuan and Lubao
                - 1:50 A.M. - Japanese attempted to infiltrate
                    - bright moonlight made them easy to see
                    - tanks opened fire
                    - Japanese lay down smoke which blew back into them
                - 3:00 A.M. - Japanese broke off engagement
                    - suffered 50% casualties
                - Remedios - established new line along dried creek bed
            - 6/7 January 1942
                - 194th, covered by 192nd, crosses Culis Creek into Bataan
                - both battalions bivouacked south of Aubucay-Hacienda Road
                - rations cut in half
    - Battle of Bataan
        - 7 January 1942 - 9 April 1942
           - 8 January 1942
                - composite tank company made up of tanks from the 192nd and 194th sent to protect
                  East Coast Road north of Hermosa
                    - their job was to keep the East Road open  north of Hermosa and prevent the Japanese from driving into Bataan before the
battle line had been formed
                - remainder of tanks ordered to bivouac for night south of Aubucay-Hacienda Road
                    - tankers had been fighting for a month without a rest
                    - tanks also needed overdue maintenance
                    - 17th Ordnance
                - all tank companies reduced to ten tanks
                - three per tank platoon
                - sent to reopen Moron Road so General Segunda's forces could withdraw
                - tanks knock out an anti-tank gun
                - two tanks disabled by landmines but recovered
                - mission abandoned
                - Gen. Segunda's troops escaped using beach but lost their heavy equipment
        - 12 January 1942
                - C Company, with D Company, 192nd, sent to Cadre Road
                    - forward position with little alert time
        - 13 January 1942
                - mines planted by ordnance prevented them from reaching Cadre Road
                - returned to battalion
        - 16 January 1942
                -  C Company sent to Bagac to reopen Moron Highway
                    - highway had been cut by Japanese
                    - Moron Highway, and Junction of Trail 162
                        - tank platoon fired on by antitank gun
                            - tanks knock out gun
                            - cleared roadblock with support of infantry
        - 20 January 1942
                - Banibani Road -tanks sent in to save 31st Infantry command post
        - 24 January 1942
                - tanks order to Hacienda Road in support of troops
                     - landmines planted by ordnance prevented them from reaching road
        - 26 January 1942
            - the battalion held a position a kilometer north of the Pilar-Bagac Road
                - four self-propelled mounts with the battalion
            - 9:45 A.M. - warned by Filipino a large Japanese force was coming
                - when the enemy appeared they opened up with all the battalion had
                - 10:30 A.M. - Japanese withdrew after losing 500 of 1200 men
                - prevented new defensive line being formed from being breached
        - 28 January 1942
                - 194th tanks given beach duty protecting southern beaches
                - guarded coast from Limay to Cabcaben
                - half-tracks patrolled roads
                    - maintained radio contact with on-shore and off-shore patrol
It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver
,"Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal.  If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay."
        - February 1942
            - tank battalions on their own guarded airfields
            - battalions also guarded beaches to prevent Japanese from landing troops    
            - March 1942
        - March 1942
                - two tanks were bogged down in mud
                - the tankers were working to get them out
                - Japanese Regiment entered the area
                - Lt. Col. Miller ordered tanks and artillery to fire at point blank range
                    - Miller ran from tank to tank directing fire
                - wiped out Japanese regiment
        - 4 April 1942
            - Japanese launched major offensive
            - tanks sent into various sectors to stop Japanese advance
        - 6 April 1942
            - four tanks sent to support 45th Philippine Infantry and 75th Infantry,
              Philippine Scouts
                - one tank knocked out by anti-tank fire at junction of Trails 8 & 6
                - other tanks covered withdraw
            - 3rd Platoon sent up west coast road
                - near Mount Samat ran into heavy Japanese force
                - the tanks withdrew to Marivales
        - 8 April 1942
            - at Cabcaban Field
Tank battalion commanders received this order
, "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished."
            - 10:30 P.M. - Gen. King announced that further resistance would result in the massacre of
              6000 sick or wounded troops and 40000 civilians
            - less than 25% of his troops were healthy enough to continue fighting
            - he estimated they could hold out one more day
            - sent his staff officers to negotiate the surrender of Bataan
            - 11:40 P.M. - ammunition dumps blown up
            -  made the decision to attempt to reach Corregidor
Battle of Corregidor
    - assigned to unit defending the island
    - Japanese lunch an all out attack
Prisoner of War:
    - 6 May 1942
       - Corregidor surrenders
POW Camps:
    - Philippine Islands:
        - Corregidor
            - marched in groups to south end of tunnel 
            - Japanese order barrage to end resistance
                - all resistance ended
            - one POW beheaded for not following orders
          - POWs taken to 92nd Garage Area on Monkey Point
              - held on beach for two weeks
                - poor sanitation and medical care
                - no shade to get out of sun
              - POWs volunteered to work burial detail
                  - they could get water and hunt for food
            - taken by barge to a point off Luzon
            - POWs jumped into water and swam to shore
            - marched down Dewey Boulevard as part of Japanese victory parade
        - Bilibid Prison
            - held there for two or three days
            - taken to train station
            - rode train to Calumpit
            - marched by Cabanatuan Camp 1 to Cabanatuan Camp 3
        - Cabanatuan
            - original name - Camp Panagaian
                - Philippine Army Base built for 91st Philippine Army Division
                    - put into use by Japanese as a POW camp
                - actually three camps
                    - Camp 1: POWs from Camp O'Donnell sent there in attempt to lower death rate
                    - Camp 2:  two miles away
                        - all POWs moved from there because of a lack of water
                        - later used for Naval POWs
                    - Camp 3: six miles from Camp 2
                        - POWs from Corregidor and from hospitals sent there
                        - camp created to keep Corregidor POWs separated from Bataan POWs
                        - Corregidor POWs were in better shape
                            - January 1943 - POWs from Camp 3 consolidated into Camp 1
        - Camp Administration:
            - the Japanese left POWs to run the camp on their own
                - Japanese entered camp when they had a reason
                - POWs patrolled fence to prevent escapes
                    - Note: men who attempted to escape were recaptured
                    - Japanese beat them for days
                    - executed them
            - Blood Brother Rule
                - POWs put into groups of ten
                    - if one escaped the others would be executed
                    - housed in same barracks
                    - worked on details together
            - Barracks:
                - each barracks held 50 men
                    - often held between 60 and 120 men
                    - slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, and mosquito netting
                        - diseases spread easily
                    - no showers
            - Morning Roll Call:
                - stood at attention
                    - frequently beaten over their heads for no reason
                - when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in
                  their shins with their hobnailed boots because they didn't like the way the POWs looked
            - Work Details:
                - Two main details
                    - the farm and airfield
                        - farm detail
                            - POWs cleared land and grew comotes, cassava, taro, sesame, and various greens
                            - Japanese took what was grown
                    - Guards:
                        - Big Speedo - spoke little English
                            - in charge of detail
                            - fair in treatment of POWs
                            - spoke little English
                                - to get POWs to work faster said, "speedo"
                        - Little Speedo
                            - fair in treatment of POWs
                        - Smiley
                            - always smiling
                            - could not be trusted
                            - meanest of guards
            - Airfield Detail:
                - Japanese built an airfield for fighters
                    - POWs cut grass, removed dirt, and leveled ground
                        - at first moved dirt in wheel barrows
                        - later pushed mining cars
                    - Guards:
                        - Air Raid
                            - in charge
                            - usually fair but unpredictable
                                - had to watch him
                        - Donald Duck
                            - always talking
                            - sounded like the cartoon character
                            - unpredictable - beat POWs
                            - POWs told him that Donald Duck was a big American movie star
                                - at some point, he saw a Donald Duck cartoon
                                - POWs stayed away from him when he came back to camp
                - Work Day: 7:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
                    - worked 6 days a week
                        - had Sunday off
            - Other Details:
                - work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens and plant rice
                    - they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
                - POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on
                - the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
                - if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn't doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
                - many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
            - Burial Detail
                - POWs worked in teams of four
                    - carried 4 to 6 dead to cemetery at a time in liter
                    - a grave contained from 15 to 20 bodies
            - daily POW meal
                - 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn
                 - rice was main staple, few vegetables or fruits
        - Camp Hospital:
            - 30 Wards
                - each ward could hold 40 men
                    - frequently had 100 men in each
               - two tiers of bunks
                   - sickest POWs on bottom tier
               - each POW had a 2 foot by 6 foot area to lie in
            - Zero Ward
              - given name because it had been missed when counting wards
              - became ward where those who were going to die were sent
              - fenced off from other wards
                  - Japanese guards would not go near it
                  - POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving
                  - medical staff had little to no medicine to treat sick
                  - many deaths from disease caused by malnutrition

Hell Ship:
    - Tottori Maru
        - 5 October 1942 – POWs left Cabanatuan for Manila
            -  housed in warehouse on Pier 7
        - 7 October 1942 – POWs boarded onto Tottori Maru
            - 1961 POWs put on ship
               - 500 in front hold and 1461 in rear hold
         - Sailed: Manila – 8 October 1942
            - Note:  9 October 1942 - American submarine fired two torpedoes at ship
                         - ship passes a mine laid by an American submarine
        - Arrived: Takao, Formosa - 12 October 1942
        - Sailed: 16 October 1942
                        -  returned to Takao
        - Sailed: 18 October 1942
        - Arrived: Pescadores Islands
            - anchored off the Pescadores Islands – same day
                        -  remained anchored for several days
            - two POWs died – buried at sea
        - Sailed: 27 October 1942
        - Arrived: Takao - 27 October 1942
            - 28 October 1942 – POWs taken ashore and bathed
        - Sailed: 30 October 1942
        - Arrived: 30 October 1942 - Makou, Pescadores Islands
        - Sailed:  31 October 1942
        - Arrived: Fusan, Korea - 7 November 1942
            - 8 November 1942 – POWs disembarked ship
            - sick POWs left behind at Fusan
            - those who recovered came to Mukden at later date
            - white boxes contained the ashes of POWs who died
POW Camp:
    - Mukden, Manchuria
        - 11 November 1942 – arrived Mukden
            - selected for transfer to Japan
Hell Ship:
       - Nissyo Maru
            - Sailed: 24 May 1944
            - Arrived: 26 May 1944 - Takao, Formosa
            - Sailed: same day
            - Arrived: 29 May 1944 - Maji, Japan  
            - Sailed: 24 May 1944
            - Arrived: 26 May 1944 - Takao Formosa
            - Sailed: same day
POW Camp:
    - Japan
        - Kamioka #1-B
            - also known as Nagoya 1-B      
                - His POW detachment became known as the 2nd American Company
            - Barracks:
                - POWs slept on straw mats
                - rooms built to hold 10 men held 24 men
                - heated by a fire pit in the middle of barracks
                    - received two handfuls of charcoal a day
                - POWs had to shovel snow off roofs so that the buildings would not collapse
            - Meals:
                - rice and maize
                    - one ounce of fish each month
                - 5 ounces of soy bean each month for working hard
            - Work:
                - zinc & lead mining
                    - POWs worked in zinc and lead mines
                    - POWs had to climb 340 steps to leave mine
                    - in winter the POWs had to go through 4 to 5 foot high snow
                         - wore canvas shoes issued by Japanese
                        - lined them with air raid material from black out curtains to prevent frostbite
                        - Japanese did not issue Red Cross shoes
            - Punishment:
                 - Japanese brutally treated POWs after each air raid
                    - eight to ten POWs selected for beatings
                    - put in guardhouse and forgotten about for days
                - as end of war got closer, the beatings became more frequent and brutal
                    - beaten on heads and all over their bodies until they were unconscious
                    - revived the men and continued beating
                - burned after a flammable substance put on them
                     - one guard burned the rising sun around the navels of the POWs
                - stood naked in inclement weather
                    - made to assume painful positions
            - Medical Treatment:
                - Red Cross medical supplies withheld from POWs
                - sick forced to work to meet quota of workers needed each day
                - those who could walk had to work
                - Japanese beat those who refused
                -sick POWs given "light work"
                    - Japanese made them haul contaminated slug up a mountain
                        - guard would not go near the slug
                        - nothing grew where it was dumped
                        - worked 12 hours a day, 7 days a week
            - Japanese limited number of POWs who could be in the hospital at any time
                - an "old" sick POW was replaced with a "new" sick POW
        - Red Cross Boxes:
            - Japanese did not issue Red Cross packages
                - misappropriated food and clothing
        - 8 May 1945 - short wave broadcast - heard by parents
Atomic Bomb:
    - POWs felt atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki
    - After atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, Japanese made POWs do close order drill
        - POWs learned of surrender from newspaper they bought on Black Market
    - 4 September 1945 - B-29s drop food and clothing to POWs

Liberated: 4 September 1945
    - POWs left camp and driven to train station
        - arrived at Yokohama docks
        - deloused and given new clothing
    - taken b y ship to Okina wa
    - flown bac k to Philippines
Promoted: Corporal
    - U.S.S. Joseph T. Dychman
        - Sailed: Manila - not known
        - Arrived: San Francisco - 16 October 1945
             - taken to Letterman Gen era l Hospital
    - Moore General Hospital - North Carolina
Discharged: 25 July 1946
    - attended college on G. I. Bill
Occupation: Teacher
Children: 3 sons
    - one died as infant
Died: 28 December 1979 - Roseburg, Oregon
    - Roseburg Veterans Cemetery - Roseburg, Oregon
       - Section:  C   Row:  8    Site:  1


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