T/5 Harold P. Keegan
was the son of Raymond F. Keegan & Mary Ellen Conway-Keegan and was born March 22, 1922, in Hanover,
Wisconsin. He was the second of the couple's three sons and also had a younger sister. Harold
also lived in Plymouth, Wisconsin, and attended grade school in Hanover. He graduated from St. Mary's
School in Janesville and later lived at 31 South Main Street in Janesville. He was a member of the
graduating Class of 1940 from Janesville High School.
After graduation, he and his siblings were living with an aunt at 312 East Clark Street
in Janesville. To earn money, he joined the Wisconsin National Guard's 32nd Battalion Tank Company in
Janesville. His reason for doing this was that he knew that it was only a matter of time before he was
drafted into the regular army, since a draft act had just been passed. Like many young men of his day, he
wanted to fulfill his military obligation and get on with his life.
In November of 1940, Harold's tank company was called to federal service as a Company
A, 192nd Tank Battalion. In January 1941, Harold was transferred to Headquarters Company as a maintenance
clerk when the company was formed from members of the letter companies of the 192nd.
After training at Ft. Knox, Harold went with the battalion on maneuvers in Louisiana from
September 1 through 30. Upon completion of the maneuvers, the battalion was ordered to Camp Polk,
Louisiana, instead of returning to Ft. Knox. It was there that they learned they were not being released
from federal service but being sent overseas. Those men 29 years old or older were allowed to resign from
The decision for this move - which had been made in August 1941 - was the result of
an event that took place in the summer of 1941. A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen
Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something
odd. He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the
distance. He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the
direction of an Japanese occupied island which was hundred of miles away. The island had a large radio
transmitter. The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day. The next day,
when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its
deck - which was seen making its way to shore. Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was
difficult, the boat escaped. It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military
presence in the Philippines.
The battalion traveled west over different train routes and arrived at Ft. Mason in San
Francisco and were ferried. on the
U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe, to Angel Island where they given physicals and inoculated by the
battalion's medical detachment. Anyone who had a medical condition was replaced or held back and
scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date.
The 192nd was boarded onto the
U.S. A. T. Hugh L. Scott
and sailed on Monday, October 27. During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once
they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing
KP. The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2nd and had a two day layover, so the
soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
On Wednesday, November 5, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from
the main shipping lanes. It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the
and, another transport, the
S. S. President Calvin Coolidge
. Sunday night, November 9, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was
Tuesday, November 11. During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Date
Line. On Saturday, November 15, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon. The Louisville
revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke. It
turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16, the ships took on water, bananas,
coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day. At one point, the ships passed an island
at night and did so in total blackout. This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent
into harm's way. The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20, and docked at
Pier 7 later that morning. At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.
Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to
unload the tanks.
At the fort, the tankers were met by Colonel Edward P. King, who welcomed them and made
sure that they had what they needed. He also was apologetic that there were no barracks for the tankers and
that they had to live in tents. The fact was he had not learned of their arrival until days before they
The members of the battalion pitched the tents in an open field halfway between the Clark
Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg. The tents were set up in two rows and five men were
assigned to each tent. There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at the
end of the rows of tents.
On December 8, 1941, Harold survived the Japanese attack on Clark Field. Over the
next four months the only word that his parents received was a letter dated January 16, 1942. In it he
stated that except for one really heavy air raid things were not that bad.
When the Japanese were finished, there was not much left of the airfield. The
soldiers watched as the dead, dying, and wounded were hauled to the hospital on bomb racks, trucks, and
anything that could carry the wounded was in use. When the hospital filled, they watched the medics place
the wounded under the building. Many of these men had their arms and legs missing.
That night the members of the company slept in a dry latrine that was near their
bivouac since it was safer then their tents. They had no idea that they had slept their last night on a
bed. The next morning, they saw the bodies of the dead lying on the ground. Pilots who had night
duty lay dead in their tents.
For the next four months Harold worked to keep the letter companies supplied in their
fight against the Japanese. This was often difficult since the defensive lines were fluid and the tanks
In March, the amount of gasoline was reduced to 15 gallons a day for all vehicles
except the tanks. This would later be dropped to ten gallons a day. At the same time, food rations
were cut in half again. Also at this time, Gen. Weaver suggested to Gen. Wainwright that a platoon of
tanks be sent to Corregidor.
The Japanese lunched an all out attack on April 3. On April 7, the 57th
Infantry, Philippine Scouts, supported by tanks, attempted to restore the line, but Japanese infiltrators
prevented this from happening. During this action, one tank was knocked out but the remaining tanks
successfully withdrew. C Company, 194th, which was attached to the 192nd, had only seven tanks left.
The tanks became a favorite target of the Japanese receiving fire on trails and while
hidden in the jungle. and could not fight back. The situation was so bad that other troops avoided being
near the tanks, and the 26th Cavalry turned down a tank company's offer of assistance in a counter-attack.
It was at this time that Gen. Edward P. King decided that further resistance was futile,
since approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight, and he estimated they would last one more
day. In addition, he had over 6,000 troops who sick or wounded and 40,000 civilians who he feared would
be massacred. At 10:30 that night, he sent his staff officers to negotiate surrender terms. At
11:40 the ammunition dumps were blown up.
Tank battalion commanders received this order
, "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy
within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat
vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as
The evening of April 8, 1942, Capt. Fred Bruni, HQ's commanding officer, gave his men
the news of the surrender. While informing the members of the company of the surrender, he waved his arm
toward the tanks and told the men that they would no longer need them. As he spoke, his voice
choked. He turned away from the men for a moment, and when he turned back he continued. He next
told the sergeants what they should do to disable the tanks. During the announcement, Bruni emphasized
that they all were to surrender together. He told the soldiers to destroy their weapons and any supplies
that could be used by the Japanese. The only thing they were told not to destroy were the company's
trucks. The men waited in their bivouac until ordered to move. Somehow, Bruni had found enough
bread and pineapple juice for what he called,
"Their last supper,"
which consisted of bread and pineapple juice.
On April 11, the first Japanese soldiers appeared at HQ company's
encampment. Donald was now a Prisoner of War. A Japanese officer ordered the company, with their
possessions, out onto the road that ran in front of their encampment. Once on the road, the soldiers were
ordered to kneel along the sides of the road with their possessions in front of them. As they knelt, the
Japanese soldiers, who were passing them, went through their possessions and took whatever they wanted from the
Americans. They remained along the sides of the road for hours.
HQ Company finally boarded trucks and drove to just outside of Mariveles. From there,
they walked to Mariveles Airfield and ordered to sit. As they sat, the POWs noticed a line of Japanese
soldiers forming across from them. They soon realized that this was a firing squad and the Japanese were
going to kill them.
As they prepared to die, a car pulled up and a Japanese officer got out of the car and
spoke to the sergeant in charge of the detail. After talking to the sergeant, he got back in the car and
drove off. The sergeant ordered the soldiers to lower their guns.
Later in the day, the POWs were order to move and taken to a school yard in Mariveles and
ordered to sit. Behind them were Japanese artillery pieces. The guns were firing on Corregidor and
Ft. Drum. When the two American strongholds began returning fire, the prisoners found themselves in the
line of fire and shells began landing around them. Five POWs who hid in an old brick building were killed
when it took a direct hit. When the barrage ended, three if the four Japanese guns had been destroyed.
It was from this school yard that the POWs began the death march. The first five
miles of the march was uphill. They made their way north from Mariveles to San Fernando. During the
march men who had fell were shot and bayoneted where they fell.
When they reached San Fernando, the POWs were put in a bull pen which had been created
by putting barbwire around a school yard. They were left there for hours sitting in the sun. At
some point, the Japanese ordered them to form 100 men detachments. When this was done, they were marched
to the train station.
At San Fernando, the POWs were packed into small wooden
boxcars known as "Forty or
Eights." The cars could hold forty men of eight horses, but the Japanese packed 100 men into each car and
closed the doors. Those POWs who died in the cars did not fall to the floors until the living left the
cars at Capas. From Caps, the POWs walked the last ten miles to Camp O'Donnell.
The camp was an unfinished Filipino training base. The Japanese pressed the
camp into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942. When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese confiscated
any extra clothing that the POWs had and refused to return it to them. They searched the POWs and if
a man was found to have Japanese money on them, they were taken to the guardhouse. Over the next
several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of the camp. These POWs had been executed for
There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from
two to eight hours waiting for a drink. The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no
reason and the next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on
again. This situation improved when a second faucet was added.
There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing
when it had been soiled. In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to
the camp and mess kits could not be washed. The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were
soon overflowing since most of the POWs had dysentery. The result was that flies were everywhere in
the camp including the POW kitchens and in the food.
The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant. When the ranking
American doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for
medical supplies, he was told never to write another letter.
The Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the camp, the
Japanese commandant refused to allow the truck into the camp. When the Japanese Red Cross sent
medical supplies the camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the
six medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them. When a
representative of the Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150 bed hospital for the camp, he was
slapped in the face by a Japanese lieutenant.
Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried
to the hospital and placed underneath it. The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were
buried in the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria. To clean
the ground under the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it. The bodies of the
dead were placed in the area, and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
Work details were sent out on a daily basis. Each day, the American doctors
gave a list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work. If the quota of
POWs needed to work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick, but could walk, to
work. The death rate among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day.
When work details were formed, Harold volunteered to to go out one. Like many
other prisoners, Harold realized that staying in the camp could result in his death. While working on
a detail to rebuild runways at Clark Field, Harold became ill with dysentery and was returned to Camp
O'Donnell. It was there that Harold died at the age of twenty on Friday, June 5, 1942, and was
buried in the camp cemetery in Section: M, Row: 5, Grave 2.
Harold Keegan's family received word of his death in May 1944. It
was after the war, from the surviving members of A Company, that the family learned that he had died of
dysentery. On August 31, 1946, his family held a memorial service for him at St. Mary's
Catholic Church in Janesville.
After the war, at the request of his family, Harold's remains were returned to
Janesville, Wisconsin. He was reburied at Mount Olivet Catholic Cemetery on February 7, 1949.