Pvt. Bernard W. Johnson was the son of Joseph M. Johnson & Mary E.
Martin-Johnson and was born on November 11, 1918, in Wellsville, Ohio. With his two brothers, he grew up
at 3200 Audubon Boulevard in Cleveland, Ohio. He worked as an inspector at a federal building.
Bernard was inducted into the U.S. Army on March 28, 1941, in Ohio.
He trained at Fort Riley, Kansas and Camp Polk, Louisiana. At some point, he was assigned to the 753rd Tank
Battalion. In the fall of 1941, he volunteered, or had his name drawn, to replace a National Guardsman who
was released from federal service in the 192nd Tank Battalion. He was assigned to B Company.
In the the early fall of 1941, the 192nd Tank Battalion had received orders for duty, in
the Philippines, because of an event that happened during the summer. A squadron of American fighters was
flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd. He took his plane down and
identified a buoy in the water. He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line, in the direction
of an Japanese occupied island. When the squadron landed he reported what he had seen. By the time a
Navy ship was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up. It was at that time the decision was made to
build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
The battalion traveled west over four different train routes
to San Francisco, California, and was taken by ferry, the
U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe, to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island. They were given physicals
and inoculated for overseas duty. Those men found to have a minor medical condition were held
back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date, while other men were simply replaced.
The 192nd was boarded onto the
U.S.A.T. Gen. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27. During this part of the trip,
many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking
down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP. The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on
Sunday, November 2nd and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see
On Wednesday, November 5, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route
away from the main shipping lanes. It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the
U.S.S. Louisville and, another transport, the
S.S. President Calvin Coolidge. Sunday night, November 9, the soldiers went to bed and when
they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11. During the night, while they slept, the
ships had crossed the International Dateline. On Saturday, November 15, smoke from an unknown ship
was seen on the horizon. The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and
it shot off in the direction of the smoke. It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to
a friendly country.
When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16, the ships took on water,
bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day. At one point, the ships
passed an island at night and did so in total blackout. This for many of the soldiers was a sign
that they were being sent into harm's way. The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on
Thursday, November 20, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning. At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers
were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg. Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the
maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
At the fort, they were greeted by Colonel Edward P. King, who apologized they had to
live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Field. He made sure that they had what
they needed and received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own dinner. Ironically,
November 20 was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released
from federal service.
The members of the battalion pitched the tents in an open field halfway between
the Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg. The tents were set up in two rows and
five men were assigned to each tent. There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food
trucks stationed at the end of the rows of tents.
For the next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their
weapons which had been greased to protect them from rust while at sea. They also loaded ammunition
belts, did tank maintenance, and prepared for maneuvers with the 194th Tank Battalion.
On December 1, the tankers were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Airfield to
guard against Japanese paratroopers. Two members of each tank crew had to remain with the tank at
all times and received their meals from food trucks.
The morning of December 8, 1941, the tankers were at the perimeter of
Clark Airfield to guard against Japanese paratroopers. All morning the sky was filled with American
planes. At noon the planes landed and the pilots went to lunch. At 12:45, the tankers were eating
lunch when the saw a formation of 54 planes approach the airfield from the north. At first, they thought
the planes were American. Then, as they watched, raindrops appeared under the planes. It was only
when bombs began exploding on the runways did the tankers knew the planes were Japanese.
The tank battalion received orders on
December 21 that it was to proceed north to Lingayen Gulf. Because of
logistics problems, the B and C Companies soon ran low on gas. When they
reached Rosario, there was only enough for one tank platoon, from B Company, to
proceed north to support the 26th Cavalry.
On December 23 and 24, the battalion was in the area of
Urdaneta. The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was
destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of river. As they did
this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening. They
successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
On December 25, the tanks of the battalion held the
southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th
holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position
until 5:30 in the morning on December 27.
The tankers were at Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December
27, and at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan on December 28 and 29. On January 1, conflicting orders
were received by the defenders who were attempting to stop the Japanese advance down Route 5.
Doing this would allow the Southern Luzon Forces to withdraw toward Bataan. General Wainwright
was unaware of the orders since they came from Gen. MacArthur's chief of staff.
Because of the orders, there was confusion among the Filipinos and American
forces defending the bridges over the Pampanga River. Due to the efforts of the Self-Propelled
Mounts, the 71st Field Artillery, and a frenzied attack by the 192nd Tank Battalion the Japanese were
halted. From January 2 to 4, the 192nd held the road open from San Fernando to Dinalupihan so the
southern forces could escape.
During the withdraw into the peninsula, the night of January 6/7, the 192nd held its
position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leap frog past it, cross a bridge, and then cover the 192nd's
withdraw over the bridge. The 192nd was the last American unit to enter
During the withdraw into the peninsula, the company crossed over the last bridge which was
mined and about to be blown. The 192nd held its position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leap frog
past it and then cover the 192nd's withdraw. The 192nd was the last American unit to enter
Over the next several months, the battalion fought battle after battle with tanks that
were not designed for jungle warfare.
The tank battalions , on January 28, were given the job of protecting the
beaches. The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east
coast. The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting
The company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets - from January 23 to February
17 - to wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind the main defensive line after a Japanese offensive
was stopped and pushed pack to the original line of defense. The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time
to replace a tank in the pocket. Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the
pocket. Doing this was so stressful that each tank company was rotated out and replaced by one that was
being held in reserve.
To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used. The first was to have three
Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank. As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos
dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole. Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually
The other method to use to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over the
foxhole. The driver gave the other track power resulting with the tank spinning around and grinding its way
down into the foxhole. The tankers slept upwind of their tanks.
While the tanks were doing this job, the Japanese sent soldiers, with cans of gasoline,
against the tanks. These Japanese attempted to jump onto the tanks, pour gasoline into the vents on the
back of the tanks, and set the tanks on fire. If the tankers could not machine gun the Japanese before they
got to a tank, the other tanks would shoot them as they stood on a tank. The tankers did not like to do
this because of what it did to the crew inside the tank. When the bullets hit the tank, its rivets would
pop and wound the men inside the tank. It was for their performance during this battle that the 192nd Tank
Battalion would receive one of its Distinguished Unit Citations.
Since the stress on the crews was tremendous, the tanks rotated into the pocket one at a
time. A tank entered the pocket and the next tank waited for the tank that had been relieved to exit the
pocket before it would enter. This was repeated until all the tanks in the pocket were relieved.
What made this job so hard was that the Japanese dug "spider holes" among the
roots the trees. Because of this situation, the Americans could not get a good shot at the Japanese.
The tankers, from A, B, and C Companies, were able to clear the pockets. But
before this was done, one C Company tank which had gone beyond the American perimeter was disabled and the tank
just sat there. When the sun came up the next day, the tank was still sitting there. During the
night, its crew was buried alive, inside the tank, by the Japanese. When the Japanese had been wiped out,
the tank was turned upside down to remove the dirt and recover the bodies of the crew. The tank was put
back into use.
At the same time the company took part in the Battle of the Points on the west
coast of Bataan. The Japanese landed troops but ended up trapped. One was the Lapay-Longoskawayan
points from January 23 to 29, the Quinawan-Aglaloma points from January 22 to February 8, and the Sililam-Anyasan
points from January 27 to February 13. The defenders successfully eliminated the points by driving their
tanks along the Japanese defensive line and firing their machine guns. The 45th Infantry, Philippine Scouts
followed the tanks eliminating any resistance and driving the Japanese Marines over the edge of the cliffs where
they hid in caves. The tanks fired into the caves killing or forcing them out of them into the sea.
The soldiers were hungry and began to eat everything they could get their hands on to
eat. The Carabao were tough but if they were cooked long enough they could be eaten. They also began
to eat horse meat provided by the 26th U. S. Cavalry. To make things worse, the soldiers' rations were
cut in half again on March 1, 1942. This meant that they only ate two meals a day.
The Japanese also were dropping surrender leaflets with a scantly clad blond on
them. The Japanese would have been more successful at getting the Americans to surrender if the picture had
been hamburger, since the men were so hungry that they most likely would have surrendered for a good meal.
In March, the amount of gasoline was reduced to 15 gallons a day for all vehicles
except the tanks. This would later be dropped to ten gallons a day. At the same time, food rations
were cut in half again. Also at this time, Gen. Weaver suggested to Gen. Wainwright that a platoon of tanks
be sent to Corregidor.
On April 3, 1942, the Japanese launched a attack supported by artillery and
aircraft. A large force of Japanese troops came over Mount Samat and descended down the south face of the
volcano. This attack wiped out two divisions of defenders and left a large area of the defensive line open
to the Japanese. On April 7, the 57th Infantry, Philippine Scouts, supported by tanks, attempted to restore
the line, but Japanese infiltrators prevented this from happening. During this action, one tank was knocked
out but the remaining tanks successfully withdrew. C Company, 194th, was attached to the 192nd and had only
seven tanks left.
It was the evening of April 8 that Gen. Edward P. King decided that further resistance
was futile, since approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight, and he estimated they would last one
more day. In addition, he had over 6,000 troops who sick or wounded and 40,000 civilians who he feared
would be massacred. At 10:30 that night, he sent his staff officers to negotiate surrender terms.
Tank battalion com
manders received this order
: "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy
within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat
vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as
On April 9, 1942, Bernard became a Prisoner of War when Bataan was surrendered to the
Japanese. Bernard and the other members of B Company made their way to Mariveles. It was from this
barrio that he started what became known as the death march to San Fernando. There, the POWs were packed
into small wooden boxcars used to haul sugarcane. The cars could hold forty men or eight horse. The
Japanese packed 100 POWs into each car. Those who died remained standing until the living left the boxcars
at Capas. From Capas, the POWs walked the last few miles to Camp O'Donnell.
The camp was an unfinished Filipino Army training base that the
Japanese pressed into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942. When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese
confiscated any extra clothing that the POWs had and refused to return it to them. They searched the POWs
and if a man was found to have Japanese money on them, they were taken to the guardhouse. Over the next
several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of the camp. These POWs had been executed for looting.
There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two
to eight hours waiting for a drink. The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and
the next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again. This
situation improved when a second faucet was added.
There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing
when it had been soiled. In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the
camp and mess kits could not be washed. The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon
overflowing since most of the POWs had dysentery. The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp
including the POW kitchens and in the food.
The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant. When the ranking American
doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies,
he was told never to write another letter. Tsuneyoshi also told the doctor that the only thing he wanted
to know about the Americans was their names and serial numbers when they died.
The Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the camp, the
Japanese commandant refused to allow the truck into the camp. When the Japanese Red Cross sent medical
supplies the camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six
medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them. When a representative of the
Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150 bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a
Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to
the hospital and placed underneath it. The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried
in the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria. To clean the ground
under the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it. The bodies of the dead were
placed in the area, and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
Work details were sent out on a daily basis. Each day, the American doctors gave
a list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work. If the quota of POWs
needed to work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick, but could walk, to work. The
death rate among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day.
The burial detail would carry the dead to the cemetery and put the corpse in the
grave. Since the water table was high, so that it could be covered with dirt, one POW held the body down with a
pole while dirt was thrown on the corpse. The next day when the burial detail returned to the cemetery,
the dead often were dug up by wild dogs or sitting up in their graves.
On May 30, a POW detail was sent to Clark Field. The first thing the POWs did was to
clean up the junk from the war. Next they cleared and leveled the land. The POWs also had to dig out
volcanic rock which was used in the construction of runways. They did this work until August 1944.
How the POWs did this was to sift the sand through a screen trapping the rocks. The rocks were used as base
material for new runways for heavy bombers. When the rock ran out, the Japanese engineers told the POWs to
use sand for the base material for the last half of the runway. The POWs were made to work even in heavy
rains in a typhoon.
Clothing did not exist, and most of the POWs wore only loin clothes. Being sick was not
seen as a reason for not working and the ill prisoners had to do hard physical labor. The Japanese decided
how sick the men were and if they could work. The POWs were expected to always keep moving regardless of
how sick they were. If a man could not work because he was too ill, he was beaten.
The guards on the detail frequently beat the POWs using iron bars, bayonets, and
clubs. If a POW violated a camp rule, all the POWs had to stand at attention from 6 to 9 hours as
punishment. In addition, when a POW violated a rule. he often had to do pushups, and take a position
where he was on this hands and tiptoes for a long period of time. While doing this, heavy weights were
tied to his ears and the POW was made to stand up. The POWs recalled there was one Japanese lieutenant who
always hit the POWs over their heads with a saber.
The first time a Japanese heavy bomber landed on the runway it sped
across the first half of the runway. When it hit the second half of the runway, the bomber's carriage
suddenly sank out of sight and the bomber flipped over. The prisoners hid their laughter.
At some point, Bernard was sent to Bilibid Prison because he was
Medical records indicate Bernard was admitted from Building 12 which had the designation
of being "the Casual Group."
It is known that on September 1, 1944, Bernard was admitted to the hospital ward suffering from acute
nephritis which is a inflammation of the kidneys. How long he was hospitalized is not known. In early
December, the Japanese ordered the American medical staff at the prison to put together a list of POWs healthy
enough to be sent to Japan.
On December 8, 1944, Bernard was selected to be sent to another part of the Japanese
Empire. On December 12, 1944, roll call was taken and the names of the men selected for transport to Japan
were called. At 4:00 A.M. the morning of December 13, the POWs were awakened and roll call was taken.
Afterwards, the POWs were allowed to roam the prison until they formed detached and were marched to Pier 7 in
Manila. Once there, tthe POWs were told to sit. Many of the men laid down and slept until they were
awakened to board the ship. About 5:00 PM, the POWs were boarded onto the
The high ranking officers were the first put into the ship's afthold. Being
the first on meant that they would suffer many deaths. Around the perimeter of the hold were two tiers of
bunks for the POWs. The heat was so bad that men soon began to pass out. One survivor said
, "The fist fights began when men to pass out. We knew that only the front men in bay would be
able to get enough air."
The POWs who were closer to the hold's hatch used anything they could find to fan air toward
those further away from it.
The ship left Manila at 8:00 P.M. but spent most of the night in Manila Bay. At
10:00 P.M., the Japanese interpreter threatened to have the guards fire into the holds unless the POWs stopped
screaming. Some of the POWs fell silent because they were exhausted, and others because they had died.
One major of the 26th Cavalry stated the man next to him had lost his mind.
Recalling the conversation he had with the man he said
, "Worst was the man who had gone mad but would not sit still. One kept pestering me, pushing a
mess kit against my chest, saying, 'Have some of this chow? It's good.' I smelled of it, it
was not chow. 'All right'
, 'If you don't want it. I'm going to eat it.' And a little later I heard him eating it ,
right beside me."
At 3:30 A.M. it sailed as part of the MATA-37 a convoy bound for Takao, Formosa.
The ships sailed without any lights out of the bay. By the swells in the water, the POWs could tell that
the ship was in open water. The cries for air began as the men lost discipline, so the Japanese threatened
to cover the holds and cut off all air. When the Japanese sent down fried rice, cabbage, and fried seaweed,
those further back from the opening got nothing.
The Japanese covered the holds and would not allow the slop buckets to be taken out of
the holds. Those POWs who were left holding the buckets at first asked for someone else to hold it for
awhile. When that did not work, they dumped the buckets on the men around them.
As light began to enter the hold as morning came, the POWs could see men who were in
stupors, men out of their minds, and men who had died. The POWs in the aft hold which also had a sub-hold,
put the POWs who out of their minds into it.
On the side of the holds, water had condensed on the walls so the POWs tried to scrap it
off the wall for a drink. The Japanese did allow men who had passed out to be put on deck, but as soon as
they revived they went back into the holds. The Japanese would not allow the bodies of the men who had died
to be removed from the holds.
The POWs received their first meal at dawn. Meals on the ship consisted of a
little rice, fish, some water, and three fourths of a cup of water was shared by 20 POWs. It was 8:00 A.M.,
off the coast of Luzon, and the POWs had just finished eating breakfast when they heard the sound of guns.
At first, they thought the gun crews were just drilling, because they had not heard any planes. It was only
when the first bomb hit in the water and the ship shook that they knew it was not a drill.
At first it seemed that most of the planes were attacking the other ships in the
convoy. Commander Frank Bridgit, had made his way to the top of the ladder into the hold and sat
down. He gave the POWs a play by play of the planes attacking
, "I can see two planes going for a freighter off our starboard side. Now two more are detached
from the formation. I think they may be coming for us."
The POWs heard the change in the sound of the planes' engines as they began their
dives toward the ships in the convoy. Several more bombs hit the water near the ship causing it to
rock Explosions were taking place all around the ship. In an attempt to protect themselves, the POWs
piled baggage in front of them. Bullets from the planes were ricocheted in the hold causing many
Lt. Col. Elvin Barr of the 60th Coast Artillery came up to Maj, John Fowler of the 26th
Cavalry on the cargo deck and said
, "There's a hole knocked in the bulkheads down there. Between 30 and 40 men have already
died down there."
Barr would never reach Japan. The attack by 30 to 50 planes lasted for about 20 to 30
minutes. When the planes were ran out of bombs they strafed. Afterwards, the planes flew off,
returning to their carrier, and there was a lull of about 20 to 30 minutes before the next squadron of planes
appeared over the ships and resumed the attack. This pattern repeated itself over and over during the day.
In the hold, the POWs concluded that the attacking planes were concentrating on the
bridge of the ship. They noted that the planes had taken out all the anti-aircraft guns leaving only .30
caliber machine guns to defend the ship.
At 4:30 P.M., the ship went through the worse attack on it. It was hit at least
three times by bombs on its bridge and stern. Most of the POWs, who were wounded, were wounded by
ricocheting bullets and shrapnel from exploding bombs. During the attack Chaplain Cummings, a Catholic
priest, led the POWs in the Our Father. As they prayed, the bombs that exploded near the ship sent torrents
of water over the ship.
Bullets from the planes hit the metal plates, of the haul, at an angle that prevented
most of them from penetrating the haul. Somewhere on the ship a fire started, but it was put out after
several hours. The POWs lived through seven or eight attacks before sunset. Overall, six bombs hit
the ship. One hit the stern of the ship killing many POWs.
At dusk, the ship raised anchor and headed east before turning south and finally heading
west. The next turn it made was north. It headed in this direction for a good amount of time before
dropping anchor at about 8:00 P.M. The POWs figured out that they had just sailed in a circle. What
had happened is that the ship's had been hit during the attack and the ship could not be steered.
Sometime after midnight, the POWs heard the sound of the Japanese civilians being
evacuated from the ship. During the night, the POW medics were ordered onto the deck to treat the Japanese
wounded. One medic recalled that the dead, dying, and wounded were everywhere.
The ship reached Subic Bay at 2:30 in the morning and steamed closer to the beach where
its anchor was dropped. At 4:00 A.M., the POWs were told that they would disembark at daybreak at a
pier. The moaning and muttering of POWs who were losing their minds kept the POWs up all night. That
night 25 POWs died in the hold.
It was December 15 and the POWs sat in the ship's holds for hours after dawn.
The first 35 POWs were taken out of the hold and went into the water. At 8:00 A.M. as the other POWs
waited, the sound of A Japanese guard yelled into the hold at the POWs
, "All go home; speedo!"
He shouted that the wounded would be the first to be evacuated. Suddenly, he looked up and
, "Planes, many planes!"
As the POWs were abandoning ship the planes returned and continued the attack. The ship bounced in
the water from the explosions. Chief Boatswain Clarence M. Taylor who was in the water said
, "I saw the whole thing. A bomb fall, hit near the stern hatch, and debris go flying up in the
In the hold, the POWs crowded together. Chips of rust fell on them from the
ceiling. After the raid, they took care of the wounded before the next attack started. In the hold a
Catholic priest, Father Duffy, began to pray
, "Father forgive them. They know not what they do."
The Japanese guards and interpreter had abandoned ship, but the ship's captain
remained on board. He told the POWs - with his limited English - that they needed to get off the ship to
safety. The POWs made their way over the side and into the water. As they swam to shore, the Japanese
fired at them, with machine guns, to prevent them from escaping.
Four of the planes flew low over the water above the POWs. The POWs waved
frantically at the planes so they would not be strafed. The planes banked and flew lower over the
POWs. This time the pilots dipped their wings to show that they knew the men in the water were
Americans. About a half hour later, the ship began to really burn and the bodies of the dead could be seen
on the decks.
The Japanese sent out a motorboat with a machine gun and snipers on it. The POWs
attempting to escape were hunted down and shot. It is believed as many as 30 men died in the water.
There was no real beach, so the POWs climbed up on a seawall and found the the Japanese
Naval Landing Party had set up a machine gun and had just laid flat to rest when the gun opened up on
them. Those who came ashore were warned to stay in the water, but only did so when one man climbed up
on the seawall and was wounded. There were also Japanese snipers in wait to shoot anyone who attempted to
The POWs were gathered together and marched to the tennis court at Olongapo Naval
Station which was about 500 yards from the beach. There, they were herded onto a tennis court and roll call
was taken. It was discover 329 of the 1619 POWs who had boarded the ship had died.
It is not known if Bernard was killed inside the hold from ricocheting
bullets or shrapnel from one of the rockets that hit the ship, or if he was killed while swimming to shore.
What is known is that Pvt. Bernard Johnson died on December 15, 1944, at Olongapo Naval Station, Subic Bay,
After the war, Pvt. Bernard Johnson's name was placed on the Tablets of the Missing at the American
Military Cemetery at Manila. His parents also had a headstone placed at Saint Elizabeth Cemetery,