Hurtt_T

 


Pvt. Thomas Edward Hurtt


    Pvt. Thomas E. Hurtt was born in Kemper County, Mississippi, on October 18, 1912, to William J. & Alice Hurtt.  His mother died when he was a child and his father remarried.  He had one brother, two half-brothers, and five half-sisters.  He joined the army, in September 1939, and did his basic training at Fort Benning, Georgia.  On May 7, 1941, he reenlisted and was assigned to A Company, 753rd Tank Battalion.

    In September 1941, the 753rd was sent to Camp Polk, Louisiana.  Maneuvers were going on in Louisiana, but the battalion did not take part in them.  It was at Camp Polk that Thomas become a member of the 192nd Tank Battalion.  The battalion had received orders for overseas duty, and he replaced a National Guardsman who had been released from federal service.  He either volunteered, or had his name drawn, to join the battalion and was assigned to A Company.
    The decision for this move -  which had been made in August 1941 - was the result of an event that took place in the summer of 1941.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island which was hundred of miles away.  The island had a large radio transmitter.  The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
     When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.  The next day, when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its deck - which was seen making its way to shore.   Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult, the boat escaped.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
    The battalion traveled by train to Ft. Mason in San Francisco, California, where they ferried to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island on the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe.  On the island, they received inoculations and physicals from the battalion's medical detachment.  Those members of the battalion who were found to have treatable medical conditions were held back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date, while some men were simply replaced. 
    The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S. A. T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27.  During this part of the trip, many of the tankers suffered from seasickness.  Once they recovered, they spent their time breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP.  The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2 and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island. 
    On Wednesday, November 5, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes.  It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and, another transport, the S. S. Calvin Coolidge.  Sunday night, November 9, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11.  During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Dateline.  On Saturday, November 15th, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon.  The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke.  It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
    When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day.  At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning.  At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.  Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
    At the fort, they were greeted by Gen. Edward P. King, who apologized that they had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Field.  He made sure that they had what they needed and that they received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own dinner.  Ironically, November 20 was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
    The members of the battalion pitched the tents in an open field halfway between the Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg.  The tents were set up in two rows and five men were assigned to each tent.  There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at the end of the rows of tents.  
    For the next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their weapons.  The grease was put on the weapons to protect them from rust while at sea.  They also loaded ammunition belts and did tank maintenance as they readied their tanks to take part in maneuvers.
    On December 1, the tankers were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field to guard against Japanese paratroopers.  From this time on, two tank crew members remained with each tank at all times.  Their meals were brought to them by food trucks.
   The morning of December 8, 1942, the tankers were informed of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor just hours earlier.  They returned to their tanks around the airfield.  Many of them believed that this was nothing more than the start of the maneuvers they had expected to take part in after arriving in the Philippines.
    The planes of the Army Air Corps took off about 8:00 in the morning and filled the sky.  At noon the planes landed, to be refueled, and the pilots went to lunch in the mess hall.  At 12:45 in the afternoon, the tankers were at food trucks receiving lunch when they spotted planes approaching the airfield from the north.  Many of the men counted 54 planes in a "V" formation and commented that they thought they were American.  When bombs began exploding on the runways, the tankers knew the planes were Japanese.
    The men ran to their tanks or took cover wherever they could.  They could do little more than watch since their weapons were not meant to fight planes.  They also had been ordered not to fire at the planes.
    When the Japanese were finished, there was not much left of the airfield.  The tankers watched as the dead, dying, and wounded were hauled to the hospital on bomb racks, trucks, and anything that could carry the wounded was in use.  When the hospital filled, they watched the medics place the wounded under the building.  Many of these men had their arms and legs missing. 
    That night the soldiers had slept their last night in a bed.  For protection, they slept under their tanks or in them.
    Four days after the attack, on December 12, the company was sent to the Barrio of Dau so it would be close to a highway and railroad and protect them against sabotage.  From there, the company was sent to join the other companies of the 192nd just south of the Agno River. 
    On December 23 and 24, the company was in the area of Urdaneta, where the tankers lost the company commander, Capt. Walter Write.  After he was buried, the tankers made an end run to get south of Agno River.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening, but they successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks were asked to hold the position for six hours, but they held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27.
    The 192nd and part of the 194th fell back to form a new defensive line the night of December 27 and 28.  From there they fell back to the south bank of the BamBan River which they were suppose to hold for as long as possible.  The tanks were at Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 28 and 29 serving as a rear guard against the Japanese.
    A Company was sent, in support of the 194th, to an area east of Pampanga.  It was there that they lost a tank platoon commander, Lt. William Read.  That night, on a road east of Zaragoza, on December 30, the company was bivouacked for the night and posted sentries.  The sentries heard a noise on the road and woke the other tankers who grabbed Tommy-guns and manned the tanks' machine guns.  As they watched, a Japanese bicycle battalion rode into their bivouac.  When the last bicycle passed the tanks, the tankers opened up on them.  When they stopped firing, they had completely wiped out the bicycle battalion.  To leave the area, the tankers drove their tanks over the bodies.
   As the Filipino and American forces fell back toward Bataan, A Company took up a position near the south bank of the Gumain River the night of December 31 and January 1.  Believing that the Filipino Army was in front of them allowed the tankers to get some sleep.  It was that night that the Japanese lunched an attack to cross the river.
    As the Japanese attempted to advance they were cut down by the tankers.  The tankers created gaping holes in their ranks.  To lower their losses, the Japanese tried to cover their advance with a smoke screen.  Since the wind was blowing against them, the smoke blew into the Japanese line.  When the Japanese broke off the attack, they had lost about half their men.
    From January 2 to 4, the 192nd held the road open from San Fernando to Dinalupihan so the southern forces could escape.  It was also in January 1942, that the food ration was cut in half.  It was not too long after this was done that malaria, dysentery, and dengue fever began hitting the soldiers. January that the food rations were cut in half.  Not long after this, malaria, dysentery, and dengue fever soon spread among the soldiers.
    A Company, on January 5, while attached to the 194th Tank Battalion, withdrew from the line.  Lt. Kenneth Bloomfield received orders to launch a counter-attack against the Japanese on a tail picked by Provisional Tank Group command. Bloomfield, while attempting to attack, radioed the tank group that the trail did not exist.
   It was evening and the tankers believed they were in a relatively safe place near Lubao along a dried up creek bed.  Bloomfield told his men to get some sleep.  Their sleep was interrupted by the sound of a gun shot at about 1:50 A.M.  The tankers had no idea that they were about to engage the Japanese who had lunched a major offensive across an open field wearing white shirts which made them easy targets.  There was a great deal of confusion and the battle lasted until 3:00 A.M., when the Japanese broke off the attack.  Within days of this action, the company returned to the command of the 192nd. 
    The company was next sent in support of the 194th, to an area east of Pampanga.  At Guagua,  A Company with the 11th Infantry Division, Philippine Army, attempted to make a counterattack against the Japanese.  Somehow, the Filipinos mistook the tanks as Japanese and accurately used mortars on them knocking out three tanks.  A Company rejoined the 194th east of Guagua.
    As American and Filipino forces entered Bataan, the company waited for orders to cross the bridge over the Culis Creek the night of January 7th.  Receiving none, many of the tankers went to sleep.  Col. Ted Wickord, Commanding Officer of the 192nd, crossed the bridge and went looking for the company when they did not cross.  He did this because the engineers wanted to blow up the bridge.  Wickord found the company, woke them, and ordered them across the bridge.  A Company was the last American unit to enter Bataan, before the last bridge was blown by the engineers.       
    The next day the tanks received maintenance.  It was the first rest that the two tank battalions had since December 24.
    While American and Filipino forces were withdrawing from Pilar-Bigac Line, the battalion prevented the Japanese from overrunning the position and cutting off the withdrawing troops.  The morning of January 27, a new battle line had been formed and all units were suppose to be beyond it.  That morning, the tanks were still holding their position six hours after they were suppose to have withdrawn.  While holding the position, the tanks, with self-propelled mounts, ambushed, at point blank range, three Japanese units causing 50 percent casualties.
    On January 28, the tank battalions were given the job of protecting the beaches.  The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast.  The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings. 

    The company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets.  The Japanese offensive had been stopped and two groups of Japanese soldiers were trapped behind the main line of defense.  The tanks were sent in to help eliminate the pockets.   The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket.  Another tank did not enter the pocket until the tank, which had been relieved, had left the pocket.    
    To wipe out the Japanese two methods were employed.  The first method was to have three Filipino soldiers sit on the back of the tanks with sacks of hand grenades.  When the Japanese dove back into their foxholes, the tank would go over it and the soldiers would drop three hand grenades into the foxhole.  Since the ordnance was from World War I, one out of three hand grenades would usually explode.
    The second method was simple.  The tank was parked with one track across the foxhole.  The driver gave power to the opposite track and spun the tank dragging the other track.  The tank dug into the dirt until the Japanese soldiers were dead.
    The soldiers were hungry and began to eat everything they could get their hands on to eat.  The Carabao were tough but if they were cooked long enough they could be eaten.  They also began to eat horse meat provided by the 26th U. S. Cavalry.  To make things worse, the soldiers' rations were cut in half again on March 1, 1942.  This meant that they only ate two meals a day.   
    The Japanese also were dropping surrender leaflets with a scantly clad blond on them.  The Japanese would have been more successful at getting the Americans to surrender if the picture had been hamburger, since the men were so hungry that they most likely would have surrendered for a good meal.    
    During the Battle of the Points, on March 2 and 3, the tanks were sent in to wipe out Japanese troops that had broken through the main defensive line and than trapped behind the line after the Filipino and American troops pushed the Japanese back toward the sea and wiped out the pockets.
    The company's last bivouac area was about twelve kilometers north of Marivales and looking out on the China Sea.  By this point, the tankers knew that there was no help on the way.  Many had listened to Secretary of War Harry L. Stimson on short wave.  When asked about the Philippines, he said, "There are times when men must die."  The soldiers cursed in response because they knew that the Philippines had already been lost.

    On April 3, 1942, the Japanese launched a attack supported by artillery and aircraft.  A large force of Japanese troops came over Mount Samat and descended down the south face of the volcano.  This attack wiped out two divisions of defenders and left a large area of the defensive line open to the Japanese. 
    It was at this time that Gen. King decided that further resistance was futile.  Approximately 25% of his men were healthy enough to fight, and he estimated they would last one more day.  In addition, he had over 6000 troops who sick or wounded and 40000 civilians who he feared would be massacred.  At 10:30 that night, he sent his staff officers to negotiate surrender terms.  
    Tank battalion commanders received this order, "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished." 

    On April 9, 1942, Thomas became a Prisoner of War and made his way to Mariveles at the southern tip of Bataan.  There, he started the march out of Bataan.  The POWs made their way north and, at one point, ran past Japanese artillery that was firing at Corregidor.  The American guns on Corregidor returned fire and shells landed around the POWs. 
    They made their way north with little food and no water.  At San Fernando, they were herded into a bullpen and sat in the feces of the POWs who had been in the bullpen before them. The Japanese ordered them to form detachments of 100 men.  They marched to the train station and were put into small wooden boxcars, used to haul sugarcane, known as "forty or eights."  Each car could hold forty men or eight horses.  The Japanese packed 100 POWs into each car and closed the doors.  In the cars, men suffocated  and could not fall to the floor since there was no room for them to fall.  At Capas, the living left the cars and the dead fell to the floors.  The POWs made their way to Camp O'Donnell.

    The camp was an unfinished Filipino Army training base that the Japanese pressed into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942.  When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese confiscated any extra clothing that the POWs had and refused to return it to them.  They searched the POWs and if a man was found to have Japanese money on them, they were taken to the guardhouse.  Over the next several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of the camp.  These POWs had been executed for looting.
    There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two to eight hours waiting for a drink.  The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and the next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again.  This situation improved when a second faucet was added.
    There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing when it had been soiled.  In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the camp and mess kits could not be washed.  The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon overflowing since most of the POWs had dysentery.  The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp including the POW kitchens and in the food.
    The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant.  When the ranking American doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies, he was told never to write another letter.  Tsuneyoshi also told the doctor that the only thing he wanted to know about the Americans was their names and serial numbers when they died.
    The Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the camp, the Japanese commandant refused to allow the truck into the camp.  When the Japanese Red Cross sent medical supplies the camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
    The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them.  When a representative of the Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150 bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a Japanese lieutenant.
    Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to the hospital and placed underneath it.  The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried in the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria.  To clean the ground under the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it.  The bodies of the dead were placed in the area, and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
    Work details were sent out on a daily basis.  Each day, the American doctors gave a list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work.  If the quota of POWs needed to work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick, but could walk, to work.  The death rate among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day.
    The burial detail would carry the dead to the cemetery and put the corpse in the grave. Since the water table was high, so that it could be covered with dirt, one POW held the body down with a pole while dirt was thrown on the corpse.  The next day when the burial detail returned to the cemetery, the dead often were dug up by wild dogs or sitting up in their graves.
    On June 1, 1942, the POWs formed detachments of 100 men each and were marched to Capas.  There, the were put in steel boxcars with two Japanese guards.  The trip was not as bad since the POWs had more room in the boxcars.  At Calumpit, the train was switched onto another line which took it to Cabanatuan.  The POWs disembarked and were taken to a schoolyard where they were fed cooked rice and onion soup.  From there, they were marched to Cabanatuan which had been the headquarters of the 91st Philippine Army Division and was formerly known at Camp Panagaian.
    The camp was actually three camps. Camp 1 housed the POWs who had been captured on Bataan and held at Camp O'Donnell.  Camp 2 was two miles from Camp 1 and was closed because it lacked an adequate water supply.  It was later reopened and held Naval POWs.  Camp 3 was eight miles from Camp 1 and six miles from Camp 2.  It housed the POWs from Corregidor and those men who had been hospitalized when Bataan surrendered.  The camp was later closed and the POWs were sent to Camp 1. The camp was actually three camps. Camp 1 housed the POWs who had been captured on Bataan and held at Camp O'Donnell.  Camp 2 was two miles from Camp 1 and was closed because it lacked an adequate water supply.  It was later reopened and held Naval POWs.  Camp 3 was eight miles from Camp 1 and six miles from Camp 2.  It housed the POWs from Corregidor and those men who had been hospitalized when Bataan surrendered.  Camps 1 and 3 were later consolidated into one camp.
    The barracks were built for 50 men, but most had 60 to 120 men in them.  Each man had a are two feet wide by six feet long to sleep in.  The POWs slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, bedding, and mosquito netting.  Disease soon spread quickly.
    To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a detail that patrolled the fence of the camp.  The reason this was done was that those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed, while the other POWs were made to watch.  In September 1942, three officers were caught attempting to escape.  After being beaten for day, they were shot.  In October, seven POWs were made to dig their own graves and shot.  It is believed that no POW successfully escaped from the camp.
    The POWs were sent out on work details to cut wood for the POW kitchens.  Meals on a daily basis consisted of 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, and sweet potato or corn.  Other POWs worked in rice paddies.  Each morning, after arriving at the farm, the POWs went into a tool shed to get their tools.  As they left the shed, the guards hit them on their heads.  While working in the fields, the favorite punishment given to the men in the rice paddies was to have their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on by a guard.  Returning from a detail the POWs bought, or were given, medicine, food, and tobacco, which they somehow managed to get into the camp even though they were searched when they returned.
    The Camp 1 hospital was made up of 30 wards.  Zero ward had been missed when the wards were being counted so it was given the name of "Zero Ward."  The ward became the place were POWs who were going to die were sent.  The Japanese were so terrified by it, that they put a fence up around it and would not go near the building.   Inside the buildings were two rolls of wooden platforms along the walls.  The sicker POWs were put on the lower platform which had holes cut into them.  This allowed the POWs to relieve themselves without having to get off the platform.  In November 1942, the death rate among the POWs was 9 men each day.  When Red Cross packages were given out for Christmas, and other changes were made, the death rate dropped.

    During his time as a POW, he was sent to Batangas, Batangas, to build runways at an airfield in January 1943.  The POWs on the detail rotated between working on a farm one day and on the airfield the next day.  Most of the POWs on the detail returned to Cabanatuan in September 1944.  According to medical records kept at Cabanatuan, he was sent to Building 8 on September 4, 1944.  When he was discharged is not known.

    As American forces approached the Philippines, the Japanese began sending large numbers of POWs to other parts of the empire.  In early October, he was sent to Manila for shipment to Japan.  When Thomas' group of POWs arrived at the Port Area of Manila, on October 10, 1944, they were boarded onto the Arisan Maru.  The POWs had been scheduled to be boarded onto the Hokusen Maru, but since one of the POW groups, in his detachment, had not arrived on time, and the ship was ready to sail, the Japanese switched the POW groups and the Hokusen Maru sailed on October 3.  

    Thomas' POW group was crammed into the first hold of the ship.  They were packed in so tightly that they could not move.  Those who used the wooden bunks along the hull found that once they laid down, the bunks were so close together that they could not sit up in them. Five men died in the hold in the first twenty-four hours.  

    On October 10, 1944, the ship sailed.  Instead of heading toward Formosa, it headed south to Palawan Island, where the ship dropped anchor in a cove.  This was done to avoid American planes.  While it was there, the Port of Manila were bombed by American planes.  Within the first 48 hours, five men had died.

    It was during this time that the POWs figured out how to turn the hold's ventilation fans on by wiring them into the ship's lighting system.  Although the Japanese had removed the lights, they had not turned off the power.  For two days conditions in the hold improved because the POWs had fresh air.  When the Japanese discovered what the POWs had done, they turned off the power to the hold.
    After this, the prisoners began to develop heat blisters.  The Japanese soon realized that if they did not do something, the ship would be a death ship.  To relieve the situation in the hold, they transferred 600 of the POWs to the ship's first hold which was partially filled with coal.  During the move, one of the POWs was shot and killed while attempting to escape.  During this time, the POWs, each day, were allowed three ounces of water and two rations of rice.  Twice every 24 hours, the POWs received half a mess kit of rice.

    The ship returned to the Manila on October 20, where, it joined a convoy.  On October 21, after loading bananas and other foods, the convoy left Manila and entered the South China Sea.  The Japanese also issued life jackets to the POWs which could float for about two hours.  According to survivors, all this did was reinforced in the Americans the fear of being killed by their own countrymen.    
    The Japanese refused to mark POW ships with red crosses to indicate they were carrying POWs.  In addition, U.S. military intelligence was reading the Japanese messages as fast as the Japanese.  To protect this secret, they did not tell the crews, of the submarines, that ships were carrying POWs which made the ships targets for the submarines. 
    The evening of October 24 at about 5:00 P.M., the convoy was in the Bashi Channel, of the South China Sea, off the coast of China, when it came under attack by American submarines. The waves were high since a storm had just passed.  At about 5:50 P.M., a number of POWs were on deck preparing dinner.  About half the POWs on the ship had been fed.  When the guards ran to the bow of the ship and watched a torpedo as it barely missed the ship.  The guards next ran to the stern of the ship, and a second torpedo passed behind the ship.
    Suddenly the Arisan Maru shook, it had been hit by two torpedoes from the U.S.S. Shark, amidships, killing POWs while those still alive began cheering wildly.  A little while later the cheering ended and the men realized they were facing death. 

    The guards went after the POWs who cooking dinner and began beating them with their guns and forcing them into the #2 hold.  Once they were in the hold the Japanese cut the rope ladders and slammed down the hatch cover. 

    The Japanese abandoned ship, but cut the rope ladders into the ship's holds before they left.  A few POWs managed to get out of the first hold and reattached the rope ladders and dropped them into the holds to the other POWs. 
    The surviving POWs made their way onto the deck.  On the ship's deck an American major spoke to the POWs and said, "Boys, we're in a hellva a jam - but we've been in jams before.  Remember just one thing: We're American soldiers.  Let's play it that way to the very end of the script."  Right after he spoke, a chaplain said to them, "Oh Lord, if it be thy will to take us now, give us the strength to be men."

    According to surviving POWs, the stern of the ship began going under which caused the ship to split in half but remain afloat.  It was about this time that about 35 POWs swam to the nearest Japanese ship.  When the Japanese realized that they were POWs, they pushed them underwater with poles and drowned them or hit them with clubs.  Those POWs who could not swim raided the food lockers for a last meal.  These men wanted to die with full stomachs.       

    Three POWs found a lifeboat abandoned by the Japanese and manged to climb into it.   According to them, as night fell, the cries for help grew fainter and fainter until there was silence.  Only nine of the nearly 1800 men who boarded the ship survived the sinking. Eight of these men survived the war.

    Pvt. Thomas E. Hurtt died in the sinking of the Arisan Maru in the South China Sea on October 24, 1944.  Since he was lost at sea, his name appears on the Tablets of the Missing at the American Military Cemetery outside Manila.


 

 

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