Bataan Project

Tec 5 Ralph Kinley Hite


    T/5 Ralph K. Hite was born on July 14, 1916, in Logan, Ohio, and was the son of George E. Hite & Lillian M. Bright-Hite.  With his sister, he grew up at 590 East Front Street, in Logan, and graduated from Logan High School in 1934.  After high school, he worked as a clerk in a grocery store.
    On March 5, 1941, at Fort Hayes in Columbus, Ohio, he was inducted into the U.S. Army and sent to Ft. Knox, Kentucky, for basic training.  During his basic training he attended radio operators school and qualified as a tank radioman. He was assigned to Headquarters Company, 192nd Tank Battalion, and was assigned to one of the half-tracks assigned to the company.
   Ralph received a furlough home and arrived home on August 2nd and returned to  Ft. Knox on August 9th.  It was not too long after returning that t he 192nd was sent to Louisiana, to take part in maneuvers.  After the maneuvers, the battalion was ordered to Camp Polk instead of returning to Ft. Knox as they had expected.  On the side of a hill, the battalion learned they were being sent overseas.   Men too old to go overseas were released from federal service, and replacements for these men came from the 753rd Tank Battalion.
    The decision for this move -  which had been made in August 1941 - was the result of an event that took place in the summer of 1941.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island which was hundred of miles away.  The island had a large radio transmitter.  The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
    When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.  The next day, when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its deck - which was seen making its way to shore.   Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult, the boat escaped.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines. 
    Many of the members of the battalion were given leave so that they could say goodbye to family and friends from October 6 to 12, before returning to Camp Polk and traveling by train to San Francisco, California.  From San Francisco, the tankers were ferried to Ft. McDowell, on the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Cox e, to Angel Island were they were given physicals and inoculated for tropical diseases by the battalion's medical detachment.  Some men were held back for health issues but scheduled to join the battalion at a later date, while other men were simply replaced.
    The 192nd boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Gen. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27.  During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP.   The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2 and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
    On Wednesday, November 5, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes.  It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and, another transport, the S.S. President Calvin Coolidge.  Sunday night, November 9, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11.  During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Dateline.  On Saturday, November 15, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon.  The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke.  It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
    When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day.  At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning.  At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.  Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
    At the fort, they were greeted by Colonel Edward King, who apologized that the men had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Field.  He made sure that they all received what they needed, and that the had Thanksgiving Dinner, which was a stew thrown into their mess kits, before he went to have his own dinner.
    For the next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their weapons which had been greased so they wouldn't rust while at sea.  They also loaded ammunition belts and did tank maintenance as they prepared for maneuvers with the 194th Tank Battalion.
 

     The tanks were ordered to the perimeter of the Clark Field to guard against Japanese paratroopers on Monday, December 1st, to guard against paratroopers.  Two members of each tank and half-track crews remained with their vehicles at all times.  The morning of December 8th, the battalion's officers were informed of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and ordered to their units.   Howard was assigned to one of the half-tracks of HQ Company, used for reconnaissance, which meant he was at the perimeter of the airfield.  Howard can be seen in a half-track photo , that often appears in books on the Battle of Bataan.
    The tank battalion received orders on December 21st that it was to proceed north to Lingayen Gulf.   Because of logistics problems, the B and C Companies soon ran low on gas.  When they reached Rosario, there was only enough for one tank platoon, from B Company, to proceed north to support the 26th Cavalry.
    On December 23rd and 24th, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta.   The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of river.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening, but they successfully crossed the river.
    On December 25th, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road.  The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27th, when the tanks fell back toward Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan, and at San Isidro, south of Cabanatuan, on December 28th and 29th.  While there, the bridge over the Pampanga River was destroyed, but once again, they were able find a crossing over the river.    

    The evening of April 8, 1942, Capt. Fred Bruni, HQ's commanding officer, gave his men the news of the surrender.  While informing the members of the company of the surrender, he waved his arm toward the tanks and told the men that they would no longer need them.  As he spoke, his voice choked.  He turned away from the men for a moment, and when he turned back he continued.  He next told the sergeants what they should do to disable the tanks.  During the announcement, Bruni emphasized that they all were to surrender together.   He told the soldiers to destroy their weapons and any supplies that could be used by the Japanese.  The only thing they were told not to destroy were the company's trucks.  The men waited in their bivouac until ordered to move.  Somehow, Bruni had found enough bread and pineapple juice for what he called , "Their last supper."             
     After the surrender, the members of the company remained in their bivouac until April 11th, when the first Japanese soldiers appeared at their encampment.  A Japanese officer ordered the company members, with their possessions, out onto the road that ran in front of their bivouac.  Once on the road, the soldiers were ordered to kneel along the sides of the road, with their possessions in front of them.  As they knelt, the Japanese soldiers, who were passing them, went through their possessions and took whatever they wanted from the Americans.
    After this, the company boarded their trucks and drove to just outside of Mariveles.  From there, they walked to Mariveles Airfield and sat and waited.  As they sat, the POWs noticed a line of Japanese soldiers forming across from them.  They soon realized that this was a firing squad and the Japanese were going to kill them.

    As they sat watching and waiting to see what the Japanese intended to do, a Japanese officer pulled up in a car and got out.  He spoke to the sergeant in charge of the detail.  The officer got back in the car and drove off.  After he drove off, the Japanese sergeant ordered the soldiers to lower their guns.      

    Later in the day, Ralph's group of POWs was moved to a school yard in Mariveles, where the POWs were left sitting in the sun for hours.  The Japanese did not feed them or give them water.  Behind the POWs were four Japanese artillery pieces which began firing on Corregidor and Ft. Drum which had not surrendered.  Shells from these two American forts began landing among the POWs.  The POWs could do little since they had no place to hide and some were killed by incoming American shells.  One group that tried to hide in a small brick building died when it took a direct hit.  The American guns did succeed in knocking out three of the four Japanese guns.          

    When the POWs were ordered to move again, by the Japanese, they had no idea that they had started what became known as the death march.  During the march, Ralph received no water and little food.  It took the members of HQ Company six days to reach San Fernando.  Once there, the POWs were put into a bull pen that had a fence around it.  In one corner was a slit trench to be used as a toilet by the POWs.  The surface of the trench moved since it was covered in maggots.  The POWs had enough room to sit, but they could not lie down. 

    During their time in the bull pen, the POWs watched the Japanese bury three POWs.  Two were still alive.  When one of the men attempted to climb out of the grave, he was hit in the head with a shovel and buried.

    The POWs were ordered to form 100 men detachments and marched to the train station.  There, they were put into small wooden boxcars and taken to Capas.  The cars could hold forty men or eight horses, but the Japanese packed 100 men into each car and closed the doors.  Those who died remained standing until the living climbed out of the cars.  From Capas, the POWs walked the last ten miles to Camp O' Donnell.

    Camp O'Donnell was an unfinished Filipino training base that the Japanese pressed into service as a Prisoner of War camp.  It turned out to be a death trap with as many as fifty POWs dying each day.  There was only one working water faucet for the entire camp.  To get a drink, men stood in line for days.  Many died while waiting for a drink.  POWs went out on work details to get out of the camp.
    The dead, at Camp O'Donnell, were taken to the camp cemetery and buried in shallow graves.  The reason for this was that the water table was high and the POWs could not dig deep.  Once a body was put in the ground, it was held down with a pole until it was covered by earth.  The next day, the POWs, on the detail, found wild dogs had dug up the bodies or the bodies were sitting up in the graves.
    To get out of the camp, Ralph volunteered to go out on the Bridge Building Detail.  The POWs were divided into two groups.  One group of POWs was sent to a saw mill to cut lumber, while the second group rebuilt the bridges that had been destroyed during the withdraw into Bataan.  The detail was under the command of Col. Ted Wickord who had been the commanding officer of the 192nd.  He attempted to fill the detail with men from the Provisional Tank Group.
   Ralph was in the group of POWs that was assigned to the saw mill.  On the detail, he stacked lumber that had just been cut.  According to
George Dravo , HQ Company, Ralph and five other men ate "Pony Candy" and came down with dysentery after eating it.  Dravo stated that all five died, from dysentery, within six months of eating the candy.
    Tec 5 Ralpk K. Hite died while on the temporary detail on May 26, 1942. 
The POWs made a hardwood casket for Ralph and buried him at Famy-Sinloan Cemetery #2 at Famay.  The Japanese gave the POWs two bunches of flowers for the grave and allowed the POWs to make a cross for the grave.  On the cross, they put his name, rank, and serial number. 
    After the war, Ralph's remains, at the request of his family, were buried in the new American Cemetery at Manila.  He was buried in Plot D, Row 9, Grave 39.  In addition, George Dravo and
Jacques Merrifield mailed letters to Ralph's mother.  In one letter, Merrifield returned Ralph's wallet to his mother.


 

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