|Pvt. Clifford Wayne
Clifford W. Fusselman was born on May 19, 1919, in Copan, Washington County,
Oklahoma, to Clifford R. Fusselman and Dona V.
Price-Fusselman. With his two sisters and
brother, he grew up in Jefferson, Oklahoma, and
graduated high school. After high school, he
worked as a roustabout in the oil industry.
He was known as "Wayne" to his family and friends.
In early 1941, he was drafted into the U.S. Army and inducted on March 19, 1941, in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. He was sent to Fort Knox, Kentucky, for basic training. It is not known what training he received.
After completing basic training, he was sent to Camp Polk, Louisiana, in the late summer of 1941. There, he was assigned to the 753rd Tank Battalion. The battalion had been sent to Camp Polk from Ft. Benning, Georgia. Maneuvers were taking place at the fort, but the 753rd did not take part in them.
When the maneuvers ended, the 192nd Tank Battalion - which had taken part in the maneuvers - was given orders to remain at the fort. It was on the side of a hill that the members of the battalion learned they were being sent overseas as part of Operation PLUM. Within hours, many had figured out that PLUM stood for Philippines, Luzon, Manila. Men, 29 years old or older, were given six hours to resign from federal service. Replacements for these men came from the 753rd Tank Battalion. Wayne volunteered, or had his name drawn, to join the 192nd and was assigned to C Company.
The decision for this move - which had been made in August 1941 - was the result of an event that took place in the summer of 1941. A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd. He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance. He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island which was hundred of miles away. The island had a large radio transmitter. The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day. The next day, when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its deck - which was seen making its way to shore. Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult, the boat escaped. It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
The company traveled west by train to San Francisco, California, and was taken by ferry to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island on the ferry the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe. At Ft. McDowell, they were given physicals and inoculated for overseas duty. Those men found to have a minor medical condition were held back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date, while other men were simply replaced.
The 192nd boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Gen. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27. During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP. The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2 and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
On Wednesday, November 5, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes. It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and, another transport, the S.S. President Calvin Coolidge. Sunday night, November 9, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11. During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Dateline. On Saturday, November 15, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon. The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke. It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day. At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout. This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way. The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning. At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg. Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
At the fort, they were greeted by Gen. Edward King, who apologized that they had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Feld. He made sure that they all received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own. Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
For the next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their weapons. The grease was put on the weapons to protect them from rust while at sea. They also loaded ammunition belts and did tank maintenance. The tanks were ordered to the perimeter of the Clark Airfield to guard against Japanese paratroopers on December 1. Two members of each tank crew remained with each tank at all times. That morning of December 8, 1941, the tankers were informed of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. When they looked up that morning, the sky was filled with American planes. At noon, the planes landed and the pilots went to lunch.
Around 12:45 in the afternoon, the tankers noticed planes approaching the airfield. When bombs began exploding around them, they knew the planes were Japanese. Besides their .50 caliber machine guns, they had few weapons to use against the planes. Most took cover and waited out the attack. After it ended, they saw the destruction done by the bombs.
The tank battalion received orders on December 21st that it was to proceed north to Lingayen Gulf. Because of logistics problems, the B and C Companies soon ran low on gas. When they reached Rosario, there was only enough for one tank platoon, from B Company, to proceed north to support the 26th Cavalry.
On December 23 and 24, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta. The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of river. As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening. They successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
On December 25, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27.
The tankers were fell back toward Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27, and December were at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan on December 28 and 29. While there, the bridge over the Pampanga River was destroyed, they were able find a crossing over the river.
At Cabu, seven tanks fought a three hour tank battle with the Japanese. The main Japanese line was south of Santa Rosa Bridge ten miles to the south. The tanks were hidden in brush as Japanese troops passed them for three hours without knowing that they were there. While the troops passed, Lt. William Gentry was on his radio describing what he was seeing. It was only when a Japanese soldier tried take a short cut through the brush, that his tank was hidden in, that the tanks were discovered. The tanks turned on their sirens and opened up on the Japanese. They then fell back to Cabanatuan.
C Company was re-supplied and withdrew to Baluiag where the tanks encountered Japanese troops and ten tanks. It was at Baluiag that Raymon's tank company won the first tank victory of World War II against enemy tanks.
On December 31, 1941, Capt. William Gentry, commanding officer of C Company, sent out reconnaissance patrols north of the town of Baluiag. The patrols ran into Japanese patrols, which told the Americans that the Japanese were on their way. Knowing that the railroad bridge was the only way into the town and to cross the river, Lt. Gentry set up his defenses in view of the bridge and the rice patty it crossed.
Early on the morning of the 31st, the Japanese began moving troops and across the bridge. The engineers came next and put down planking for tanks. A little before noon Japanese tanks began crossing the bridge.
Later that day, the Japanese had assembled a large number of troops in the rice field on the northern edge of the town. One platoon of tanks under the command of 2nd Lt. Marshall Kennady were to the southeast of the bridge. Gentry's tanks were to the south of the bridge in huts, while third platoon commanded by Capt Harold Collins was to the south on the road leading out of Baluiag. 2nd Lt. Everett Preston had been sent south to find a bridge to cross to attack the Japanese from behind.
Major John Morley, of the Provisional Tank Group, came riding in his jeep into Baluiag. He stopped in front of a hut and was spotted by the Japanese who had lookouts in the town's church steeple. The guard became very excited so Morley, not wanting to give away the tanks positions, got into his jeep and drove off. Gentry had told Morley that his tanks would hold their fire until he was safely out of the village.
When Gentry felt the Morley was out of danger, he ordered his tanks to open up on the Japanese tanks at the end of the bridge. The tanks then came smashing through the huts' walls and drove the Japanese in the direction of Lt. Marshall Kennady's tanks. Kennady had been radioed and was waiting.
Kennady held his fire until the Japanese were in view of his platoon and then joined in the hunt. The Americans chased the tanks up and down the streets of the village, through buildings and under them. By the time C Company was ordered to disengage from the enemy, they had knocked out at least eight enemy tanks.
C Company withdrew to Calumpit Bridge after receiving orders from Provisional Tank Group. When they reached the bridge, they discovered it had been blown. Finding a crossing the tankers made it to the south side of the river. Knowing that the Japanese were close behind, the Americans took their positions in a harvested rice field and aimed their guns to fire a tracer shell through the harvested rice. This would cause the rice to ignite which would light the enemy troops.
The tanks were about 100 yards apart. The Japanese crossing the river knew that the Americans were there because the tankers shouted at each other to make the Japanese believe troops were in front of them. The Japanese were within a few yards of the tanks when the tanks opened fire which caused the rice stacks to catch fire. The fighting was such a rout that the the tankers were using a .37 mm shell to kill one Japanese soldier.
Wayne's tank company was next sent to the Barrio of Porac to aid the Filipino Army which was having trouble with Japanese artillery fire. From a Filipino lieutenant, they learned where the guns were located and attacked. Before the Japanese withdrew, the tanks had knocked out three of the guns.
After this, the tanks withdrew to the Hermosa Bridge and held it on the north side until all the troops were across. The tanks then crossed to the south and destroyed the bridge which held the Japanese up for a few days. This was the beginning of the Battle of Bataan.
During the Battle of the Points the tanks were sent in to wipe out Japanese troops that had broken through the main defensive line and than trapped behind the line after the Filipino and American troops pushed the Japanese back. According to members of the battalion they resorted two ways to wipe out the Japanese.
The first method was to have three Filipino soldiers sit on the back of the tanks with sacks of hand grenades. When the Japanese dove back into their foxholes, the tank would go over it and the soldiers would drop three hand grenades into the foxhole. Since the ordnance was from World War I, one out of three hand grenades would explode.
The second method was simple. The tank was parked with one track across the foxhole. The driver spun the tank on one track. The tank dug into the dirt until the Japanese soldiers were dead. According to members of the battalion, the tankers slept upwind from the tanks.
About 6:45 in the morning of April 9, 1942, the tankers received the order "crash." They destroyed their tanks and waited for the Japanese to make contact with them. When they did, the Americans officially became Prisoners of War. They made their way, as a company, to Mariveles at the southern tip of Bataan. There, they started what they simply referred to as "the march."
From Mariveles, the POWs made their way north to San Fernando. They received little food and almost no water. At San Fernando, the POWs were packed into a bull pin. In one corner was a slit trench that was used as a washroom. The surface moved from the maggots that covered it.
The Japanese ordered the POWs to form detachments of 100 men. They were marched to the train station and put into small wooden boxcars that were used to haul sugarcane. The cars could hold forty men or eight horses and were known as "Forty or Eights." The Japanese packed 100 men into each car. Those who died remained standing until the living left the cars at Capas. From there, they walked the last miles to Camp O'Donnell.
Camp O'Donnell was an unfinished Filipino Army Training Base that the Japanese pressed into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942. When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese confiscated any extra clothing that the POWs had and refused to return it to them. They searched the POWs and if a man was found to have Japanese money on them, they were taken to the guardhouse. Over the next several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of the camp. These POWs had been executed for looting.
There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two to eight hours waiting for a drink. The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and the next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again. This situation improved when a second faucet was added.
There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing when it had been soiled. In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the camp and mess kits could not be washed. The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon overflowing since most of the POWs had dysentery. The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp including the POW kitchens and in the food.
The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant. When the ranking American doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies, he was told never to write another letter.
The Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the camp, the Japanese commandant refused to allow the truck into the camp. When the Japanese Red Cross sent medical supplies the camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them. When a representative of the Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150 bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a Japanese lieutenant.
Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to the hospital and placed underneath it. The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried in the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria. To clean the ground under the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it. The bodies of the dead were placed in the area, and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
Work details were sent out on a daily basis. Each day, the American doctors gave a list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work. If the quota of POWs needed to work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick, but could walk, to work. The death rate among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day. The Japanese finally acknowledge that they had to do something, so the opened a new POW camp at Cabanatuan.
On June 1, 1942, the POWs formed detachments of 100 men each and were marched to Capas. There, the were put in steel boxcars with two Japanese guards. At Calumpit, the train was switched onto another line which took it to Cabanatuan. The POWs disembarked and were taken to a schoolyard where they were fed cooked rice and onion soup. From there, they were marched to Cabanatuan which had been the headquarters of the 91st Philippine Army Division and was formerly known at Camp Panagaian.
To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a detail that patrolled the fence of the camp. The reason this was done was that those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed, while the other POWs were made to watch. It is believed that no POW successfully escaped from the camp. The POWs were sent out on work details to cut wood for the POW kitchens. Meals on a daily basis consisted of 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, and sweet potato or corn. The POWs worked on the camp farms from 7:00 in the morning until 5:00 in the evening. Most of the food they grew went to the Japanese not them. Other POWs worked in rice paddies.
The POW barracks were built to house 50 POWs, but most held between 60 and 120 men. The POWs slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, or mosquito netting. The result was many became ill.
Each morning, the POWs lined up for roll call. While they stood at attention, it wasn't uncommon for them to be hit over the tops of their heads. In addition, one guard frequently kicked them in their shins with his hobnailed boots. after arriving at the farm, the POWs went into a tool shed to get their tools. As they left the shed, the guards hit them on their heads. While working in the fields, the favorite punishment given to the men in the rice paddies was to have their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on by a guard. Returning from a detail the POWs bought, or were given, medicine, food, and tobacco, which they somehow managed to get into the camp even though they were searched when they returned.
The camp hospital was composed of 30 wards. The ward for the sickest POWs was known as "Zero Ward," which got its name because it had been missed when the wards were counted. The name soon meant the place where those who were extremely ill went to die. Each ward had two tiers of bunks and could hold 45 men but often had as many as 100 men in each. Each man had a two foot wide by six foot long area to lie in. The sickest men slept on the bottom tier since the platforms had holes cut in them so the sick could relieve themselves without having to leave the tier.
It is known that Wayne was held at Cabanatuan as a POW and assigned to Barracks 4, Group 3. On August 8, 1942, he was admitted into the camp hospital suffering from diarrhea. It is not known when he was discharged since no date is given on the records kept by the medical staff.
In late September 1944, Wayne's name appeared a roster of POWs being sent to Japan. Trucks took the POWs to the Port Area of Manila. After arriving at the port, the Japanese decided to swap POW detachments so the Hokusen Maru could sail. Since Wayne's detachment had completely arrived at the port, the Japanese put the his detachment on the ship. The ship they had been scheduled to sail on, the Arisan Maru, was sunk by an American submarine resulting in the deaths of 1794 POWs.
The POWs remained in the holds for two days before the Hokusen Maru sailed on October 3, 1944. During the voyage north the convoy the ship was part of was attacked by American submarines resulting in the sinking of several ships. It took the surviving ships eight days to reach Hong Kong. They dropped anchor there on October 11th. While in port, the ships were attacked by American planes.
The convoy left Hong Kong on October 21st for Formosa. It arrived at Takao Formosa, on October 24th, but they remained in the ship's holds until November 8th when they were disembarked. Since the POWs were in such bad shape, the Japanese opened an new POW camp which was given the designation of Inrin Temporary Camp. The POWs were given light work to do. Those who were in better shape worked at harvesting sugarcane or at a sugarcane mill.
On January 13, the POWs were taken back to Takao and boarded onto the Melbourne Maru. The ship, as part of a convoy, headed to Korea. During this part of the trip another ship, the Daiho Maru engine broke down and was towed by the Brazil Maru. The ship finally arrived at Moji, Japan, on January 23, 1945.
After disembarking from the ship, the POWs were taken to the train station and sent to various POW camps in Japan. In Jesse's case, he was taken to Sendai #3 where the POWs worked for the Mitsubishi Mining Company at a lead and zinc mine. The POWs in the camp were housed in three barracks and used as slave labor to mine lead and zinc in a mine owned by the Mitshbishi Mining Company.
Although the Japanese received Red Cross packages for the POWs, they were not given to the POWs. Red Cross medicines and medicals supplies that would help the prisoners were not given to them. The camp doctor was known to eat vitamin tablets from the packages in front of the POWs.
The sick POWs were forced to work in the mine when they were physically unable to work. Those who reported for sick call had to line up in the hallway to the Japanese doctor's office and take off all their clothes before they entered. While in line, they were often slapped in the face. The doctor made the POWs stand at attention, bow, and follow orders given to them. Since this took so much time, most of the POWs were never examined and had to work. Cold weather clothing and blankets from the Red Cross were never given out to the POWs who had to sleep in the poorly heated barracks in the winter. At some point Clifford became so ill that he was sent to the Shinagawa Hospital which was part of the Tokyo #1-B which was located on a small island that had been reclaimed by the POWs. Before he left the camp, the boots he had been issued were taken away.
There were seven barracks in the camp and one served as the headquarter for all the Tokyo camps. The POW barracks at the hospital were flimsy and made out of wood and were referred to as barns or huts. Each barracks had four big rooms and two small bunks at the end of each building. There were 19 straw mats and 16 lockers in each barracks. When a window broke, it was not replaced allowing wind to blown into the barracks even thought there was glass available. The POWs washed their dishes in the same sinks used to wash soiled clothing. None of the barracks were heated. The only time any type of heating took place was right before the International Red Cross visited the hospital in March 1945. The sick slept often slept together on a mat for warmth. Lice were a problem in the barracks and there was also a rat problem.
The camp interpreter could not be trusted to tell the truth or he withheld information. He found it amusing to make the POWs slaute trees and made them stand at attention for hours. The POWs worked as stevedores while those who were assigned to the hospital were given the job of maintaining the camp.
Meals for the POWs consisted of barley and millet as the main part of each meal. Occasionally, the POW received Miso Soup. Once in a great while they received seaweed, octopus, and daikon which was a Japanese radish. Rice was seldom seen in their meals.
The American medical staff had little to no medicine to treat the sick with since most of the Red Cross packages had been rifled through and about half of what was in the packages had been appropriated by the Japanese. Dr. Hisakichi Tokuda also would cancel the requests for certain drugs made by the POW doctors.
Red Cross boxes, medicine, medical equipment, clothing, and shoes were kept from the POWs. The only concern the Japanese had was to get as many POWs working as possible. If a sick man could stand, he was sent to work.
Punishment took different forms. One was to have the POWs slap each other in the face. The POWs were also slapped, punched, hit with rifle butts and bamboo poles. Collective punishment also took place in the camp and all the POWs were forced to stand at attention when one many violated a camp rule. As they stood there, the POWs were kicked with hob-nailed boots.
According to records, Japanese doctor, Tokuda, performed a pneumothorax on Clifford, on February 10, since his lung had collapsed and the doctor was attempting relieve pressure on his lung. As it turned out, this operation may have only postponed his death. Medical records show that Pvt. Clifford W. Fusselman died of pulmonary tuberculosis and pellagra on Wednesday, March 28, 1945. After his death, his body was taken to a crematorium and his ashes given to the camp commandant. Since his final resting place is unknown, Pvt. Clifford W. Fusselman name appears on the Tablets of the Missing at the American Military Cemetery at Manila.
After the war, Dr. Tokuda was found guilty of various crimes committed against the POWs but was found not guilty of contributing to the death of Pvt. Clifford Fusselman.