Sgt. Morgan R. French
Sgt. Morgan R. French was
born on August 21, 1919, in Boyle County to
Clifton & Mary Alice Smith-French. He
had two brothers and six sisters. He joined
the Kentucky National Guard in 1937 to, in his own
words, "get a break from farming." He was called to federal
duty from Harrodsburg, Kentucky, on November 25,
1940. With him in the National Guard Company
was his brother, Edward.
At Fort Knox, Kentucky, his tank company was
designated D Company, 192nd Tank
Battalion. Morgan spent nearly a year
there training. He would become the crew
chief of the maintenance section of the
company. His job was to stay with the
tanks. To do this, he rode a motorcycle.
From September 1st through 30, 1941, the
battalion took part in maneuver in
Louisiana. It was after these maneuvers
that the battalion was ordered to Camp Polk,
Louisiana, instead of returning to Ft.
Knox. At the fort, they learned that their
battalion was being sent overseas as part of
Operation PLUM. Many of the men received
furloughs home to say their goodbyes and
returned to Camp Polk. Men, 29 years old
or older, were given the opportunity to resign
from federal service and replaced with men from
the 753rd Tank Battalion. The 192nd also
received the M3 "Stuart" Tanks of the 753rd.
Morgan believed the Japanese had two objectives
in their attack. One was to destroy the
air corps; the other was to destroy the
tanks. He believed the first bomb hit a
large mess hall. He recalled seeing
people, arms, and legs flying through the
Morgan found himself standing alone near the
mess hall. He jumped on a motorcycle
and rode off trying to reach the motor
pool. As he rode, Japanese Zeros came
after him. As he rode, bombs hit the fuel
dump and it went up in flames. Smoke and fire
were everywhere. He abandoned the
motorcycle and dove into a ditch. There,
he put on a gas mask because of the dust and
odor. As he lay there, he shot at the
planes with his .45 caliber handgun. In
his own words, "I
was so scared that I didn't
know my name, I don't think. But after
that day, as the time went
along, I mean I was always leery, but I
never was scared that much
The attack lasted three or four
hours. At one point, an old Filipino who
was drunk passed Morgan. He looked at
Morgan and said, "Oh!
War games!" Morgan responded with, "These aren't games!"
Morgan told the man to
get down, but the Filipino just kept
walking. Morgan believed that the
man was never hurt.
After the attack, Morgan found the body of Robert Brooks who had been killed during the attack. Brooks had been hit by shrapnel which took off half of his head and part of his shoulder.
From that day on, the Japanese flew over
daily. Morgan watched as they strafed and
bombed. He recalled that there were bombs
all over the airfield that had not
exploded. Written on the side of the bombs
were the words, "Rock Island Arsenal". The
United States sold the bombs to Japan before the
war, and they were now being used on them.
The 194th, with D Company, was moved, the night
of the 12th, to an area south of San Fernando
near the Calumpit Bridge arriving there at 6:00
A.M. On December 13, the tankers were
moved 80 kilometers from Clark Field to do
reconnaissance and to guard beaches. On
the 15th, the battalion received 15 Bren gun
carriers but turned some over to the 26th
Cavalry, Philippine Scouts. These were
used to test the ground to see if it could
During the withdraw into Bataan, Morgan stated
that the tanks fought for two or three miles at
a time. They would then withdraw from each
engagement. Morgan's job, being
maintenance crew chief, was to keep the tanks
Since there was no air cover, the tanks moved at night and hid during the day. They quickly learned to remove anything that glittered to prevent the Japanese from spotting them. Meals for the tankers were held before dawn or after dusk to prevent the mess kits from reflecting lights.
On one occasion, the tankers were moving their tanks to a sugarcane field. They discovered that the field was filled with Japanese soldiers. The tankers opened fired and killed over 300 Japanese soldiers.
Morgan stated that the Japanese would send
raiding parties into the Filipino and American
lines at night. They would kill someone
and then drop back. To prevent themselves
from giving away their positions, the Americans
had orders to use bayonets at night and not
General Weaver also issued the following orders
to the tank battalions around this time, "Tanks will
execute maximum delay, staying in position
and firing at visible enemy until further
delay will jeopardize withdrawal. If a
tank is immobilized, it will be fought until
the close approach of the enemy, then
destroyed; the crew previously taking
positions outside and continuing to fight
with the salvaged and personal weapons.
Considerations of personal safety and
expediency will not interfere with
accomplishing the greatest possible delay."
The morning of April 8, 1942, Morgan and the other tankers were informed that General King had gone to meet with the Japanese to negotiate a surrender. In his words, "He had no choice at all. We had no food, no ammunition, and no gasoline. He did the right thing." They received orders to destroy their tanks. After doing so, Morgan and other members of D Company decided that they would try to escape instead of surrendering. Morgan attempted to find his brother, Edward, but couldn't. He assumed that Edward had already escaped. With Maurice Wilson, Morgan reached Corregidor on a boat they found in a cave.
After arriving on the island, Morgan heard that his brother, Edward, had been wounded and was in a hospital on Bataan. He had been hit in the neck and had both eardrums broken.
Morgan recalled that they were ragged, dirty and tired. They had not eaten in two or three days and had not shaved for two or three weeks. He had not bathed in a month.
While on Corregidor, Morgan stayed in the Middleside Barracks. He and the other men hid under the pool table when the island was bombed by the Japanese. Deciding that this was not the place he wanted to be, Morgan and Jack Wilson volunteered to go to Ft. Drum. They were taken to the island on a barge.
The fort was built over a coral reef and seemed to be invincible. In Morgan's opinion, the soldiers in the fort could have held out forever.
When Morgan arrived at Ft. Drum, he noticed that the soldier's stationed there did not even have sunburns. Being dirty, the first thing that he and the other volunteers did was to take showers, shave and get new clothes. During his time at Ft. Drum, he ate and slept well.
Sometime while Morgan was at Ft. Drum, he came down with malaria. Another American got him through the attack. As it turned out, this man would later be executed as a prisoner of war. Morgan was witnessed the execution and could not do anything to help him.
While on Ft. Drum, Morgan watched as the Japanese shelled Corregidor. He also lived through the shelling of Ft. Drum. On one occasion, the Americans at the fort returned fire. Morgan later learned that one of their shells landed short of its target and hit the hospital that his brother was being held in. Morgan would later learn that fragments from the shell killed his brother and 25 other Americans.
On May 6, 1942, Morgan and the other soldiers at Ft. Drum learned of Corregidor's surrender. They too were ordered to surrender. He and the other men didn't expect the Japanese to take prisoners. They destroyed their equipment and waited until May 10th before the Japanese arrived to take control of the island.
The Japanese arrived on the island and set up machine guns. Morgan and the other men believed that they were going to be shot. The Japanese lined the prisoners up and took what they wanted from the men. They also were beaten. It was the worse day of Morgan's life up to the time.
Morgan and the other Prisoners of War were put on small boats and taken to an area near Manila. There, they were held in sugarcane warehouse. Around 4:00 in the afternoon, they were lined up and put on a work detail. The POWs passed rocks all night, all day and night again. As they worked, the Japanese guarding them drank from buckets of water but made no effort to give any to the POWs.
After three days, Morgan and the other men were returned to the warehouse. They received food and water and then were loaded onto ships. They were taken to Manila, disembarked, and marched ten miles to Bilibid Prison. Anyone who fell out was left behind.
During the march, Morgan saw Filipino's flash him and the other Americans the "V" for victory. Other Filipinos tried to give them coconuts. Those who were caught were beaten by the Japanese.
Morgan was held at Bilibid Prison for a short
time and then taken to Cabanatuan #3, which was
the camp that all POWs from Corregidor were
taken. At some point, the Japanese moved
all the POWs from Camp 3 to Camp 1.
Cabanatuan #1 had been the headquarters of the
91st Philippine Army Division and was formerly
known at Camp Panagaian.
Morgan did not remain too long in the
Philippines. He was on one of the first
transports to Japan. On November 6, 1942,
Morgan, Marcus Lawson, Doc Sparrow and Elzie
Anness were boarded onto the Nagato Maru
for transport to Japan. The ship sailed as
part of a three ship convoy on November
7th. At one point, the hatches were
covered when a submarine was spotted in the
area. The POWs knew what was going on
since they felt the vibrations from depth
charges through the haul of the ship.
Seventeen POWs died in the holds before the ship
reached Takao, Formosa.
Morgan and the other men worked seven days a
week. They were given one day off in warm
weather. It was so cold in the winter,
that the water remained frozen from December
1942 until March 1944. One POW somehow
manged to alter the blueprints for the
dry-dock. Morgan and the other men worked
this detail for two years until the Japanese
ended it after discovering that the dry-dock was
too short to be used.
Morgan did recall that the POWs, in the camp,
were fed rice three times a day. Once in
awhile, they received a fish head, piece of
beef, or a piece of pork in the rice.
While he was a POW at Tanagawa, Elze Aness became extremely ill. According to Morgan, Elzie worked hard even after he showed signs of being sick. His friends tried to get him to stop working so hard, but he continued to do so. Morgan and Marcus Lawson put Elzie in the Zero Ward in their barracks. He recalled that Elzie just stared and did not blink. When Elzie died, Morgan volunteered to work the burial detail. The POWs took Elzie's body to a crematorium and watched as Elzie's remains were reduced to ash. Morgan attempted to get Marcus Lawson - who had been Elzie's best friend since grade school - to volunteer for the detail, but Marcus could not bare to watch the cremation.
Prisoner beatings in the camp occurred on a
daily basis for the slightest reason.
Since the POWs were sick and weak, they usually,
did not meet their required quota for the day
which resulted in a beating. At some
point, almost every prisoner in the camp
received at least one severe beating. Most
of the time they were slapped and punched.
From August 5, 1944, until March 28, 1945, there
was one beating a day which required the POW
receive medical treatment.
The prisoners were once again transferred to Osaka
#5-B. This time, Morgan and the
others were used as stevedores. The POWs
were housed in a condemned two story customs
house on the docks. The building had been
condemned since it was close to the docks and
could possibly be hit during an air raid.
In the camp, whenever there was an air
raid, the next day when the POWs took their
places for roll call, every POW who was number
29 in his detachment was beaten. This
happened several times in the next several
Since the Japanese saw the prisoners as slaves,
they attempted to get them to unload
bombs. The POWs went on strike instead of
doing this. In an attempt to break the
strike, the Japanese made the men stand at
attention for 24 hours. The POWs realized
that the Japanese were not going to give in, so
they decided that they would unload the bombs,
but attempt to damage them. They were able
to do this since the Japanese were afraid to go
near the bombs. They had no idea that the
bombs were not armed.
As he war went on, American planes began to appear in the sky. On one occasion, the planes bombed the camp Morgan was at with incendiary bombs. The reason for this was that the Japanese had identified the camp as a factory. What kept the camp from burning down was it was raining. Morgan noted that after the rain, the Japanese guards left the camp to look for their families. The town near the camp was destroyed in the air raid.
It was Morgan's belief that the atomic bomb was saved him and the other POWs from being killed by the Japanese. One day while Morgan was outside he saw a mushroom cloud. He did not know it, but he had witnessed the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki.
The ranking American officer was told by the Japanese camp commander that had American troops landed on Honshu, he had orders to kill his prisoners. In Morgan's opinion the Japanese had never let killing the prisoners bother them before, so why would this order bother them.
Morgan knew that the war was over when American planes appeared over the camp and began dropping pamphlets saying so. The POWs also were instructed to put out a banner saying what they needed. The planes reappeared and dropped fifty gallon drums of food and clothes. Morgan ate so many Hershey bars that he became ill.
The former prisoners took the guns away from the guards who surrendered them without a fight. The men remained in the camp because they were unsure how safe they would be outside of it.
On September 9, 1945, Morgan and the other men took a train to Yokohama. The next day, they were officially liberated. It was at this time that Morgan saw a nurse and could not believe that women were in the army. The nurse asked him where he was from. When he said Harrodsburg, Kentucky, she hugged him. It turned out that she was from Somerset, Kentucky.
Morgan and the other men were disinfected,
shaved and given new clothes. They were
processed and returned to the Philippines.
In Manila, they were given anything that they
wanted. After receiving medical treatment,
Morgan returned to the United States on the
U.S.S. General R. L. Howze arriving in San
Francisco on October 16, 1945. He was sent
to Letterman General Hospital for further
One night, he and several other former POWs snuck out of the hospital and made their way to a local bar. When the patrons of the bar learned that they had been Japanese POWs, for almost four years, they bought them round after round of drinks.
Morgan returned to Harrodsburg. He remained in the army and did two tour of duties in Korea. After he returned home, he married, Maxine Milby, in 1954, and raised a family. He retired from the Army in 1962 and went to work as a civilian tank instructor at Ft. Knox until he retired in 1984.
Morgan French passed away on February 24, 2012, in Plano, Texas. He was the last surviving National Guard member of D Company and was buried at North Hardin Memorial Cemetery in Radcliff, Kentucky.
On October 12, 2012, at Fort Knox, Kentucky, the U.S. Army named its new barracks for the Warrior Transition Unit after Morgan French. As far as it is known, he was the last surviving National Guard member of D Company.