FlemingC

 

1st Lt. Charles Arthur Fleming


    1st Lt. Charles A. Fleming was born to Clyde & Susie Fleming in 1911 in Missouri.  It is known he had one brother. The boys were raised at 2803 Sacramento Street, Saint Joseph, Missouri.  He worked as a gas station owner.  At some point, he joined the Missouri National Guard.  When his tank company was federalized on February 11, 1941, and sent to Fort Lewis, Washington, for training, he held the rank of staff sergeant.   The company was designated B Company, 194th Tank Battalion.

    Charles married Helen A. Hansen on April 18, 1941, while home on leave from Ft. Lewis.  At some point, Charles attended Officers Candidates School and was commissioned a second lieutenant and made a tank platoon commander.  He was transferred from B Company to A Company. which had been a Minnesota National Guard tank company.  He later served as the battalion's tank communication officer.
    On August 15, 1941, orders were issued at Ft. Knox, Kentucky, to the 194th for duty in the Philippines because of an event that happened during that summer.  A squadron of American fighters were flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a buoy in the water.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island.  When the squadron landed he reported what he had seen.  The next morning, when another squadron flew to the area, the buoys had been picked up and a fishing boat was seen heading toward shore.  Since communication was poor between the Air Corps and Navy, the boat was not intercepted.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.

    The battalion was ordered to San Francisco, California, and arrived at 7:30 A.M. on September 4th and ferried, on the U.S.A.T. Generl Frank M. Coxe to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island, where they received physicals and inoculations.  Those who had health issues were held back and replaced by other soldiers.  They boarded the S.S. President Calvin Coolidge and sailed to the Philippine Islands at 9:00 P.M. on September 8th.  The soldiers were quartered in the hold of the ship while the officers slept in wardrooms shared by four officers.  At 7:00 A.M. on Saturday, September 13th, the ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, and the soldiers were allowed ashore, but had to be on board the ship before the the ship sailed at 5:00 P.M. 
    After leaving Hawaii, the ship was joined by, heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Astoria and an unknown destroyer.  On several occasions smoke was seen on the horizon and the cruiser revved its engines up and took off in the direction of the smoke.  Each time, the ship belonged to a friendly country.  The ships arrived in Manila Bay on Friday, September 26th, in the morning, but the soldiers did not disembark until 3:00 P.M.  The battalion, minus itís maintenance section, rode buses to Ft. Stotsenburg.  The maintenance section, and 17th Ordnance, remained behind on the pier to unload the tanks and reattach the turrets which had been removed so that the tanks would fit in the ship's hold.

    The soldiers were greeted by Colonel Edward King who apologized to them that they had to live in tents.  He made sure they were settled into their bivouac before he left.

    The soldiers spent the next weeks cleaning their weapons of cosmoline.  The guns were sealed in it to prevent them from rusting on the trip to the Philippines.  At one point, the battalion went on a maneuver to Lingayen Gulf.

    The first week of December, 1941, the 194th was ordered to its position at Clark Field.  Their job was to protect the airfield from paratroopers.  Two crew men remained with the tanks at all times.  On December 8th, Charles, and the rest of the battalion, lived through the Japanese attack on Clark Airfield.  The bombing took place just ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor.  At 12:45 that afternoon, planes approached the field from the north.  At first the tankers thought the planes were American.  When bombs exploded on the runways, the tankers knew they were Japanese.

    Charles took part in the Battle of Luzon from December 8, 1941 until January 6, 1942.  During that time his battalion was ordered to an area south of Manila to help slow advancing Japanese troops.  On January 7, the tankers entered Bataan before the last bridge was blown up.  The Battle of Bataan had now begun. 

    As communications officer, Charles spent much of his time in a truck which had been equipped with scavenged radio equipment.  The equipment was made operational by Charles and Cpl. Francis Aram.
    On April 3rd, at 3:00 P.M., the Japanese lunched a major offensive with fresh troops brought in from the Dutch East Indies and the Singapore.  The line was pushed back far enough that the Japanese long range artillery could shell the rear area.  It was at this time that General Edward King made the decision to send his staff officers to negotiate the surrender of Bataan.
    The morning of April 9th somewhere between 6:30 and 6:45 A.M., the order "bash" was given.  This meant the the tank battalions were to destroy their tanks and any other equipment that had military value to the Japanese.  At 7:00 A.M., Canby became a Prisoner of War.
    HQ Company was ordered the next day, to move to the headquarters of the Provisional Tank Group, which was at kilometer marker 168.2.  At 7:00 P.M. on the 10th, the POWs were ordered to march.  They made their way from the former command post, and at first found the walk difficult.  When they reached the main road, walking became easier.  At 3:00 A.M., they were given an hour break before being ordered to move again at 4:00 A.M.  The column reached Lamao at 8:00 A.M., where the POWs were allowed to forage for food before marching again at 9:00.
    When the POWs reached Limay, officers with ranks of major or higher, were separated from the enlisted men and the lower ranking officers.  The higher ranking officers were put on trucks and driven to Balanga from where they march north to Orani.  The lower ranking officers and enlisted men reached the barrio later in the day having march through Abucay and Samal.
    At 6:30 in the evening, the POWs were ordered to form detachments of 100 men.  Once this was done, they resumed the trip north, but this time they were marched at a faster pace and were given few breaks.  When they did receive a break, they had to sit in the road until they were ordered to move.
    When they were north of Hermosa, the POWs reached pavement which made the march easier.  At 2:00 A.M., they received an hour break, but any POW who attempted to lay down was jabbed with a bayonet.  After the break, they were marched through Layac and Lurao.  It was at this time that a heavy shower took place and many of the men opened their mouths in an attempt to get water.
    The men were marched until 4:00 P.M., when they reached San Fernando.  Once there, they were herded into a bull pen, surrounded by barbwire, and put into groups of 200 men.  One POW from each group went to the cooking area which was next to the latrine, and received a box of rice that was divided among the  men.  Water was given out in a similar manner with each group receiving a pottery jar of water to share.
    At 4:00 A.M., the Japanese woke the men up and organized them into detachments of 100 men.  From the compound, they were marched to the train station, where they were packed into small wooden boxcars known as "forty or eights."  Each boxcar could hold forty men or eight horses, but the Japanese packed 100 men into each car and closed the doors.  The POWs were packed in so tightly that the dead could not fall to the floor.  At Capas, as the living left the cars and those who had died - during the trip - fell to the floors of the cars.  As they left the cars, the Filipino civilians threw sugarcane and gave the POWs water. 

    The POWs marched eight kilometers to Camp O'Donnell. The camp was an unfinished Filipino Army Training Base.  The Japanese pressed the camp into use as a POW camp. 

    There was only one water spigot for the entire camp.  If a prisoner wanted a drink of water, he had to stand in line for hours.  Often, when a man reached the spigot, the Japanese guard would turn off the water for no reason. 

    Charles was next held at Cabanatuan and assigned to Barracks #29 which was a barracks assigned to officers.  This camp had been opened because the death rate at Camp O'Donnell was so high, that the Japanese knew they had to do something to lower it.   The death rate among the POWs dropped when they were given their first Red Cross Packages.

    In October 1942, Charles and other prisoners were loaded onto a ship and sent to Davao, Mindanao.  They were taken to a camp about 36 miles from Davao City.  There, the POWs were unloaded and used as labor.  Some of the POWs were used as labor at construction sites while others farmed in the camp farm.  Many of the POWs were ill and needed vitamins.  The fruit that was being grown on the farm could have helped the prisoners, but it was allowed to rot on the ground by the Japanese instead of being given to the prisoners.

    At the camp, the POWs were housed in eight barracks that were about 148 feet long and about 16 feet wide.  A four foot wide aisle ran down the center of each barracks.  In each barracks, were eighteen bays.  Twelve POWs shared a bay.  216 POWs lived in each barracks.  Four cages were later put in a bay.  Each cage held two POWs.

    The camp discipline was poor.  The American commanding officer changed frequently.   The junior officers refused to take orders from the senior officers. Soon, the enlisted men spoke anyway they wanted to, to the officers.  The situation improved because the majority of the POWs realized that discipline was needed to survive.

    At first, the work details were not guarded.  The POWs plowed, planted, and harvested the crops.  The sick POWs made baskets.  In April 1943, the POWs working conditions varied.  Those working the rice fields received the worst treatment.  They were beaten for not meeting quotas, misunderstandings between the POWs and guards, and a translator who could not be trusted to tell the truth.

    Charles spent almost two years at Davao.  As the American forces got closer to the Philippine Islands, the Japanese began to send as many POWs to Japan or other occupied countries as possible.  On June 6, 1944, the Japanese sent the POWs to Lasang, Mindano, by truck.  Once there, the POWs were boarded onto the Yashu Maru and held in the ship's front holds for six days before it sailed.  The ship sailed on the 12th and dropped anchor off Zamboanga, Mindano, for two days before sailing for Cebu City arriving on June 17th.  The POWs were taken off the ship and held in a warehouse.  The POWs were returned to the dock and boarded an unnamed ship and arrived at Manila on June 25th.  

    The POWs were later taken to Bilibid Prison.  Charles remained there for several months.  Since the prison was surrounded by high walls which meant the POWs were starved for news of the outside world.     

    On December 12, 1944, the POWs heard rumors that a detail was being sent out.  The POWs went through what was a farce of an inspection.  They were told cigarettes, soap, and salt would be issued.  The POWs were also told that they would also receive a meal to eat and one to take with them.  The Japanese stated they would leave by 7:00 in the morning, so the lights were left on all night.  At 4:00 a.m. the morning of December 13th, Charles and the other POWs were awakened.

    By 8:00, the POWs were lined up roll call was taken and the names of the men selected for transport to Japan were called.  The prisoners were allowed to roam the compound until they were told to "fall-in."  The men were fed a meal and then marched to Pier 7 in Manila.  During the march down Luzon Boulevard, the POWs saw that the street cars had stopped running and many things were in disrepair.

    The Americans saw that the American bombers were doing a job on the Japanese transports.  There were at least forty wrecked ships in the bay.  When the POWs reached Pier 7, there were three ships docked.  One was a old run down ship, the other two were large and in good shape.  They soon discovered one of the two nicer ships was their ship. 

     It was at this time that the POWs were allowed to sit down.  Many of the POWs slept until 3:45 in the afternoon.  They were awakened about 5:00 PM and boarded the Oryoku Maru for transport to Japan. The high ranking officers were the first put into the ship's afthold.  Being the first on meant that they would suffer many deaths.  Around the perimeter of the hold were two tiers of bunks for the POWs.  The heat was so bad that men soon began to pass out.  One survivor said, "The fist fights began when men began to pass out.  We knew that only the front men in bay would be able to get enough air."  The POWs who were closer to the hold's hatch used anything they could find to fan air toward those further away from it.
    The ship sailed and became a part of a convoy, MATA 37, which moved without lights.  The cries for air began as the men lost discipline, so the Japanese threatened to cover the holds and cut off all air.  When the Japanese sent down fried rice, cabbage, and fried seaweed, those further back from the opening got nothing.
    At 10:00 P.M., the Japanese interpreter threatened to have the guards fire into the holds unless the POWs stopped screaming.  Some of the POWs fell silent because they were exhausted, and others because they had died.  One major of the 26th Cavalry stated the man next to him had lost his mind.  Recalling the conversation he had with the man he said, "Worst was the man who had gone mad but would not sit still.  One kept pestering me, pushing a mess kit against my chest, saying, 'Have some of this chow? It's good.'  I smelled of it, it was not chow. 'All right'  he said, 'If you don't want it. I'm going to eat it.' And a little later I heard him eating it , right beside me."
    The Japanese covered the holds and would not allow the slop buckets to be taken out of the holds.  Those POWs who were left holding the buckets at first asked for someone else to hold it for awhile.  When that did not work, they dumped the buckets on the men around them.
    As light began to enter the hold as morning came, the POWs could see men who were in stupors, men out of their minds, and men who had died.  The POWs in the aft hold which also had a sub-hold, put the POWs who out of their minds into it.
    On the side of the holds, water had condensed on the walls so the POWs tried to scrap it off the wall for a drink.  The Japanese did allow men who had passed out to be put on deck, but as soon as they revived they went back into the holds.  The Japanese would not allow the bodies of the men who had died to be removed from the holds. 
    The POWs received their first meal at dawn.  Meals on the ship consisted of a little rice, fish, some water, and three fourths of a cup of water was shared by 20 POWs.  It was 8:00 A.M., off the coast of Luzon, and the POWs had just finished eating breakfast when they heard the sound of guns.  At first, they thought the gun crews were just drilling, because they had not heard any planes.  It was only when the first bomb hit in the water and the ship shook that they knew it was not a drill.
     At first it seemed that most of the planes were attacking the other ships in the convoy.  Commander Frank Bridgit, had made his way to the top of the ladder into the hold and sat down.  He gave the POWs a play by play of the planes attacking, "I can see two planes going for a freighter off our starboard side.  Now two more are detached from the formation.  I think they may be coming for us."
    The POWs heard the change in the sound of the planes' engines as they began their dives toward the ships in the convoy.  Several more bombs hit the water near the ship causing it to rock  Explosions were taking place all around the ship.  In an attempt to protect themselves, the POWs piled baggage in front of them.  Bullets from the planes were ricocheted in the hold causing many casualties.  .
    Lt. Col. Elvin Barr of the 60th Coast Artillery came up to Maj, John Fowler of the 26th Cavalry on the cargo deck and said, "There's a hole knocked in the bulkheads down there.  Between 30 and 40 men have already died down there."  Barr would never reach Japan.  The attack by 30 to 50 planes lasted for about 20 to 30 minutes.  When the planes were ran out of bombs they strafed.  Afterwards, the planes flew off, returning to their carrier, and there was a lull of about 20 to 30 minutes before the next squadron of planes appeared over the ships and resumed the attack.  This pattern repeated itself over and over during the day.
    In the hold, the POWs concluded that the attacking planes were concentrating on the bridge of the ship.  They noted that the planes had taken out all the anti-aircraft guns leaving only .30 caliber machine guns to defend the ship.
    At 4:30 P.M., the ship went through the worse attack on it.  It was hit at least three times by bombs on its bridge and stern.  Most of the POWs, who were wounded, were wounded by ricocheting bullets and shrapnel from exploding bombs.  During the attack Chaplain Cummings, a Catholic priest, led the POWs in the Our Father.  As they prayed, the bombs that exploded near the ship sent torrents of water over the ship.  Bullets from the planes hit the metal plates, of the haul, at an angle that prevented most of them from penetrating the haul.  Somewhere on the ship a fire started, but it was put out after several hours.  The POWs lived through seven or eight attacks before sunset.  Overall, six bombs hit the ship.  One hit the stern of the ship killing many POWs.
    At dusk the ship raised anchor and headed east.  It turned south and turned again this time heading west.  The next turn it made was north. It headed in this direction for a good amount of time before dropping anchor at about 8:00 P.M.  The POWs figured out that they had just sailed in a circle.  What had happened is that the ship's had been hit during the attack and the ship could not be steered.
    Sometime after midnight, the POWs heard the sound of the Japanese civilians being evacuated from the ship.  During the night, the POW medics were ordered onto the deck to treat the Japanese wounded.  One medic recalled that the dead, dying, and wounded were everywhere.
    The ship reached Subic Bay at 2:30 in the morning and steamed closer to the beach where its anchor was dropped.  At 4:00 A.M., the POWs were told that they would disembark at daybreak at a pier.  The moaning and muttering of POWs who were losing their minds kept the POWs up all night.  That night 25 POWs died in the hold.
    It was December 15th and the POWs sat in the ship's holds for hours after dawn.  The first 35 POWs were taken out of the hold and went into the water.  At 8:00 A.M. as the other POWs waited, the sound of A Japanese guard yelled into the hold at the POWs, "All go home; speedo!" He shouted that the wounded would be the first to be evacuated.  Suddenly, he looked up and shouted, "Planes, many planes!"  As the POWs were abandoning ship the planes returned and continued the attack.  The ship bounced in the water from the explosions.  Chief Boatswain Clarence M. Taylor who was in the water said, "I saw the whole thing. A bomb fall, hit near the stern hatch, and debris go flying up in the air."
    In the hold, the POWs crowded together.  Chips of  rust fell on them from the ceiling.  After the raid, they took care of the wounded before the next attack started.  In the hold a Catholic priest, Father Duffy, began to pray, "Father forgive them.  They know not what they do."
    The Japanese guards and interpreter had abandoned ship, but the ship's captain remained on board.  He told the POWs in his limited English that they needed to get off the ship to safety.  The POWs made their way over the side and into the water.  As they swam to shore, the Japanese fired at them, with machine guns, to prevent them from escaping. 
    Four of the planes flew low over the water above the POWs.  The POWs waved frantically at the planes so they would not be strafed.  The planes banked and flew lower over the POWs.  This time the pilots dipped their wings to show that they knew the men in the water were Americans.  About a half hour later, the ship began to really burn and the bodies of the dead could be seen on the decks.
    The Japanese sent out a motorboat with a machine gun and snipers on it.  The POWs attempting to escape were hunted down and shot.  It is believed as many as 30 men died in the water.
    There was no real beach so the POWs climbed up on a seawall and found the the Japanese Naval Landing Party had set up a machine gun and had just laid flat to rest when the gun opened up on them.   Those who came ashore were warned to stay in the water, but only did so when one man climbed up on the seawall and was wounded.  There were also Japanese snipers in wait to shoot anyone who attempted to escape.
    The POWs were gathered together and marched to the tennis court at Olongapo Naval Station which was about 500 yards from the beach.  There, they were herded onto a tennis court.  The Japanese packed 1300 of the POWs on the court with 100 wounded POWs taking up a great amount of room at one end.  They could barely sit down and only lay down by lying partially on another man.  It was at this time a count was taken of the POWs and it was determine almost 400 had died.

    It is not known if Charles died during the attack on the Oryoku Maru by the American fighter planes, if he died during the explosions that took place on the ship, or if he died while swimming to shore.  What is known is that he was reported as dying on December 15, 1944, during the sinking of the Oryoku Maru.  His family did not learn of his death until July 25, 1945. 
    1st Lt. Charles Fleming's name appears on the Tablets of the Missing at the American Military Cemetery at Manila, Philippine Islands.  


 

 

 

 

 

 

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