1st Lt. Charles A. Fleming was born to Clyde R. Fleming &
ssie L. Morris-Fleming
on June 16, 1911, in Missouri.
It is known he had one brother
y were raised at 2803 Sacramento Street, Saint Joseph, Missouri
There is conflicting information on his occupation. S
ome records show he owned
a gas station owner while
others show he worked as an
At some point, he joined the Missouri National Guard.
When his tank company was federalized on February 11, 1941, and sent to Fort Lewis, Washington, for training,
he held the rank of staff sergeant.
The company was designated B Company, 194th Tank Battalion.
Charles married Helen A.
Kuhn on April 18, 1941, while home on leave from Ft. Lewis.
At some point, Charles attended Officers Candidates School and was commissioned a second lieutenant, on July
10, 1941, and made a tank platoon commander.
He was transferred from B Company to A Company
which had been a Minnesota National Guard
later served as the battalion's tank communication officer.
The decision for this move - which had been made on August 15, 1941 - was the result of an
event that took place in the summer of 1941. A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf,
in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd. He
took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance. He came
upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese
occupied island which was hundred of miles away. The island had a large radio transmitter. The
squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day. The next day,
when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its
deck - which was seen making its way to shore. Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was
difficult, the boat escaped. It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military
presence in the Philippines.
The battalion was ordered to San Francisco, California, and arrived at 7:30 A.M. on
September 4th and ferried, on the
U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island, where they received physicals and inoculations from the battalion's
medical detachment. Those who had health issues were held back and replaced by other soldiers. They
S.S. President Calvin Coolidge
and sailed to the Philippine Islands at 9:00 P.M. on September 8th. The soldiers were quartered in the
hold of the ship while the officers slept in wardrooms shared by four officers. At 7:00 A.M. on Saturday,
September 13th, the ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, and the soldiers were allowed ashore, but had to be on
board the ship before the the ship sailed at 5:00 P.M.
After leaving Hawaii, the ship was joined by, heavy cruiser, the
and an unknown destroyer. On several occasions smoke was seen on the horizon and the cruiser revved its
engines up and took off in the direction of the smoke. Each time, the ship belonged to a friendly
country. The ships arrived in Manila Bay on Friday, September 26th, in the morning, but the soldiers did
not disembark until 3:00 P.M. The battalion, minus itís maintenance section, rode buses to Ft.
Stotsenburg. The maintenance section, and 17th Ordnance, remained behind on the pier to unload the tanks
and reattach the turrets which had been removed so that the tanks would fit in the ship's hold.
The soldiers were greeted by Gen. Edward P. King who apologized to them that they had to
live in tents. He made sure they were settled into their bivouac before he left. The battalion moved
in barracks on November 15. The soldiers spent the next weeks cleaning their weapons of cosmoline.
The guns were sealed in it to prevent them from rusting on the trip to the Philippines. At one point, the
battalion went on a maneuver to Lingayen Gulf.
The first week of December 1941, the 194th was ordered to its position at Clark
Field. Their job was to protect the airfield from paratroopers. Two crew men remained with the tanks
at all times. On December 8, Charles, and the rest of the battalion, lived through the Japanese attack on
Clark Airfield. The bombing took place just ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor. At 12:45 that
afternoon, planes approached the field from the north. At first the tankers thought the planes were
American. When bombs exploded on the runways, the tankers knew they were Japanese.
Charles took part in the Battle of Luzon from December 8, 1941 until January 6, 1942.
During that time his battalion was ordered to an area south of Manila to help slow advancing Japanese
troops. On January 7, the tankers entered Bataan before the last bridge was blown up. The Battle of
Bataan had now begun.
As communications officer, Charles spent much of his time in a truck which had been equipped with scavenged
The equipment was made operational by Charles and Cpl. Francis Aram.
On April 3, at 3:00 P.M., the Japanese lunched a major offensive with fresh troops brought
in from the Dutch East Indies and the Singapore. It was at this time that Gen. King knowing that the
situation was hopeless sent officers to negotiate the surrender of Bataan. The reality was that only 25% of
his troops were healthy enough to fight. He believed that they would last one more day. In addition,
6,000 of his troops were hospitalized from wounds or illness, and he had 40,000 civilians he was protecting whom
he believed would be massacred.
Tank battalion commanders received this order
, "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy
within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat
vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as
The morning of April 9 somewhere between 6:30 and 6:45 A.M., the order "
" was given. This meant the the tank battalions were to destroy their tanks and any other equipment
that had military value to the Japanese. At 7:00 A.M., Canby became a Prisoner of War.
HQ Company was ordered the next day, to move to the headquarters of the Provisional Tank
Group, which was at kilometer marker 168.2. At 7:00 P.M. on the 10th, the POWs were ordered to march.
They made their way from the former command post, and at first found the walk difficult. When they reached
the main road, walking became easier. At 3:00 A.M., they were given an hour break before being ordered to
move again at 4:00 A.M. The column reached Lamao at 8:00 A.M., where the POWs were allowed to forage for
food before marching again at 9:00.
When the POWs reached Limay, officers with ranks of major or higher, were separated from
the enlisted men and the lower ranking officers. The higher ranking officers were put on trucks and driven
to Balanga from where they march north to Orani. The lower ranking officers and enlisted men reached the
barrio later in the day having march through Abucay and Samal.
At 6:30 in the evening, the POWs were ordered to form detachments of 100 men. Once
this was done, they resumed the trip north, but this time they were marched at a faster pace and were given few
breaks. When they did receive a break, they had to sit in the road until they were ordered to move.
When they were north of Hermosa, the POWs reached pavement which made the march
easier. At 2:00 A.M., they received an hour break, but any POW who attempted to lay down was jabbed with a
bayonet. After the break, they were marched through Layac and Lurao. It was at this time that a heavy
shower took place and many of the men opened their mouths in an attempt to get water.
The men were marched until 4:00 P.M., when they reached San Fernando. Once there,
they were herded into a bull pen, surrounded by barbwire, and put into groups of 200 men. One POW from each
group went to the cooking area which was next to the latrine, and received a box of rice that was divided among
the men. Water was given out in a similar manner with each group receiving a pottery jar of water to
At 4:00 A.M., the Japanese woke the men up and organized them into detachments of 100
men. From the compound, they were marched to the train station, where they were packed into small wooden
boxcars known as "forty or eights." Each boxcar could hold forty men or eight horses, but the
Japanese packed 100 men into each car and closed the doors. The POWs were packed in so tightly that the
dead could not fall to the floor. At Capas, as the living left the cars and those who had died - during the
trip - fell to the floors of the cars. As they left the cars, the Filipino civilians threw sugarcane and
gave the POWs water.
The POWs marched eight kilometers to Camp O'Donnell. The camp was an unfinished
Filipino Army Training Base. The Japanese pressed the camp into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942.
When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese confiscated any extra clothing that the POWs had and refused to
return it to them. They searched the POWs and if a man was found to have Japanese money on them, they were
taken to the guardhouse. Over the next several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of the
camp. These POWs had been executed for looting.
There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two to
eight hours waiting for a drink. The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and the
next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again. This situation
improved when a second faucet was added.
There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing when it
had been soiled. In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the camp and
mess kits could not be washed. The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon overflowing
since most of the POWs had dysentery. The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp including the
POW kitchens and in the food.
The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant. When the ranking American
doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies, he
was told never to write another letter.
The Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the camp, the Japanese
commandant refused to allow the truck into the camp. When the Japanese Red Cross sent medical supplies the
camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six medic
assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them. When a representative of the
Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150 bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a
Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to the
hospital and placed underneath it. The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried in
the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria. To clean the ground under
the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it. The bodies of the dead were placed in the
area, and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
Work details were sent out on a daily basis. Each day, the American doctors gave a
list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work. If the quota of POWs needed to
work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick, but could walk, to work. The death rate
among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day. The Japanese finally acknowledge that they had to do something,
so the opened a new POW camp at Cabanatuan.
On June 1, 1942, the POWs formed detachments of 100 men each and were marched to
Capas. There, the were put in steel boxcars with two Japanese guards. At Calumpit, the train was
switched onto another line which took it to Cabanatuan. The POWs disembarked and were taken to a schoolyard
where they were fed cooked rice and onion soup. From there, they were marched to Cabanatuan which had been
the headquarters of the 91st Philippine Army Division.
To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a detail that patrolled the fence of the camp.
The reason this was done was that those who did escape and were caught, were tortured before being executed,
while the other POWs were made to watch. It is believed that no POW successfully escaped from the
camp. The POWs were sent out on work details to cut wood for the POW kitchens. Meals on a daily basis
consisted of 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, and sweet potato or corn. The POWs worked
on the camp farms from 7:00 in the morning until 5:00 in the evening. Most of the food they grew went to
the Japanese not them. Other POWs worked in rice paddies.
The POW barracks were built to house 50 POWs, but most held between 60 and 120 men.
The POWs slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, or mosquito netting. The result was many became
Charles was assigned to Barracks #29 which was a barracks assigned to officers
Each morning, the POWs lined up for roll call. While they stood at attention, it
wasn't uncommon for them to be hit over the tops of their heads. In addition, one guard frequently
kicked them in their shins with his hobnailed boots. after arriving at the farm, the POWs went into a tool shed
to get their tools. As they left the shed, the guards hit them on their heads. While working in the
fields, the favorite punishment given to the men in the rice paddies was to have their faces pushed into the mud
and stepped on by a guard. Returning from a detail the POWs bought, or were given, medicine, food, and
tobacco, which they somehow managed to get into the camp even though they were searched when they returned.
The camp hospital was composed of 30 wards. The ward for the sickest POWs was known
as "Zero Ward," which got its name because it had been missed when the wards were counted. The
name soon meant the place where those who were extremely ill went to die. Each ward had two tiers of bunks
and could hold 45 men but often had as many as 100 men in each. Each man had a two foot wide by six foot
long area to lie in. The sickest men slept on the bottom tier since the platforms had holes cut in them so
the sick could relieve themselves without having to leave the tier.
The death rate among the POWs dropped when they were given their first Red Cross Packages. He remained
in the camp until his name was listed as being sent out on a work detail to Davao.
In October 1942, Charles and other prisoners were loaded onto a ship and sent to Davao, Mindanao.
They were taken to a camp about 36 miles from Davao City.
There, the POWs were unloaded and used as labor.
Some of the POWs were used as labor at construction sites while others farmed in the camp farm.
Many of the POWs were ill and needed vitamins.
The fruit that was being grown on the farm could have helped the prisoners, but it was allowed to rot on the
ground by the Japanese instead of being given to the prisoners.
At the camp, the POWs were housed in eight barracks that were about 148 feet long and about 16 feet wide.
A four foot wide aisle ran down the center of each barracks.
In each barracks, were eighteen bays.
Twelve POWs shared a bay.
216 POWs lived in each barracks.
Four cages were later put in a bay.
Each cage held two POWs.
The camp discipline was poor.
The American commanding officer changed frequently.
The junior officers refused to take orders from the senior officers. Soon, the enlisted men spoke anyway they
wanted to, to the officers.
The situation improved because the majority of the POWs realized that discipline was needed to
At first, the work details were not guarded.
The POWs plowed, planted, and harvested the crops.
The sick POWs made baskets.
In April 1943, the POWs working conditions varied.
Those working the rice fields received the worst treatment.
They were beaten for not meeting quotas, misunderstandings between the POWs and guards, and a translator who
could not be trusted to tell the truth.
Charles spent almost two years at Davao.
As the American forces got closer to the Philippine Islands, the Japanese began to send as many POWs to
Japan or other occupied countries as possible. On June 6, 1944, the Japanese sent the POWs to Lasang,
Mindano, by truck. Once there, the POWs were boarded onto the
and held in the ship's front holds for six days before it sailed. The ship sailed on the 12th and
dropped anchor off Zamboanga, Mindano, for two days before sailing for Cebu City arriving on June 17th. The
POWs were taken off the ship and held in a warehouse. The POWs were returned to the dock and boarded an
unnamed ship and arrived at Manila on June 25th.
The POWs were later taken to Bilibid Prison.
Charles remained there for several months.
Since the prison was surrounded by high walls which meant the POWs were starved for news of the outside
On December 12, 1944, the POWs heard rumors that a detail was being sent out.
The POWs went through what was a farce of an inspection.
They were told cigarettes, soap, and salt would be issued.
The POWs were also told that they would also receive a meal to eat and one to take with them.
The Japanese stated they would leave by 7:00 in the morning, so the lights were left on all night.
At 4:00 a.m. the morning of December 13th, Charles and the other POWs were awakened.
By 8:00, the POWs were lined up roll call was taken and the names of the men selected for transport to Japan
The prisoners were allowed to roam the compound until they were told to "fall-in."
The men were fed a meal and then marched to Pier 7 in Manila.
During the march down Luzon Boulevard, the POWs saw that the street cars had stopped running and many things
were in disrepair.
The Americans saw that the American bombers were doing a job on the Japanese transports.
There were at least forty wrecked ships in the bay.
When the POWs reached Pier 7, there were three ships docked.
One was a old run down ship, the other two were large and in good shape.
They soon discovered one of the two nicer ships was their ship.
It was at this time that the POWs were allowed to sit down. Many of the POWs
slept until 3:45 in the afternoon. They were awakened about 5:00 PM and boarded the
for transport to Japan. The high ranking officers were the first put into the ship's aft-hold.
It is kn
wn that this was the hold Charles was in. Being the first on meant that
they would suffer many deaths. Around the perimeter of the hold were two tiers of bunks for the POWs.
The heat was so bad that men soon began to pass out. One survivor said
, "The fist fights began when men began to pass out. We knew that only the front men in bay
would be able to get enough air."
The POWs who were closer to the hold's hatch used anything they could
find to fan air toward those further away from it.
The ship sailed and became a part of a convoy, MATA 37, which moved without lights.
The cries for air began as the men lost discipline, so the Japanese threatened to cover the holds and cut off all
air. When the Japanese sent down fried rice, cabbage, and fried seaweed, those further back from the
opening got nothing.
At 10:00 P.M., the Japanese interpreter threatened to have the guards fire into the holds
unless the POWs stopped screaming. Some of the POWs fell silent because they were exhausted, and others
because they had died. One major of the 26th Cavalry stated the man next to him had lost his mind.
Recalling the conversation he had with the man he said
, "Worst was the man who had gone mad but would not sit still. One kept pestering me, pushing a
mess kit against my chest, saying
, 'Have some of this chow? It's good.' I smelled of it, it was not chow. 'All
, 'If you don't want it. I'm going to eat it.' And a little later I heard him eating it ,
right beside me."
The Japanese covered the holds and would not allow the slop buckets to be taken out of the
holds. Those POWs who were left holding the buckets at first asked for someone else to hold it for
awhile. When that did not work, they dumped the buckets on the men around them.
As light began to enter the hold as morning came, the POWs could see men who were in
stupors, men out of their minds, and men who had died. The POWs in the aft hold which also had a sub-hold,
put the POWs who out of their minds into it.
On the side of the holds, water had condensed on the walls so the POWs tried to scrap it
off the wall for a drink. The Japanese did allow men who had passed out to be put on deck, but as soon as
they revived they went back into the holds. The Japanese would not allow the bodies of the men who had died
to be removed from the holds.
The POWs received their first meal at dawn. Meals on the ship consisted of a little
rice, fish, some water, and three fourths of a cup of water was shared by 20 POWs. It was 8:00 A.M., off
the coast of Luzon, and the POWs had just finished eating breakfast when they heard the sound of guns. At
first, they thought the gun crews were just drilling, because they had not heard any planes. It was only
when the first bomb hit in the water and the ship shook that they knew it was not a drill.
At first it seemed that most of the planes were attacking the other ships in the
convoy. Commander Frank Bridgit, had made his way to the top of the ladder into the hold and sat
down. He gave the POWs a play by play of the planes attacking
, "I can see two planes going for a freighter off our starboard side. Now two more are detached
from the formation. I think they may be coming for us."
The POWs heard the change in the sound of the planes' engines as they began their dives
toward the ships in the convoy. Several more bombs hit the water near the ship causing it to rock
Explosions were taking place all around the ship. In an attempt to protect themselves, the POWs piled
baggage in front of them. Bullets from the planes were ricocheted in the hold causing many
Lt. Col. Elvin Barr of the 60th Coast Artillery came up to Maj, John Fowler of the 26th
Cavalry on the cargo deck and said
, "There's a hole knocked in the bulkheads down there. Between 30 and 40 men have already
died down there."
Barr would never reach Japan. The attack by 30 to 50 planes lasted for
about 20 to 30 minutes. When the planes were ran out of bombs they strafed. Afterwards, the planes
flew off, returning to their carrier, and there was a lull of about 20 to 30 minutes before the next squadron of
planes appeared over the ships and resumed the attack. This pattern repeated itself over and over during
In the hold, the POWs concluded that the attacking planes were concentrating on the bridge
of the ship. They noted that the planes had taken out all the anti-aircraft guns leaving only .30 caliber
machine guns to defend the ship.
At 4:30 P.M., the ship went through the worse attack on it. It was hit at least three
times by bombs on its bridge and stern. Most of the POWs, who were wounded, were wounded by ricocheting
bullets and shrapnel from exploding bombs. During the attack Chaplain Cummings, a Catholic priest, led the
POWs in the Our Father. As they prayed, the bombs that exploded near the ship sent torrents of water over
the ship. Bullets from the planes hit the metal plates, of the haul, at an angle that prevented most of
them from penetrating the haul. Somewhere on the ship a fire started, but it was put out after several
hours. The POWs lived through seven or eight attacks before sunset. Overall, six bombs hit the
ship. One hit the stern of the ship killing many POWs.
At dusk the ship raised anchor and headed east. It turned south and turned again this
time heading west. The next turn it made was north. It headed in this direction for a good amount of time
before dropping anchor at about 8:00 P.M. The POWs figured out that they had just sailed in a circle.
What had happened is that the ship's had been hit during the attack and the ship could not be steered.
Sometime after midnight, the POWs heard the sound of the Japanese civilians being evacuated
from the ship. During the night, the POW medics were ordered onto the deck to treat the Japanese
wounded. One medic recalled that the dead, dying, and wounded were everywhere.
The ship reached Subic Bay at 2:30 in the morning and steamed closer to the beach where its
anchor was dropped. At 4:00 A.M., the POWs were told that they would disembark at daybreak at a pier.
The moaning and muttering of POWs who were losing their minds kept the POWs up all night. That night 25
POWs died in the hold.
It was December 15th and the POWs sat in the ship's holds for hours after dawn.
The first 35 POWs were taken out of the hold and went into the water. At 8:00 A.M. as the other POWs
waited, the sound of A Japanese guard yelled into the hold at the POWs
, "All go home; speedo!"
He shouted that the wounded would be the first to be evacuated. Suddenly, he looked
up and shouted
, "Planes, many planes!"
As the POWs were abandoning ship the planes returned and continued the
attack. The ship bounced in the water from the explosions. Chief Boatswain Clarence M. Taylor who was
in the water said
, "I saw the whole thing. A bomb fall, hit near the stern hatch, and debris go flying up in the
In the hold, the POWs crowded together. Chips of rust fell on them from the
ceiling. After the raid, they took care of the wounded before the next attack started. In the hold a
Catholic priest, Father Duffy, began to pray
"Father forgive them. They know not what they do."
The Japanese guards and interpreter had abandoned ship, but the ship's captain remained
on board. He told the POWs in his limited English that they needed to get off the ship to safety. The
POWs made their way over the side and into the water. As they swam to shore, the Japanese fired at them,
with machine guns, to prevent them from escaping.
Four of the planes flew low over the water above the POWs. The POWs waved frantically
at the planes so they would not be strafed. The planes banked and flew lower over the POWs. This time
the pilots dipped their wings to show that they knew the men in the water were Americans. About a half hour
later, the ship began to really burn and the bodies of the dead could be seen on the decks.
The Japanese sent out a motorboat with a machine gun and snipers on it. The POWs
attempting to escape were hunted down and shot. It is believed as many as 30 men died in the water.
There was no real beach so the POWs climbed up on a seawall and found the the Japanese
Naval Landing Party had set up a machine gun and had just laid flat to rest when the gun opened up on
them. Those who came ashore were warned to stay in the water, but only did so when one man climbed up
on the seawall and was wounded. There were also Japanese snipers in wait to shoot anyone who attempted to
The POWs were gathered together and marched to the tennis court at Olongapo Naval Station
which was about 500 yards from the beach. There, they were herded onto a tennis court. The Japanese
packed 1300 of the POWs on the court with 100 wounded POWs taking up a great amount of room at one end.
They could barely sit down and only lay down by lying partially on another man. It was at this time a count
was taken of the POWs and it was determine almost 400 had died.
It is not known if Charles died during the attack on the
by the American fighter planes, if he died during the explosions that took place on the ship, or if he died
while swimming to shore.
What is known is that he was reported as dying on December 15, 1944, during the sinking of the
His family did not learn of his death until July 25, 1945.
1st Lt. Charles Fleming's name appears on the Tablets of the Missing at the American
Military Cemetery at Manila, Philippine Islands.